Preview

Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere Assess the Sociological Explanations for Ethnic Differences in Educational Success

Good Essays
Open Document
Open Document
676 Words
Grammar
Grammar
Plagiarism
Plagiarism
Writing
Writing
Score
Score
Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere Assess the Sociological Explanations for Ethnic Differences in Educational Success
There are many reasons for educational underachievement and it has been said that ethnicity is one of these key factors. It has been found that Indian and Asian pupils are of higher educational achievement than White, African-Caribbean, and Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pupils.
One possible cause of ethnic differences in education could be at the fault of the education system. To investigate this Sewell conducted a study using semi-structured interviews and observations in an inner-city boys’ comprehensive school, his study revealed the ways in which African-Caribbean students are labelled by their teachers, peers, white students as ‘problems’ in the classroom. Sewell showed how Black boys use these negative perceptions to construct different responses to school based on their own ‘masculine’ images, many of these belonging the anti-school culture, such as conformists, innovators, rebels and retreatists, all in favour of gang culture. However some sociologists are critical of this study in that they feel Sewell is blaming ‘black-culture’ for the educational failure as opposed to recognising racism within the education system.
Another reason for ethnic differences in achievement lies in the school itself. Sociologist Connolly found that teachers are more likely to be overly critical of African-Caribbean pupil’s behaviour due to stereotypical views of their ethnic ways resulting in them being labelled as troublemakers and being in need of stricter discipline. This can therefore lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy of the student whereby they become troublesome in a ‘screw-you’ effect to their teachers. However, as criticism to this Sewell found evidence that not every pupil responded with the self-fulfilling prophecy, and in fact some African-Caribbean students adopted ‘White’ values and behaviours at the expense of losing their African-Caribbean stereotypical identities.
There are clearly definite suggestions as to why certain ethnic groups are underachieving in

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    Black Males

    • 2364 Words
    • 10 Pages

    The Education of Black Males in a ‘Post-Racial’ World examines the discriminations and negative expectations that shape the educational and social lives of Black males. The authors elaborate on how Black males are less likely to go to school because of their autonomous mindset, and explore how, social sciences, media, popular culture, sport and school curriculum can define and restrain the lives of Black males. Donnor also elaborates on the complex needs of Black males in schools and in society, nearly classifying them as needy and unable to support themselves, dependent. Donnor discussed how opportunities and jobs are systematically organized to disadvantage Black males ultimately claiming that race still matters in 'post-racial ' America.…

    • 2364 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    It is important to recognise that ethnic minority pupils may fall into the category of low class low achievement. (Battle and Lewis 2010 pg35) said “a person’s education is closed linked to their life chances, income and wellbeing” it’s therefore, fair to say that ethnic minority communities are most likely to underachievement than others because of their socio-economic conditions.…

    • 3671 Words
    • 15 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Lisa Delpit says that for students to be successful in school and eventually the workplace, they have to acculturate into the culture of those in power and doing that they lose who they are, their identity(Delpit, pg 25).. She talks about children who are economically better off than students who come from lower income homes, that opportunity and acceptance is better, but children of color are left to fend for themselves. I agree with Delpit because too often teachers are constantly telling students how to speak, read, and write they forget that children have lives outside of school and what may be their norm and what they expect, is different in their student’s lives.…

    • 1557 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    It has been found that someone’s ethnicity can have an effect on their educational achievement, as in 2006 73% of pupils of Indian origin gained 5 A*– C passes at GCSE compared with 56% of white and 47% of black pupils. It has been found that African students tend to underachieving in the educational system compared to others, with them being below average reading ability and tend to receive less GCSE’s than whites and Indians. They are also least likely to stay in post 16 education, and if they do it’ll more likely to be taking vocational qualification.…

    • 532 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    As shown in item A, some sociologists believe that the most important factors causing social class differences in education are class differences. They believe there are deep-rooted differences between the middle and the lower class. An example they give is the lower class’ need for fatalism and collectivism. Fatalism is the belief that all events are predetermined and ‘whatever happens will happen’. This can lead to them not trying as hard in education, as they have been brought up to believe their efforts wont effect the outcome. Collectivism is the idea that it is better to be part of a group then to succeed as an individual. Both these views contrast the middle class views, as the middle class try and teach their children that you should be trying to achieve all the time. Also, the middle class believe that you should be strong and individual to prepare you for later life. Sociologists such as Engelmann believe that the language the lower class families use at home directly affect the grades of their children. Engelmann’s studies the language used by low paid black Americans, and found it was a low standard. This restricted code used in the lower class households isn’t used at school as Bernstein tells us. At school and in middle class homes, they use the elaborate code. This is language that is more complex, longer sentences and is context free. This then disadvantages lower class children, resulting in them underachieving. From a young age, lower class children are disadvantaged as they are not likely to get to go to nursery. Nursery aids your learning and widens your vocabulary, meaning that middle class children will be more use to the education system and to using longer sentences, which would help in exams. Also, they are more use to the format of a school with the teacher in charge. This can result in the lower class become part of the anti-school subculture, and the middle class becoming part of the pro-school subculture. Although, there television…

    • 587 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Additionally, the impact of a student’s race or ethnic background should not negatively impact his or her education at my school because the schools philosophy is that all students can learn in their own way based on their prior experiences. These prior experiences include that of their cultural background and possibly traditions with in their ethnic background.…

    • 676 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Best Essays

    Cited: Abbott, Diane. “ Teachers are Failing Black Boys.” The Observer. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO.…

