Welcome Speech

Topics: Rectifier, Power supply, Resistor Pages: 8 (1700 words) Published: August 21, 2013
Pilot trolley method for trains
AIM:
To design a auto pilot trolley method for trains.
Base Technology:
EMBEDDED
Abstract:
It is a very useful project. By using this we can reduce the more train accident. The trolley is communicating with the train using ISM based RF signal. 432.92 MHz frequency signal is used for communication. As we do the project we use this frequency. It will sense the object using the IR signal, bomb is detected using metal detector, track open is sensed using limit sense. All the information is transmitted using the RF signal to the train. After receiving the signal train is moved accordingly. Trolley is controlled from the train only. Here both the train and trolley is having the Tx and Rx. They are used to communicate between both.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Trolley Side:

COMPARATOR

OBJECT SENSOR

LIMIT
SENSOR

ENCODER

TX

BOMB
SENSOR

Regulated Power Supply

TRAIN SIDE:

RX Module

Driver circuit

Voice Informer

810 Amplifiers

Speaker

Regulated Power Supply

Block Diagram for Power Supply:

AC

Step Down Transformer

Bridge Rectifier

Filter

Regulator

Regulated Output

DC

Block Diagram Description for Power Supply:
Definitions:
It is an electronics unit, which is used to give regulated power to any electronics system. Block Diagram Description:
1. Transformer : This block consists of step down transformer for our required ratings. 2. Rectifier : This block consists of diode based rectifier circuit. 3. Filter Circuit : This block consists of capacitor based filter circuit. 4. Regulator : This block consists of +Ve (and) – Ve three terminal regulators.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
&
DESCRIPTION

Circuit Description:

The transmitter circuit is build around using IC HT12E and TX 433.92Mhz module. IC HT12E is CMOS IC with working voltage range from 2.4v to 12v. The encoder HT12E has eight address and another four address/ data lines. The data set on this twelve-line (address and address/ data line) is serially transmitted when the transmit enable pin TE is taken low. The data output appears serially on the D out pin. The data is transmitted four times in succession. It consists of different length of positive going pulses for “1”& “0”. The pulse with for “0” being device the pulse with for “1”. The frequency of these pulses between 1.5 and 7Khz depending on the resistor value between OSC 1 and OSC 2 pins. The internal encoder frequency of oscillator is 50 times the oscillator frequency of decoder. The resistor value used in circuits here are chosen for appropriately 3Khz frequency for the encoder. The RF transmitter TX 433.92Mhz is an AM/ASK transmitter. It is operated on 5V to 12V single power supply. The OOK type modulation is carried on the send the data. The power consumption is very low. When transmit enable pin pull to ground potential. The selected address and data’s are available at D out, which is fed to data in of TX 433.92. The transmitter module sends the serial data in opens space for remote operation. In HT12E data is serially transmitted, when enable signal given to TE Pin, to get this operation, by using four diodes OR Gate is formed. When we select any Address/ Data line, TE pin also get low signal and selected data’s are transmitted. The 1M resistors connected across oscillator pins to produce nearly 3 KHz frequency. By using 8-address line we can create 256 different addresses to send four different Data’s.

Circuit Description & Operation:

The complete RF receiver decoder circuit employing IC HT12D and RX 433.92 MHz. The IC HT12D is Holtek processor, which has eight-address line and four data line. When valuable data is received, one...
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