ADVANCED SENSOR AND INSTRUMENTATION
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Rapid change is under way on several fronts in medicine and surgery. Advance in computing power have enable continued growth in virtual reality, visualization, and simulation technologies. The ideal learning opportunities afforded by simulated and virtual environments have prompted their exploration as learning modalities for surgical education and training. Ongoing improvements in this technology suggest an important future role for virtual reality and simulation in medicine.
Rapid change in most segments of the society is occurring as a result of increasingly more sophisticated, affordable and ubiquitous computing power. One clear example of this change process is the internet, which provides interactive and instantaneous access to information that must scarcely conceivable only a few years ago.
Same is the case in the medical field. Adv in instrumentation, visualization and monitoring have enabled continual growth in the medical field. The information revolution has enabled fundamental changes in this field. Of the many disciplines arising from this new information era, virtual reality holds the greatest promise. The term virtual reality was coined by Jaron Lanier, founded of VPL research, in the late 1980’s. Virtual reality is defined as human computer interface that simulate realistic environments while enabling participant interaction, as a 3D digital world that accurately models actual environment, or simply as cyberspace.
Virtual reality is just beginning to come to that threshold level where we can begin using Simulators in Medicine the way that the Aviation industry has been using it for the past 50 Years — to avoid errors.In surgery, the life of the patient is of utmost importance and surgeon cannot experiment on the patient body. VR provide a good tool to experiment the various complications arise during surgery.
2. WHAT IS VIRTUAL SURGERY?
Virtual surgery, in general is a Virtual Reality Technique of simulating surgery procedure, which help Surgeons improve surgery plans and practice surgery process on 3D models. The simulator surgery results can be evaluated before the surgery is carried out on real patient. Thus helping the surgeon to have clear picture of the outcome of surgery. If the surgeon finds some errors, he can correct by repeating the surgical procedure as many number of times and finalising the parameters for good surgical results. The surgeon can view the anatomy from wide range of angles. This process, which cannot be done on a real patient in the surgery, helps the surgeon correct the incision, cutting, gain experience and therefore improve the surgical skills
Fig 1: A person performing Virtual Surgery
The virtual surgery is based on the patient specific model, so when the real surgery takes place, the surgeon is already familiar with all the specific operations that are to be employed.
3. VIRTUAL REALITY APPLICATIONS IN SURGERY
The highly visual and interactive nature of virtual surgery has proven to be useful in understanding complex 3D structures and for training in visuospatial tasks. Virtual reality application in surgery can be subdivided as follows:
3.1. Training and Education.
3.2. Surgical Planning.
3.3. Image Guidance.
3.1. TRAINING AND EDUCATION
The similarities between pilots and surgeons responsibilities are striking; both must, be ready to manage potentially life-threatening situations in dynamic, unpredictable environments. The long and successful use of flight simulation in air and space flight training has inspired the application of...
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