Water Turbines

Topics: Renewable energy, Nuclear power, Atom Pages: 9 (1857 words) Published: April 17, 2014
Making Water Turbines Most Energy Efficient
How does a wind turbine’s output vary with wind pressure (height of water), the flow rate, size of the motor, and type of blade? Introduction
There are many types of energy used today: Fossil fuels, coal, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, hydroelectric energy, wind energy, and biofuels and biomass. Non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and coal are diminishing since it cannot be recycled, unlike wind energy (renewable). Also, use of non-renewable energy like coal causes environmental issues. It can be dangerous to retrieve and also heavily pollutes the environment from use of it. The more we use non-renewable energy, the less there is, meaning the prices go up. Oil spills from off shore drilling such as the BP oil spill the Gulf of Mexico polluted sea water. Although nuclear energy is a renewable energy, it could cause a disaster to human beings if the nuclear energy plant is damaged, such as the Japan nuclear power plant disaster. It is desirable to use and develop renewable, clean and safe energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, and hydrogen energy to decrease and prevent any risk of casualties or complications. Washington State produces the energy in the nation, and producing for itself 70 percent of electricity that is consumed. On a slightly bigger scale, 75 percent of America relies on water energy to power our homes and other facilities. Globally, hydroelectric power provides one fifth of the world’s energy.

How Dams Produce Electricity
Hydro energy has been used for a long time as a useful energy source to power water turbines, which is one method that is commonly used now to directly convert water energy into electric energy. You’ll see them put to use in dams, especially the well known Hoover dam or in the largest dam in the United States, the Grand Coulee Dam. It consists of three parts: a reservoir where water can be stored, a dam that can be opened or closed to control the water flow, and an electric plant where the electricity is produced. The water behind the dam flows through an intake and pushes the turbines, making them rotate. These turbines are connected to a generator which spins with the turbine, producing electricity. Hydroelectricity is the cheapest way to generate electricity and flowing water is renewable every year by snow and rainfall. It is also very controllable and can be used on demand when needed. Last year during Spring Break my family and I visited the Hoover Dam Atoms

Everything in the universe is made of matter. Matter consists of molecules, which are made up of atoms that are combined together chemically. For instance, water’s scientific name is H2O, which consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Therefore, atoms are the most basic and smallest building blocks of the universe. Millions of atoms could fit on the head of a pin. Everything is composed of atoms – from the air around us to the houses we live in. Atoms are composed of neutrons, protons, and electrons. Protons have a positive charge, neutrons have a no charge, (hence the name neutron), and electrons have a negative charge. In each atom, there are an equal number of electrons and protons, making the object have no charge. In the center of the atom, there is a nucleus. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons, while on the outside of it are revolving electrons. The electrons move around the nucleus in energy levels. The energy levels are 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, and 72 electrons per energy level. Each energy level needs to be completely filled up with electrons before reaching the next energy level. The most common case is the energy level doesn’t have enough electrons to completely fill up the next one, so the number of electrons decreases in each energy level from where there is too many electrons needed, making the atom more stable. Each element has its own number of protons, neutrons, and...
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