Truman and the Cold War Response Sheet
Part 1: The Truman Doctrine
Use Site 1 to answer the following questions.
Read paragraph 2 of Truman's speech.
1. Conflicts in what two nations led Truman to make his speech?
I do not believe that the American people and the Congress wish to turn a deaf ear to the appeal of the Greek Government. Greece is not a rich country. Lack of sufficient natural resources has always forced the Greek people to work hard to make both ends meet. Since 1940, this industrious, peace loving country has suffered invasion, four years of cruel enemy occupation, and bitter internal strife. Read paragraphs 10-16.
2. What type of revolutionary group was leading the challenge to democracy in Greece? Without help, Greece would fall to Communism. Nearby Turkey, he added, was in a similar situation. The Greek Government has been operating in an atmosphere of chaos and extremism. It has made mistakes. The extension of aid by this country does not mean that the United States condones everything that the Greek Government has done or will do. We have condemned in the past, and we condemn now, extremist measures of the right or the left. We have in the past advised tolerance, and we advise tolerance now.
3. Why did Truman believe the United States was responsible for helping these nations? Nevertheless, Turkey now needs our support. Since the war, Turkey has sought additional financial assistance from Great Britain and the United States for the purpose of effecting that modernization necessary for the maintenance of its national integrity. That integrity is essential to the preservation of order in the Middle East. The British government has informed us that, owing to its own difficulties, it can no longer extend financial or economic aid to Turkey. As in the case of Greece, if Turkey is to have the assistance it needs, the United States must supply it. We are the only country able to provide that help. I am fully aware of the broad implications involved if the United States extends assistance to Greece and Turkey, and I shall discuss these implications with you at this time. One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion. This was a fundamental issue in the war with Germany and Japan. Our victory was won over countries which sought to impose their will, and their way of life, upon other nations. To ensure the peaceful development of nations, free from coercion, the United States has taken a leading part in establishing the United Nations.
Use the material starting from the paragraph that begins "I am fully aware of the broad implications..." to the end of the document to answer the following questions. 4. According to Truman, what was one of the primary objectives of United States foreign policy? One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion. 5. Truman stated that "nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life." To what was he referring? The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. 6. How did Truman argue that the situation in these two countries was a threat to worldwide political stability? I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political...
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