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Wacc
CAPITAL BUDGETING
Cost of Capital Evaluating Cash Flows
Payback, discounted payback NPV IRR, MIRR

The Cost of Capital
• Cost of Capital Components
– Debt – Common Equity

• WACC

Should we focus on historical (embedded) costs or new (marginal) costs?

The cost of capital is used primarily to make decisions which involve raising and investing new capital. So, we should focus on marginal costs.

What types of long-term capital do organizations use? nLong-term debt nEquity
Weighted Average Cost of Capital is the weighted Average of the Marginal Costs of the Capital Components employed to acquire a long term asset (make a new real investment in things like Plant and Equipment, R&D, Human Capital, a new Product, a new Process, or a new Marketing Channel

Capital Components
Sources of funding that come from investors.
Accounts payable, accruals, and deferred taxes are not sources of funding that come from investors, so they are not included in the calculation of the cost of capital. We adjust for these items when calculating the cash flows of a project, but not when calculating the cost of capital.

WACC Estimates for Some Large U. S. Corporations
Company WACC Intel (INTC) 16.0 Dell Computer (DELL) 12.5 BellSouth (BLS) 10.3 Wal-Mart (WMT) 8.8 Walt Disney (DIS) 8.7 Coca-Cola (KO) 6.9 H.J. Heinz (HNZ) 6.5 Georgia-Pacific (GP) 5.9 wd 2.0% 9.1% 39.8% 33.3% 35.5% 33.8% 74.9% 69.9%

What factors influence a company’s WACC?
• Market conditions, especially interest rates and tax rates. • The organization’s capital structure and dividend policy. • The organization’s investment policy. organizations with riskier projects generally have a higher WACC.

Should the company use the composite WACC as the hurdle rate for each of its divisions?
• NO! The composite WACC reflects the risk of an average project undertaken by the organization. • Different divisions may have different risks. The division’s WACC should be adjusted to reflect the division’s

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