There are a number of factors that contribute to the success of any organization, they include: capital, equipment, manpower, etc. All these factors are important but the most significant factor is the human factor. Since it is the people that will put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organizational goals and objectives. The development of any nation depends to a very large extent on the caliber, organization and motivation of its human resources. In the specific case of Nigeria where diversity exerts tremendous influence on politics and administration, the capacity to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of this diversity constitutes a human resource management challenge of epic proportion. During the colonial period, Nigeria’s economy was based on primary production – more specifically, on the production of primary commodities and raw materials for the export market. Although the population was relatively small, the country’s contribution to world trade in specific commodities was impressive. For example, in 1938, Nigeria’s population was less than 30 million, and even up to 1955 the figure could not have been higher than 35 million. Yet, within this period, 1938-55, when there were no more than 35 million Nigerians, the country recorded constant increases in the production of palm kernel, palm-oil and groundnuts, and was a major force to reckon with in the international exchange of the commodities.
Since the early 1960, the human factor of production of manpower as it is alternatively called, has increasably been recognized as the most critical resource of the factors without which an effective utilization of all other factors remain a dream. Although, it might to tempting to attach more importance to the availability of physical resource such as capital and equipment undermining that they are mere passive factors of production, which depend on human intellectual which is the active agent to exploit them in order to achieve the objective of the organization. Thus, the human factor (manpower) is the main stay of the organization. The development of indigenous manpower to serve as the propelling force for national growth and development is no doubt a key to Nigeria’s socio-economic and political development (Ake 1989). This is quite indispensable considering the argument of the concept of transfer of technology as a propelling force for the development of the developing countries of which Nigeria is one (Ake 1989). Manpower planning aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time. This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization, hence it becomes imperative to develop the employee.
Manpower development is a process of intellectual and emotional achievement through providing the means by which people can grow on their jobs. It relates to series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve its managerial capacity. Manpower development is important in any discussion of strategic human resources management. These emphasis on manpower and development is influenced by the belief that it is now desirable to focus more attention on areas which in the past has been relatively neglected because every organization regardless of its size must provide for the needs, interest and desire of its employee within the work environment if it is to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to compete effectively.
In other words, the success of an organization depends on the ability and expertise of those who operate it both at the managerial and lower levels of operation, such abilities and expertise usually stems from the knowledge they possess and training received. According to Harbison,...
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