Wealth and Economic Development
and their influences on fertility and mortality rates
Economic development is a phenomenon that has been discussed, debated about over the years, however; a conclusive process has not been developed as to how it can be attained. The main goal of economic development is improving the economic well being of a community through efforts that entail job creation, job retention, tax base enhancements and quality of life (Harrison 1992). Economic development ultimately speaks about a country’s wealth and it influences fertility and mortality rates and the “how” will be discussed in the scope of this essay. The more developed a country is the lower their mortality and fertility rates would be while if they are less developed the factors would be higher. These are considered to be indicators of development and one such model that depicts this is known as the Demographic Transition model. This model was proposed by Warren Thompson in 1929 and was based on interpretations of demographic history where he observed changes or transitions in birth and death rates in industrialized societies. When birth rates exceed death rates the population will grow and fertility rates are closely related to birth rates and is often a more useful measure as it is unaffected by the age distribution of the population (Haupt et al 2004). Fertility rate is defined as the average number of children born to each woman over the course of her life (Haupt et al 2004). Looking more closely at the correlation between economic development and fertility rates using empirical data you can see where one influences another. High fertility rates can put a strain on governments experiencing such situations. High fertility rates in less developed countries occur because of high infant mortality. In poor agrarian societies, fatalism is prominent. Most people’s livelihoods are dependent upon the weather, disease, and accident because they lack the...
References: Bleakley, H 2003, ‘Disease and Development: Evidence from the American South,’ Journal of the European Economic Association, vol. 1, viewed on October 21, 2014, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1162/154247603322391017/abstract>
Boucekkine, R Croix, D & Licandro, O 2003, ‘Early Mortality Declines at the Dawn of Modern Economic Growth,’ Scandinavian Journal of Economics, vol. 105, pp. 401-418, October 21, 2014, <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=443769>
Harrison, P 1992, The Third Revolution: Environment, Population and a Sustainable World, Tauris and CO Ltd, London.
Haupt, A & Thomas, K 2004, Population Handbook, Population Reference Bureau , 5th edn, Washington, DC, viewed on October 20, 2014, <http://www.prb.org/pdf/pophandbook_eng.pdf>
Lorentzen, P McMillan, J Wacziarg, R 2005, Death and Development, Stanford University, California, viewed on October 21, 2014, <http://www.google.com.jm/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&ved=0CEsQFjAF&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fpublication%2F5149836_Death_and_development%2Flinks%2F0912f50aaeb7159c4e000000&ei=9EdJVOWcJI_LggT1mIHoAw&usg=AFQjCNE0GwAfhKOUpDyD3ZVYJJvxWp37AA&bvm=bv.77880786,d.eXY>
Longman, P 2004, ‘Everywhere, Even in Africa, the World is Running out of Children,’ New Statesman, May 2005, Viewed on October 20, 2014, <http://www.newstatesman.com/node/148063>
Ministry of Finance and National Planning (MoFNP) 2010, Zambia: Population and National Development, Ministry of Finance and National Planning, Lusaka, Zambia
Sachs, J D 2001, ‘Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development,’ Report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Geneva: World Health Organization
United Nations 2007, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision, Highlight, ESA/P/WP.202, Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, New York.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document