Theories of Motivation
This essay will look at motivation to discuss the content theorist Abraham Maslow ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ relevance and his critics. The research of motivation is interested basically with why people act in certain ways. ’Why do people do what they do?’ In typical terms, motivation can be defined as the direction and perseverance of action. It is interested with why humans take a specific course of action in to others, and why they continue with a chosen endeavour, often sustained over long periods and in the face of difficulties and problems (Kerch D(ed) 1962). From a review of motivational theory, ‘Mitchel’ pinpoints four common traits that are intrinsic in defining Motivation (Mitchel1982) Motivation is typified as an individual phenomenon. Every person is unique and all the major theories of motivation in one way or another allow for this uniqueness to be demonstrated.. Motivation is described, usually as intentional. Motivation is assumed to be under the workers control, and behaviours that are influenced by motivation, such as effort expended are seen as choices of action. Motivation is multifaceted. The two factors of greatest importance are; 1 what gets people active (arousal); and 2 the force of an individual to engage in desired behaviour (direction or choice of behaviour). The purpose of motivational theories is to predict behaviour. Motivation is not the performance itself and it is not behaviour. Motivation concerns action and the external and internal factors that affect a persons choice of action. On the basis of these traits, Mitchell defines motivation as ‘the extent to which a person desires and adopts to engage in certain specific behaviours’. Mullins (2010) quotes ‘Kathy Scholfield, Director of Human resources, HFC Bank which was sited in ’Engineering the Carrott, Management Today December 1995.p66’ “ You don’t motivate individuals. You provide them with an environment to be self motivated. It is a personal...
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