History Revision Notes:
What was the treaty of Versailles?
The Treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement signed after World War One had ended in 1918
What was the League of Nations?
International organisation designed to stop wars in future.
The Paris peace conference was:
On 1919 Peace Conference was held in Paris to discuss the post-war world. Leaders of 32 states attended. However, negotiations were dominated by the five major powers: the United States, Britain, France, Italy and Japan.
The big three leaders;
David Lloyd George BRITAIN
Woodrow Wilson USA
Georges Clemenceau FRANCE
Main terms of treaty:
Guilt – Germans had to accept guilt for starting war.
Armed forces – army limited to 100,000 men, 6 battleships, no subs and no planes Reparations - £6.6 billion was to be paid by Germany to Britain and France. German land - a lot of land taken such as Alsace Lorraine which was given to France League of Nations – International organisation designed to stop wars in future.
Some of Wilsons 14 points were:
Freedom of the seas
Belgium to have independence
To end secret treaties
What they want from treaty, their aims?
David Lloyd George –
Wanted to make Germany pay as he knew that the British people wanted to hear so Land for Britain’s empire
To safeguard British naval supremacy
Justice not revenge, compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau Woodrow Wilson –
End all wars by league of nations
To ensure Germany was not destroyed
Not to blame Germany, he hated guilt clause
Published 14 points on what he wanted
Georges Clemenceau –
Get revenge (as France had been invaded twice) and punish Germany No league of nations
Wanted to weaken Germany so they could never attack again
Wanted huge reparations
Very angry due too;
lost 10% land
Lost land like Alsace-Lorraine which were important as they earned money from the coal mines. 12% German population in other country’s
Forced to pay a lot of reparations to France which would weaken them. Thought it was unfair that they were blamed for the war.
Army was restricted to 100,000 men, 6 battleships, no subs and no planes So thought if they were invaded then they wouldn’t be able to protect themselves.
A diktat is…
Were they satisfied?
Clemenceau wanted more revenge on Germany and therefore wanted a harsher treaty. Wilson got his league of nations but was annoyed at the fact that some countries lost their national self-determination, plus he didn’t get all of his fourteen points. Davis Lloyd George was fairly satisfied - Britain gained colonies and Germany lost their battle ships and air force, so they couldn't invade Britain. But the British people still wanted more revenge, on Germany, So overall I don’t think any of them were completely satisfied. Strengths of the Treaty of Versailles?
Gave independence to Poland and Hungary
Land was regained and returned back to France
Disarmament to prevent future wars
Weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles?
The treaty was harsh on Germany which lead to the rise of Hitler as Germany was in so much debt people voted him as he promised to help The countries which signed it were unable/unwilling to enforce it Humiliation of Germany
Aims of league:
To keep world peace
To encourage countries to co-operate to develop and trade
To discuss topics and matters
Powerful members of league:
Countries that weren’t allowed to join treaty: (bad or good?) Germany – banned
US – refused
Ussr (Russia) – not invited
VERY bad as without these powers, the League was too weak to make a big country do as it wished
How was league organised?
The assembly was … Each member met once a year to discuss general topics. The council was … 4 members; Britain, France, Italy and Japan who solved disputes. The permanent court of justice was… 15 judges who dealt with disputes Sanctions that the league...
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