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Unit 4222-265 Causes and spread of infection (ICO2)

1.1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi & parasites.

• Bacteria is a microorganism, most bacteria is harmless. It is found in soil, water, plants, animals and humans; it can only be seen under a microscope. Antibiotics can help treat bacterial infections. Examples of bacterial infections are TB and MRSA.
• Viruses live inside other living organisms. They can enter humans through the nose, mouth and breaks in the skin. Viruses can spread through bodily fluids, the air, and insects such as mosquitos. Antibiotics have no effects on viruses; however people can have vaccinations to help prevent viruses. Examples of viral infections are Norovirus and influenza.
• Fungi are an organism such as yeasts, molds and mushrooms. Fungi infections are common and can affect your skin, hair and nails. Examples of fungi infections are athlete’s foot and thrush.
• Parasites are organisms that live on or in a host; they can cause disease in humans. Parasites use the host to for food and to breed. Examples of parasites are worms, ticks, lice and mites.

1.2 Describe what is meant by infection and colonisation.

• Infections are when bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi enter the body and multiply, evading the body’s immune system. Infections can then cause illness, signs of infection are fever, pain, swelling, runny nose, sore throat, and rashes.
• Colonisation is when bacteria and viruses are present in the body, but do not cause illness.

1.3 Explain what is meant by a ‘systemic’ and ‘localized’ infection

• Systemic infection is caused by bacteria or viruses that have entered the bloodstream and spread around the body. Systemic infections are illness such as colds and flu.
• Localized infection is when the whole body is not affected; an infection that is not in the bloodstream. Localized infections can be an infected wound or cut.

1.4 Identify poor practices that may lead to spread of

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