Topics: Urine, Kidney, Blood Pages: 28 (1032 words) Published: March 18, 2015

 is a liquid by-product of the body secreted by

the kidneys through a process
called urination(or micturition)
and excreted through the urethra.
Kidney’s waste from protein metabolism
 urination - the primary method for excreting
water-soluble chemicals from the body.

Dark yellow urine is often indicative of dehydration.
Yellowing/light orange may be caused by removal of excess B

vitamins from the bloodstream.
Certain medications such as rifampin and phenazopyridine can cause orange urine.
Bloody urine is termed hematuria, a symptom of a wide variety of medical conditions.
Dark orange to brown urine can be a symptom
of jaundice, rhabdomyolysis, or Gilbert's syndrome.
Black or dark-colored urine is referred to as melanuria and may be caused by a melanoma.
Pinkish urine can result from the consumption of beets.
Greenish urine can result from the consumption of asparagus. Reddish or brown urine may be caused by porphyria (not to be confused with the harmless, temporary pink or reddish tint caused by beeturia).

Blue urine can be caused by the ingestion of methylene blue (e.g., in medications).
Blue urine stains can be caused by blue diaper syndrome. Purple urine may be due to purple urine bag syndrome.

 Most important nitrogenous constituents
 80% - 90% is in the form of urea
  Urea nitrogen is a waste product resulting

from the breakdown of protein in the body.
 Normal values range from 12 to 20 grams
per 24 hours.

 End product of purine metabolism in man.
 Uric acid is usually present in the urine as

 Anhydride of creatine
 Present in urine in quite constant amounts
- Combination of benzoic acid and glycinee.

Composition of urine (picture)

Things that affect composition of urine
1. Nutritional status
2. Metabolic Process
3. Status of kidney

- Normal adult excretes betweem 1200 1500mL in a day.
- Normal range is 1200-2000mL (normal intake
of water which is 2000mL) -60%-75% is
urinated in morning and the 25% will be
excrete at night.
- Polyuria - Excessive urination 2500-3000mL.
- Oliguria - 600mL or less.

- Normaly urine has faint aromatic odor
-ammonical odor indicates urea splitting bacteria
such as PROTEUS causing urinary tract infection.
-offensive odor results from bacterial action in the
presence of Pus.
Pus - is the one preventing of infection in urinary
The two most common causes for the presence of
pus cells in urine are Urinary tract infection or
UTI Sexually transmitted diseases.

 Color shows degree of concentration and

depends on the amount voided.
Normal color of urine is clear yellow or amber
due to pigment of UROCHROME.
Color varies with the specific gravity
Dilute Urine - is Straw-colored.
Concentrated Urine- Highly colored.

Abnormal color of urine
A. Turbid or Smoky-

Indicates Hematuria, Spermatozoa, Prostatic fluid
or Fat Droplets.
B. Red or Red-brown –
Blood, Transfusion reaction, bleeding lesions in
urogenital tract.
C. yellow-brown or Green-Brown –
Indicates obstructive lesion of the bile duct system.
D. Dark-brown or black –
malignant melanoma or leukemia.

Appearance Normal urine
 is clear Cloudliness may indicates the presence

of the following:
epithelial cells
colloidal particles

Reaction pH
-pH reflects the ability of the kidney to maintain
normal hydrogen ion concentration in plasma
and extracellular fluid.
-Indicates Acidity and alkalinity of urine.
-Normal ph of urine is 6 (acidic) -It may also
vary from pH4.6 - pH8).

Specific Gravity
- Specific Gravity measures the densities of
particles in urine.
-Reflects concentrating and diluting power of
-Normal specific gravity is 1.005 - 1.025....
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