Jean Watson in caring theory refers to the human being as "a valued person in and of him or herself to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted; in general a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self. Human is viewed as greater than and different from the sum of his or her parts .According to Jean Watson human being should be cared and respected and accepted as person, caring can effect what the person may finally become. Watson 's hierarchy of needs begins with lower-order biophysical needs, which include the need for food and fluid, elimination, and ventilation. Next are the lower-order psychophysical needs, which include the need for activity, inactivity, and sexuality. Finally, are the higher order needs, which are psychosocial? These include the need for achievement, affiliation, and self-actualization
Imogene King’s theory of Goal attainment defines person/human being as social beings that are rational and sentiment. Humans communicate their thoughts, actions, customs, and beliefs through language (McEwen, 2014). King states that people display common characteristics and traits, such as: the ability to perceive, to think, to feel, to choose between alternative courses of action, to set goals, to select means to achieve goals, and to make decisions (McEwen, 2014). King’s concept of the theories considers nursing as a process of action, reaction and interaction whereby nurse and client share information and explore ways to achieve a goal. The steps in the Goal attainment Theory that were presented by King are used on a daily basis by nurses all over the world. A nurse’s responsibility is to help a patient create and obtain the ultimate goal of living healthfully.
According to Myra Levin’s model of Conservation, nursing is a human interaction, her model deals with interactions of nurse and
References: Watson, J (2011) Postmodern Nursing and Beyond. New edition. Boulder, CO: Watson Caring Science Institute. www.watsoncaringscience.org. McEwen, M. & Wills, E. (2014). Theoretical basis for nursing (4th Ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. Sitzman, K., & Eichelberger, L. (2011). Myra Estrin Levine’s Conservation Model. Understanding the Work of Nurse Theorists: A Creative Beginning. Jones and Bartlett Publisher