    • 4674 Words
    • 19 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    In the book, Bad Boys, Ann Arnett Ferguson goes on a three-year journey through Rosa Parks Elementary School to observe and research why it is that mostly black males are ending up in jail and are unsalvageable from such a young age. She interviews and observes daily interactions with the eleven and twelve year old students that have been labeled “at risk” by their teachers and peers. She wants to research how it is being in school when all of the educators have already labeled them as “unsalvagable, at risk, and bound for jail”. These kids pretty much act in the way that their teachers treat them. They get into trouble every single day and most of the times these boys provoke it because that’s how they think there supposed to act because they think they are already going no where in life. At such a young age, these boys, just because they are black, shouldn’t be criminalized and put in a different category than other boys. These children faced many challenges that effected how they learned in school, the way teachers and peers treated them, and how they are labeled as bad boys. Ann Arnett Ferguson said, “in the course of my study it became clear that school labeling practices and the exercise of rules operated as part of a hidden curriculum to marginalize and isolate black male youth in disciplinary spaces and brand them as criminally inclined”(page 2). This means that the educators didn’t really realize they were doing this and labeling these boys but it was more like a tradition and they saw nothing wrong with it. This is purely based on race and obviously some people are still in the mindset that black people are inferior to white people. Bad boys show black males from a very young age being adultified and become very masculine making them becomes part of the criminal system early on.…

    • 1406 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    The cultural deprivation theory argues that many working class and black children do not acquire the basic values, attitudes and skills needed for educational success through primary socialisation in the family. Many cultural deprivation theorists claim that working-class families inadequately socialise their children and therefore their children are ‘culturally deprived’.…

    • 885 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    African American teens tend to racially group amongst themselves because race has been a central theme throughout American history; from the Constitution to the Civil War to the denial of African American citizenship and social participation. Tatum (2003) noted in her essay, “Why are all the Black Children Sitting together in the Cafeteria?” an excerpt from our textbook, From Inquiry to Academic Writing: A Text and Reader (2008), that ‘racial grouping begins by the sixth and seventh grades’ (p. 359). Right about the time puberty begins questions of identity for all teens generally surface. For African American teens, these questions also include ‘Who am I ethnically and racially?’ In addition, Tatum (2003) suggests, “African American teens are forced to look at themselves through a racial lens because the rest of the world does” (p. 360 ). For example, racial profiling sends a very clear message. During adolescence, race becomes more personal and noticeable for the African American student. Finding the answers to questions like, ‘What does it mean to be a young African American?’ ‘How should I act?’ ‘What should I do?’ are all important questions, for Black teens, but the last thing they want to do is ask their parents (pp. 359-364). So, they turn to their peers for the answers. Therefore, African American children resort to self-segregation as a coping mechanism against racism. “They turn to each other for support they are not likely to receive anywhere else. Sometimes their White peers are the perpetrators of racism and if they are not; they are unprepared to respond supportively.” (p. 364). Education in African American studies would be beneficial in helping White teens understand their African American peers. Connecting yourself with people who look like you is only natural; it is a part of growing up and important to your identity development process.…

    • 2397 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Bad Boys

    • 1285 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Ann Arnett Ferguson’s book “Bad Boys” discusses the way educators and other people in the school systems, and society as a whole view black youth in today’s world. There are many stereotypes that are discussed and stigmas that stick with black children through their entire lives in Ferguson’s book. In order to prevent further damage to this part of our society the reader should take a long hard look at the problems brought forth by “Bad Boys”.…

    • 1285 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    GHUMANN BRITISH ASIANS – VALUES CONFORMITY/DEFERENCE; RELIGION IMPORTANCE; BI-LINGUAL; MODOOD BLACK PRIDE & SEWELL AFRICAN CARIBEAN 6 FACTORS. EDUCATIONAL UNDERACHIEVEMENT OF AFRICAN CARIBBEAN BOYS.…

    • 316 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    This myth of cultural deficiency lead to a belief that African American culture is deficient because African Americans are intellectual deficient. This belief is held by society, when in fact African Americans have such a different culture then mainstream America because of their initially perceived intellectual deficient, which was used to deprive them of basic rights such as education. That societal belief of inferiority is then internalized this is recognized as the stereotype threat “ the threat of being viewed through the lens of a negative stereotype, or the fear of doing something that would inadvertently confirm that stereotype”(young gifted and black 111). This threat then manifest in poor performance “ blacks performed a full standard deviation lower then whites under the stereotype threat of the test being ‘diagnostic ‘of their intellectual ability, even though we statistical match the two groups in ability level. Something other then ability was involved; we believe it was stereotype threat” (young gifted and black 114). The manifestation of this threat then led to lower African American achievement know as the achievement…

    • 623 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    It also crucial to understand how racial disparities in the classroom can lead to racial stereotyping and racial discrimination. Unfortunately, some teachers may stereotype African American students as delinquent or academically inferior, thus they may be more punitive towards minority children. Therefore, Rocque and Pasternoster (2011) states that their research will evaluate if black students are discriminated by use of school punishment, and if disparate treatment is used more in elementary school. The amount of school discipline and the proportion of African American students will be measured to see correlations exist between the two…

    • 95 Words
    • 1 Page
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Black violence is still a problem in today’s world and countless people have tried different methods to slow or stop this issue. Thus, many people and children have resorted to school and education as their sanctuary and it has proven to be an escape for many blacks in dangerous neighborhoods. Although the violence may highlight part of their lives’, their journey to discovering their manhood does not stem from ferocity or power, they found a way to channel their energy towards their minds and that in itself gave them an inner path towards their individual conceptualization of masculinity.…

    • 2635 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Powerful Essays