Theories of Human Development

Topics: Developmental psychology, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget Pages: 6 (1751 words) Published: October 16, 2014
• Psychosexual (Sigmund Freud)
Sigmund Freud (born 6 May 1856, died 23 September 1939) is an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis. When he was young, Sigmund Freud’s family moved from Frieberg, Moravia to Vienna where he would spend most of his life. His parents taught him at home after entering him in Spurling Gymnasium, where he was first in his class and graduated Summa cum Laude. After studying medicine at University of Vienna, Freud worked and gained respect as a physician. Through his work with respected French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, Freud became fascinated with the emotional disorder known as hysteria. Freud believed that adult personality problems were the result of early experiences in life. He believed that we go through five stages of psychosexual development and that at each stage of development we experience pleasure in one part of the body than in others. Erogenous zones are parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages of development. Freud thought that our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between these early sources of pleasure - the mouth, the anus and the genitals - and demands of reality. Fixation is the psychoanalytic defense mechanism that occurs when the individual remains locked in an earlier development stage because needs are under or over gratified. There are six stages of psychosexual development.

Oral Stage, it occurs during 18 months of life when the infant’s pleasure centers the mouth. Chewing, sucking and biting are chief sources of pleasure and this action reduces tension in the infant. Anal Stage, it is the second stage of oral development that occurs between 11⁄2 until 3 years of age, in which the child’s greatest pleasure involves the anus or the eliminative functions associated with it. Phallic Stage, it occurs between the ages of 3-6. The word “phallic” comes from the Latin word “phallus” which means “penis.” During this stage, pleasure focuses on the genitals as the child discovers that self-stimulation is enjoyable. In Freud’s view, the phallic stage has a special importance in personality development because this period triggers the Oedipus complex. Oedipus complex is the young child’s development of an intense desire to replace the parent of the same sex and enjoy the affection of the opposite-sex parent. Latency Stage, it occurs at approximately between 6 years of age until puberty. At this stage, the child represses all interest in sexuality and develops social intellectual skills. Genital Stage, it occurs from puberty onwards. It is the time of sexual reawakening, but the source of sexual pleasure now becomes someone outside the family. Freud believed that unresolved conflicts with parents re-emerged during adolescence. Once resolved, Freud believed that the individual capable of developing a mature love relationship and functioning independently as an adult. • Psychosocial (Erik Erikson)

Erikson is best known for his famous theory of psychosocial development and the concept of the identity crisis. His theories marked an important shift in thinking on personality; instead of focusing simply on early childhood event, his psychosocial theory looked at how social influences contribute to personality throughout the entire lifespan. Much like psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. It describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan instead of simply focusing on childhood events. One of the main elements of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others. In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense...
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