Theology- Church and Sacraments

Topics: Pope, Popes, Pope John Paul II Pages: 11 (4389 words) Published: December 12, 2013
All of which I am about to write in this short synthesis is solely taken from the book entitled, “Church and Sacraments” by Victoria D. Corral, Ed.D. Et al. No other reference was used in the makings.

The 12 chosen apostles of Jesus Christ were the first footsteps taken to the creation of the Church, which was born from the Father’s plan in order to continue the mission He had done and that is to proclaim the Kingdom of God. The early Christian community was the beginning of the Church as each apostle begins the journey of spreading His Word to all nations. Despite the universal acceptance of the many, it had not always been as acceptable as it is now, before in Christ’s time. The division between Jews and Gentile had been in continuous tension since then. After the death and resurrection of Christ, the apostles had received the Holy Spirit which enabled them to receive the knowledge of His Word and began to preach immediately afterwards. The converts grew and not too long after had others been convince to widen their horizons and soon began preaching to Gentiles as well. Peter, a disciple of Jesus began teaching to the Jews, while Paul (Saul), though untimely born, taught to the Gentiles. The spread and development of the Christian community grew yet as I have stated a while back, it was not readily accepted to communicate with the Gentiles as Jews became more tapped with the Gospel. And amongst these, Paul took on the stubbornness of the Jewish Christians by preaching radical liberations to temples and synagogues. To Paul, the encounter he had with Jesus at the Road of Damascus had sent the message that it is time to break the boundaries that separated these two. Paul, who participated in the Council of Jerusalem with other apostles, had defended the Gospel of freedom from the Law and among the discussed issues was that of Circumcision and keeping the law. The conflict between Paul and the Judaizers, people who believe that he Jewish Law is a must to attain salvation, was resolved when the council had resolved to believe that of Paul’s argument. Paul’s mission reached as far as the Greco-Roman world with Barnabas as a companion along the journey. The young Church did not remain at peace when it had first been established. It received much hatred from the Romans who believed that their emperor was Divine and laws were important. As such, the apostle James became the first apostle to be martyred during Herod Agrippa’s persecution of the Church. Christians during this time were blamed for every crime done during then; be it treason, wars, illnesses, and such. Christians did not experience the luxury of life back then having faced death untimely, persecutions, and many devastating events. An example would be the reign of Nero. Nero, who put parts of Rome in fire, blamed the Christians as the cause and caused many to die so he could divert the punishment to him. Peter and Paul had died as well and by then all the apostles had died by martyrdom, which gave the Church’s image as the Church of the Martyrs. St. Ignatius first coined the term “Catholic Church” which means “the Universal Church”. Still, it faces difficulty as people begin to oppose the doctrines of the Church and replaced it with other beliefs. These people were called Heretics or people who commit heresy. Heresy in the East dealt with Arianism which denies Jesus as God but only a first divine creature. While the West dealt Donatism which claims that anyone committing a grave sin will never be able to return to grace. During the reign of Emperor Constantine, at a point the Church and State had come to common grounds such that Catholic religion became close to being the national religion, the ranks of popes and bishops were established, and the Arianism’s spread was paused due to the establishment of the Council of Nicea. But, not too long afterwards, the-so-called religious purpose had turned political where the Church became subservient to the State and with...
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