Unemployment Rate

Topics: Unemployment, Trade union, Minimum wage Pages: 15 (4268 words) Published: September 19, 2012
British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences ISSN: 2046-9578, Vol.5 No.2 (2012) ©BritishJournal Publishing, Inc. 2012 http://www.bjournal.co.uk/BJASS.aspx

Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: Causes, Effects and Remedies. Dr. Oluseyi A. Shadare Department of industrial Relations and Personnel management, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria seyidare2001@yahoo.co.uk

Elegbede Sikirulahi Tunde Department of industrial Relations and Personnel management, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria, telegbede@unilag.edu.ng

Abstract This paper examines causes of unemployment in Nigeria as well as the consequences and implications of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. The paper also provides useful suggestion and recommendations on how to curb graduate in Nigeria. The paper adopts empirical analysis to examine the causes of unemployment in Nigeria. The data used in this study is of two type primary and secondary data. However, for the primary data the questionnaire was used to solicit responses from the respondents. In conclusion economic recession, governmental policy, employment of expatriates and trade union wage demand increase the rate of unemployment. The study emphasis that planning for human resources use in Nigeria has been based on guesswork and needs reevaluation. Keywords: Unemployment, Human resource planning, Graduates, Economy.

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British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences ISSN: 2046-9578

Introduction Economists are unable to agree on the causes of or cures for unemployment (or anything else, it seems). The essence of the Keynesian explanation is that firms demand too little labour because individuals demand too few goods. The classical view was that unemployment was voluntary and could be cleared by natural market forces. The neo-classical theory is that there is a natural rate of unemployment, which reflects a given rate of technology, individual preferences and endowments. With flexible wages in a competitive labour market, wages adjust to clear the market and any unemployment that remains is voluntary. The latter view was that held by Milton Friedman and strongly influenced government policy in the early 1980s, but without success. There is, of course, no simple explanation of unemployment and no simple solution. Unemployment is the greatest challenge to underdeveloped and developing countries. the phenomenon of graduate unemployment ( GU) as it is being experienced in the developing countries constitute a peculiar problems to labor market and the general economy of these countries. From the content analysis perceptions of job seekers on the issue of graduate unemployment in a study conducted by Fajana (2000), the following factors were identified as the major causes of unemployment in Nigeria: - the long period of initial unemployment among university graduates in Nigeria , faulty manpower planning and expansion of educational facilities that have unduly raised the expectations of Nigerian youths , the economic recession , continued proportionality of expatriates in employment , the institution of NYSC ,the collective bargaining process, graduate attitude to some type of jobs attitude to jobs in other location as well as search behaviour of employers and job seekers, use of capital intensive technology , wide ruralurban migration , formal – informal sectors differentials. All these and many other factors contribute the causes of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. The objective of this paper is to critically evaluates all these factors so as to determine their impacts graduate job seekers in Nigeria and other LDCs. The purpose of this paper is to examine all the various factors that contribute to graduate unemployment with the view to provide suggestions and solutions on how to curb the problem of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. This paper will also examine how the actions of the industrial relations actors contribute to graduate unemployment in Nigeria. This paper intends to...

References: Beer , W And Herves M.E.A ( 1966). ‘ Employment And Indusstrialization In Developing Countries’, Quarterly journal of Economics, Vol.30 No.1 Bhalla A.S ( 1973) ‘ A Disaggregative Approach To Employment In Less Developed Countries ' The Journal Of Development Studies Berg, E.J. (1969) ‘wages policy and employment in less developed countries ‘, in R. Robinson, Ibid. Diejomoah V.P And Orimolade W.A.T (1971). ‘ Unemployment In Nigeria: An Economic Analysis Of Scope , Trends And policy Issues ‘ Nigerian Journal Of Economic And Social Studies Vol.13 no.2 Pp 127-160 Berg, E.J 9 (1969) ‘Urban Real wage And the Nigerian Trade Union Movement (1939-1960: a comment’ Economic Development and Cultural Change, (EDDC), VOL.17 NO.4 Fajana, S. (1987) economic Recession, Collective Bargaining And labour Market Segmentation In Nigeria, Nigerian Management Review CMD, Lagos, Vol.2, No 1, P9-16 Fajana, S (2000) Functioning Of the Nigerian Labour Market, Labofin and Company, Lagos, Nigeria. Fashoyin ,T.( 1980) Industrial Relations In Nigeria, Macmillan , London Fashoyin, T. ( 1987) collective Bargaining In Public Sector In Nigeria, Macmillan , Lagos. Falae,S.O ( 1971),’ unemployment In Nigeria’ Nigerian journal of economic and social studies, vol.13 , no1, march. Kilby, P ( 1967) Industrial Relations And Wage Determination : Failure of the Anglo-Saxo Model , Journal of Developing Areas ( JDA) , Vol.1 No.14, July. Kilby, P. ( 1969) Industrialization In An Open Economy : Nigeria , !945-1966,Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Otobo , D. ( 2002) Industrial Relations ; Theories and controversies , Malthouse Press limited, Lagos , Nigeria. Standing ,G ( 1983) ‘the notion of structural unemployment’ international labour review, volume 22 No2 P. 137-153 Weeks , J. ( 1968) ‘ A comment On Kilby : Industrial Relations And Wage determination, Journal Of Developing Areas ( JDA) , Vol. 3, No.1. Bioprofile of Authors Dr, Oluseyi Shadare is a lecturer with the department of Industrial Relations & Personnel Management, University of Lagos, Nigeria. His areas of specializations are human resource management, human capital development and labour relations. Mr. Elegbede Tunde is a lecturer with the department of Industrial Relations & Personnel Management, University of Lagos, Nigeria. His areas of industrial and employment relations, labour market analysis , diversity management and trade unionism. Has many publications to his credit both locally and abroad.
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