Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) is a laboratory of the Defense Research & Development Organization (DRDO). Located at CHANDIGARH its primary function is research in the field of snow and avalanches to provide avalanche control measures and forecasting support to Armed forces.
SASE registered steady growth from 1971 to 1977 and role of SASE was enlarged with the constitution of Advisory Committee. Avalanche forecasting, Artificial triggering, Structural control and generating awareness formed part of activities of SASE. A vast network of high altitude observatories was also established. Planned reconnaissance of avalanche prone axes in J&K, HP was conducted and Avalanche Atlases were prepared. Cold Laboratory was established in 1990 and research on snow physics and mechanics was initiated. In nineties, the installation of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) was initiated to densify the network of weather observation station in Himalaya. SASE steadily stood the test of time, and in due course emerged as a frontier research centre in Cold Region Sciences and Engineering for saving precious lives in snow bound mountainous regions. During the course of its growth over the last 40 years, SASE has created an impressive scientific and technical infrastructure which includes Experimental Research Station for Structural control of Avalanches, Snow Chute for Avalanche Dynamics Modeling, Low Temperature Concrete Testing Facility, X-ray Micro tomography Facility, Radio based Remote Telemetry Systems, Remote Sensing Lab and MODIS Earth Receiving Station to name a few. A large area of Western Himalaya, comprising eleven major road axes and numerous tracks are being covered to forewarn the troops and civil population of the impending avalanche danger. Avalanche Forecasting Centre (AFC) and Mountain Met Centre’s (MMC) have been set up at various places. An inter-ministerial project for the development of mountain meteorology in Himalaya has been launched in collaboration with Army, Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) Indian Air force and MHA.
SASE is also actively participating in Indian Antarctic Programme with ongoing research activities in the areas of Antarctic Surface Energy Balance and monitoring of Glaciers. In the course of its journey, SASE has organized various Symposia, Seminars and Workshops where attempts have been made to bring scientists of repute and the users on a common platform and to discuss ways and means to mitigate various natural threats in Himalaya.
Wireless sensor networks consist of small nodes with sensing, computational and wireless communications capabilities that can be deployed randomly or deterministically in an area from which the users wish to collect data. Typically, wireless sensor networks contain hundreds or thousands of these sensor nodes that are generally identical. These sensor nodes have the ability to communicate either among each other or directly to a base station (BS). The network is highly distributed and the nodes are lightweight. Intuitively, a greater number of sensors will enable sensing over a larger area. As the manufacturing of small, low-cost sensors become increasingly technically and economically feasible, a large number of these sensors can be networked to operate cooperatively unattended for a variety of applications. Such applications include military and civil applications like intrusion detection, target field imaging, tactical surveillance and inventory control.
This study evaluates a routing protocol developed by Crossbow Technologies called XMesh. The routing problem for sensor networks differs from that of traditional ad-hoc wireless networks because sensor nets can be constrained by limited battery power, communication...
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