Teacher: Lorena Isabel Garza Hinojosa
Student: Angélica López Hernández ID: A01211745
Due Date: 19/08/2008
“Design your own Bio Lab”
Dependent and Independent Variables
How different wavelengths of light affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Dependent: wavelength of light (color)
Method for controlling variables:
All types of corn must be grown in the same soil and nutrient conditions, watering amounts and light conditions. They must be grown in separated plant chambers, and the seeds will be planted in three pots and each grow chamber will be labeled. The amount of ECB that is added to the plantation must always be in the same quantity corresponding to the level of infestation. Also the amount of seeds must always be the same in every experiment.
The yield of a Bt corn must be larger than the yield of a non Bt corn because of the pesticide that the Bt corn has that helps exterminating the ECB plague which causes low yield weight. Background
The European Corn Borer (ECB) is a major corn insect pest. The adult moths of ECB emerge form the pupae and mate during April and May. Each female lays up to 600 eggs on the undersides of leaves. After hatching, larvae begin feeding on leaf surfaces. This process continues until pupation in spring.
A corn plant seed weighs about .28 g. In less than 10 weeks (~140 days) it grows into a plant of 2-3 meters tall. In the following two and half months, it produces 500 to 1000 seeds.
Bacillus thuringienesis, or Bt is a soli bacterium found worldwide. This bacterium produces crystalline proteins (Cry proteins) that are stomach poisons for specific insects. Various formulations of Bt have been used as insecticides against the ECB on different types of corn.
Geneticists create Bt corn by inserting a Cry protein gene from Bt into the corn plant’s own DNA. This corn is a transgenic organism because it has been genetically altered. Then the transgenic corn plant produces Bt Cry protein insecticide in its tissues, protecting the plant from environmental degradation.
The potential benefits include reduced applications of broad-spectrum insecticides. Although, the impact on non-target insect species such as honeybees or monarch butterflies may not be beneficial.
An evaluation led to the decision that the transgenic Bt corn variety was safe for animal consumption, but no for human consumption due to the possibility to allergic reactions.
The raw materials for plants to grow and carry out the necessary metabolic processes are water, sunlight, macronutrients and micronutrients from the soil, and carbon dioxide and oxygen from the air.
Method for developing the experiment
Soil preparation: Every type of corn must be grown in separated plant chambers with the following characteristics: in a wind sheltered spot in full sun which provides good drainage and enough humus to insure that the ground will not dry out too quickly in hot weather. Dig up your plot in the winter being sure not to bring clay to the surface and incorporate a good grade of compost into the soil. Two weeks prior to sowing the seed, rake in a good source of fertilizer. 2. Sowing & planting: Two seeds together will be sowed in three pots and each grow chamber will be labeled according to the type of corn and level of infestation that is been tested. 3. Looking after the plants: Make sure to provide plenty of water for the plants in hot weather, which is especially necessary when they flower. Feed the plants with a good liquid fertilizer source when the cobs begin to swell.
Corn growth stages (days):
9-12: root system and ear shoots determined.
14-21: number of kernel rows determined.
21-25: ability to take up nutrients and water established.
42-49: number of kernel per row determined
63-68: pollen shed begins
~140: all kernels have attained maximum dry weight....
References: Biology Life on Earth, Eight Edition (2008). Teresa Auderisk by Prentice Hall Inc.
How to grow corn. August 18th 2008. Anoileka vegetable seeds company.
Biotechnology Dependent and Independent Variables August 18th 2008.
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