There are many factors that lead children to having additional requirements for example genetic factors, developmental factors, environmental factors, accidents, other factors where the cause in unknown and Inherited factors. Genetic factors are things you are born with, this happens when a child’s genetic make-up goes wrong examples of genetic factors are Down syndrome and autism. Down syndrome is caused by a chromosome defect which involves having an extra 21st chromosome, long term effects of down syndrome is a shortened life expectancy and heart problems, another example is a person who suffers from Down syndrome are more at risk of contracting cancer the most common being leukaemia which is the cancer of the blood. There are also short term effects of Down syndrome and one example is development delays but with the correct support these can be overcome. Autism is a metal condition and can be recognised in a child from an early age. Long term effects of autism are a child can struggle to build relationships and this can lead them to be isolated later on in life. This can also affect their social and emotional develop. A short term effect of Autism is a child and suffers from some learning difficulties. Developmental factor is when a child had a disability but it only becomes noticeable when the child learns and develops examples of a developmental factor is Dyslexia and ADHD Dyslexia is a disorder that involves difficulty in learning to read and write, there will also be problems with distinguishing letters and numbers. Long term effects of dyslexia are a child never learning how to read or write and some short term effects of dyslexia is that children has short term memory loss and develop delays. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or as it’s known ADHD is a disorder affected by the metabolism and mainly effects men. Long term effects of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is that behaviour can become aggressive and violent and possibly injury someone. A short term effect of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is social development is affected. Environmental factors is when there is a illness or disease which can cause premature birth an can cause disabilities, examples of this is a mum that takes drugs and a mum who is an alcoholic. If a mother does drugs during her pregnancy it can have some serious effects on her baby for example if a mother smokes marijuana the child can be born with and addiction to the drug and once the cord has been cut and the child is no longer getting a supply from their mother, withdrawal symptoms will kick in. long term effects of drugs is the child has a higher chance of contracting leukaemia. Short term effects can be memory loss and concentration. Special needs are not always caused by genetic factors, additional needs can be cause by an accident for example someone losing feeling in their legs due to spinal damage through a car accident which leaves them physical impaired. Another example is being caught in a fire and receiving severe burns which leads to a loss of a limb. Some additional requirements are caused by medical problems, but there is no certified reason or explanation to why they child has the problem. One example of a factor where the cause is unknown is a child who has been born with hearing but as they get older they lose their hearing leaving them hearing impaired. Some long term effects of a child being hearing impaired is that their language and vocal skills can be delayed and the child will have poor listening and communicating skills. A short term effect is the child can suffer social and emotional isolation. Another example of a a factor where the cause is unknown is a child who was born with sight then loses it as they get older and end up visually impaired this means that the child loses all their sight and is unable to see at all, there are many long term effects of this one example is that a child can struggle to commute with other people, a short term effect on a child is a development delay but with the correct support a child can work through their delays. Another example of a factor that can cause a child a child to have an additional need is inherited factors. An example of an inherited factor is a child suffering from Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder, it affects the connective tissues in the body this includes the heart and blood vessels. Common signs of Marfan syndrome id someone who is tall and has very long limbs such as arms and legs. A term term effect of this is that the joints are very flexible so children who suffer with serious Marfan syndrome will have to wear a back brace to help stabilise them. A short term effect of Marfan syndrome is that as baby the limb will be floppy until the baby can hold their own weight. Another example of an inherited factor is Osteogenesis Imperfecta or as it is most commonly known as brittle bone disease this is caused due to a defect in the collagen this is the protein which is responsible for bone strength. A long term effect of brittle bone disease is that it can cause still born babies or death in the first few weeks, a short term effect is that a person can easily bruise and the teeth are very fragile but this can be improved with calcium and vitamin D supplements.