Nutt and Backoff evaluate four organizational contexts in terms of their ability to produce visionary change. These abilities are assessed in relation to the degree to which there is acceptance of the need to change (change susceptibility) and the extent to which resources are on hand to engage in strategic change (resource availability). 1. Rigid Organizations
They are classified as those that have little in the way of available resources and lack acceptance of the need for change. Associated with organizations such as Easter and Pan Am before their collapse, they are likely to be both hierarchical and inflexible. 2. Bold Organizations
They have low resources but high acceptance of the need for change. They are characterized by more organic structures and being less rule-bound. These are contexts in which visionary leadership is more likely to emerge, although this entails freeing up resources and ensuring that key stakeholders are carefully cultivated in the process of developing the vision. 3. Over managed organizations
These have high resource availability but little acceptance of the need for change. Associated with a more stable environment and dominated by past practices that are seen to have worked well and to remain relevant, they are limited in their ability to accept the need for a new vision. 4. Liberated Organizations
Their visionary processes are likely to be most successful. Organizations such as Hewlett-Packard and Intel are characterized as having a high acceptance of the need for change and high availability of resources that can be utilized in the strategic change process. My last organization was a kind of liberated organization where new ideas and innovations were made by the fact that changes are required. It was a University wherein they always looked for adopting new ways of teaching methodology and research. They also strived to get accreditations from various bodies like NBA wherein everyone was involved from top to the bottom....
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