University Students Drinking: The Role of Motivational, Social and Environmental Factors Shwetank Powar Christ University Despite the increased efforts in raising awareness about alcohol abuse and its negative consequences, there seems to be very little improvement in the situation among university students. University students seem to have earned a reputation as heavy drinkers. Studies suggest that university students report higher levels of alcohol drinking in contrast with the non-students of the same age (Johnston et al., 1991). Inappropriate amounts of consumption and higher reports of binge drinking have become a major source of concern for the society. Binge drinking is drinking 5 or more drinks in a row for men and 4 drinks for women, at least once in the past 2 weeks. The present review of five studies made across developed countries, aims at understanding the motives, attitudes, demographic co-relatives and the influencing factors involved in drinking behaviour among university students and its effects on their lives. Five articles from various reputed journals were researched to study this phenomenon and understand it more profoundly. The studies used for the review were as follows I. Attitudes, Knowledge and Use of Alcohol in University Students. The method employed in this research was 106 British university students completed a questionnaire obtained from various sources (Coleman, Butcher & Carson 1980; Abacus R, 1987) and several of the questions were formulated specially for the purpose of this study. Subjects were asked about their Television viewing habits and the duration. Other sub- sections asked about demographic details, General knowledge about alcohol and its units, general attitude statements about alcohol. II. University Student Drinking: The role of Social and Motivational factor. This study employed 99 undergraduate students and further sub- classified as 50 heavy drinkers and 49 light drinkers. Drinking habits were initially verified using the Time Line Follow Back Procedure (TLFB, Sobbel & Sobbel 1996) to ensure that participants met the following criteria. And then based on these categorisations they were further divided and 3 different questionnaires were employed 1. The drinking expectancy Questionnaire (DEQ, Young And Knight, 1989) 2. Benefits and drawback questionnaire (BBQ, Oxford et.al, 2002) 3. Important People and Activities Questionnaire (IPA, Clifford & Longabaugh, 1991) Further semi-structured interviews lasting from 20-40 minutes, enquiring about their social, general and personal influences on alcohol consumption- both positive and negative were recorded. III. International Study of Heavy Drinking: Attitudes and Socio-demographic Factors in University Students. The data for this project was collected as part of the International Health and Behaviour Survey (IHBS), A cross sectional study of health behaviours and associated beliefs in university students in several countries. IV. Drunk in Public, Drunk in Private: The relationship Between College Students, Drinking Environments and alcohol consumption. The data was obtained from a random telephone survey from 400 randomly chosen university students attending two different universities. V. Self Esteem and Alcohol Consumption: A Study of College Drinking Behaviour in Naturalistic Setting. This study had 44 participants (29 men and 15 women). They had voluntarily participated in the study. They were told that, in one of their upcoming college parties they will have a breath analyser test at the end of the party and a quick exit questionnaire about the no. of drinks they have had. But they had no idea on which day the party is going to occur. And 2 weeks prior to the party a 12 point Self-Esteem questionnaire (Roberts 1995) was...
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