Professional Training Centers
English Composition I
June 20, 2013
Uveitis is the third leading cause of blindness in USA. According to Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Foundation, Uveitis is an inflammation of the mid layer of the eye, which could affect one of the three areas that make up the uvea. These include the iris, the ciliary body, which is responsible for manufacturing the fluid inside the eye, and the choroid, which is the vascular lining tissue below the retina (C. Stephen Foster, 2012). Moreover, uveitis is classified as anterior uveitis, which affect both the iris and the ciliary body, posterior uveitis, which affect the choroid and the retina, or panuveitis, which affects the entire uveal tract. Furthermore, anterior uveitis may occur in two forms either granulomatous or nongranulomatous. If the anterior uveitis remains untreated, it could progress to a posterior uveitis which may provoke cataracts and glaucoma. Therefore, people must seek medical help in order to prevent further damage to the eyes. Uveitis is serious conditions which can lead to a permanent vision loss. The most common type of uveitis is anterior uveitis and accounts for 90 percent of people with uveitis. The exact causes for this condition may vary and may be associated with conditions such as reactive arthritis, psriatic arthritis, trauma, postoperative iritis, glaucomatocylitic crisis, sarcoidosis, ankylosing spondylitis as well as infectious causes such as lyme disease, syphilis and tuberculosis. Pathophysiology
Uveitis refers to the inflammation of the uveal tract. Anterior uveitis can be classified as iritis, anterior cyclitis, which is the inflammation of the ciliary body, and iridocyclitis. Also, nonvascular structures such as the cornea and sclera may be affected in the inflammatory process of the uvea. Furthermore, anterior uveitis can be classified based on its clinical course, which can be acute or chronic, and based of its etiology, which can be infectious or noninfectious. Moreover, uveitis can be subdivided into granulomatous and nongranulomatous. According to Medscape, the most common form of nongranulomatous anterior uveitis is acute anterior uveitis (AAU) which is associated with HLA-B27 allele in half to two thirds of the patients. Also, it may presents with fine corneal endothelial precipitates and anterior chamber activity (Author: Ralph D Levinson & Chief Editor: Hampton Roy Sr, Uveitis, Anterior, Nongranulomatous , 2012). On the other hand, granulomatous uveitis may present with an acute painful eye. Generally, it may result from an autoimmune reaction of certain infectious diseases such as syphilis, Lyme disease, TB or the reactivation of the herpetic viral infection (Author: Ralph D Levinson & Chief Editor: Hampton Roy Sr, Uveitis, Anterior, Granulomatous , 2012). Clinical Manifestation
The common clinical manifestation of anterior uveitis includes ocular pain, watery eyes, photophobia, epiphora, red eye and blurred vision. Other clinical signs would include fine keratic precipitates on corneal endothelium for nongranulomatous uveitis and large and greasy precipitates on corneal endothelium for granulomatous uveitis as wells as hyperemia, miotic pupil, busacca, which are cells on the anterior iris surface, and berlin, which are cells in the iris angle structure. Also, the patient may have low or elevated intraocular pressure, posterior synechiae, cystoids macular edema, endothelial dysfunction with associated corneal edema, plasmoid iridocyclitis as well as fibrin pupilary membrane (Bruce E. Onofrey, 2012). Medical and Pharmacological Treatments
Once the patient is examined by the ophthalmologist, the physician will perform a complete eye examination in order to determine the best treatment for the patient. If the uveitis is diagnosed in its early stage and treated promptly, the patient won’t suffer further complication such as the loss of...
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Author: Ralph D Levinson, M., & Chief Editor: Hampton Roy Sr, M. (2012, 11 15). Uveitis, Anterior, Granulomatous . http://emedicine.medscape.com/
Author: Ralph D Levinson, M., & Chief Editor: Hampton Roy Sr, M. (2012, 11 15). Uveitis, Anterior, Nongranulomatous . Ralph D Levinson, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy Sr, MD: http://emedicine.medscape.com/
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C. Stephen Foster, M. (2012, 01 27). Uveitis Definition. http://www.uveitis.org/docs/dm/uveitis_definition.pdf
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