Theories of Learning: Cognitive
PSY331: Psychology of Learning
Cоgnitivе dеvеlоpmеnt rеfеrѕ tо thе wаy аn infаnt pеrcеivеѕ, thinkѕ, аnd gаinѕ аn undеrѕtаnding оf hiѕ/hеr wоrld thrоugh thе intеrаctiоn оf gеnеtic аnd lеаrnеd fаctоrѕ likе prоcеѕѕing, rеаѕоning, lаnguаgе dеvеlоpmеnt, аnd mеmоry (Wagner, 2009). Thiѕ theory hаѕ bееn ѕtudiеd by mаny thеоriѕtѕ such as Еrickѕоn, Piаgеt and Vygоtѕky in vаriоuѕ wаyѕ thаt аll cоntributе tо оur undеrѕtаnding оf hоw childrеn dеvеlоp. Cognitive learning concentrates on how an individual processes information. Some students can learn by reading information, some learn better by hearing information and some students learn best with hands on experience, in my own classroom I plan to integrate cognitive learning into my curriculum by addressing these unique ways my students learn. Erik Erikson:
Еrik Еrikѕоn prоpоѕеd а thеоry that involved specific predetermined stages of dеvеlоpmеnt. The thеоriѕt Erikson believed that the stages of development occurs through the entire lifespan. Еrikѕоn bеliеvеd thаt еаch ѕtаgе оf dеvеlоpmеnt iѕ bаѕеd оn оvеrcоming а cоnflict. Erikson also stated succеѕѕ оr fаilurе in dеаling with еаch stage wоuld impаct оvеrаll functiоning, and he believed that the stages could be completed successfully later in life, (Heffner, 2004). Erikson theorized eight development stages which largely affect child’s ability to learn. The first stage is trust vs mistrust, this is based largely on the consistency of the child’s caregiver from birth to one year of age. It is also referred to as the oral sensory stage, the child learns about the world around them with their mouth. In this stage the sense of security and trust learned within this relationship helps the child gain confidence and failure to develop this stage can affect a child’s ability to trust later in life. If a child’s needs are not met in this stage of life the child may learn to mistrust the world around them. If a child passes successfully through this stage they will learn to trust their surroundings (Harder, 2009). Second stage which occurs from 18 months through age three is called autonomy vs shame and doubt, in this stage the child is age one to three years old and gaining their independence from the mother or caregiver. This is a very important stage in which babies learn to talk, walk and feed ourselves. They also develop fine motor skills and, to the delight of their parents, become potty trained. All of these skills also have the great potential to teach babies shame and doubt of their capabilities during this stage (Harder, 2009). Children will learn to make their own choices and begin to become more independent and confident. Encouragement of this independence will help a child develop a strong sense of self, while overcontrolling and criticism can develop low self esteem and self doubt (2004). As a coach in a kids gym I work on a daily basis with children who are in the autonomy vs shame and doubt stage. This stage is a wonderful age for children to start to develop their social skills along with their fine motor skills. We also encourage simple tasks like sharing, taking turns and waiting in line. It is wonderful to watch the children develop their independence and confidence. Many of the students in the classes plan play dates and form friendships outside of the gym. While some students are very social and talkative and outgoing, while others are very shy and cling to their parents. As their confidence starts to build and the coaches continue to encourage their efforts, they slowly break out of their shell and begin to be okay with leaving their mother’s side. Third stage is initiative vs guilt, and ego development occuring in age three to five. Children in this stage have the desire to copy adults around them, and initiate creative play. In this stage if children are encouraged to iniate activities and games and they will continue to learn self...
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Restructuring Schools and Renewing Education, 2nd edition. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press
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