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The Sociological Perspective

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Sociology: The Core Michael Hughes, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University Carolyn J. Kroehler James W. Vander Zanden, The Ohio State University (Emeritus) [McGraw-Hill]

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Developing a Sociological Consciousness
The Sociological Perspective Sociology is the scientific study of social interaction and social organization. •

New Levels of Reality. The sociological perspective encourages us to examine aspects of our social environment in ways that delve beneath the surface. As we look beyond the outer appearances of our social world, we encounter new levels of reality. The Sociological Imagination. The essence of the sociological imagination is the ability to see our private experiences and personal difficulties as entwined with the structural arrangements of our society and the times in which we live. Microsociology and Macrosociology. Microsociology is the detailed study of what people say, do, and think moment by moment as they go about their daily lives. Macrosociology focuses upon large-scale and long-term social processes of organizations, institutions, and broad social patterns.

The Development of Sociology

Auguste Comte: The Founder of Sociology. Auguste Comte is commonly credited as being the founder of sociology. He emphasized that the study of society must be scientific, and he urged sociologists to employ systematic observation, experimentation, and comparative historical analysis as their methods. He divided the study of society into social statics and social dynamics.

Harriet Martineau: Feminist and Methodologist. Harriet Martineau wrote the first book on social research methods and was among the first to do systematic, scientifically based, social research. Her comparative analysis of slavery and the position of women in the Western world paved the way for feminist scholarship and the further pursuit of gender equality. Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism. Herbert Spencer depicted society as a system, a whole made up of interrelated parts. He also set forth an evolutionary theory of historical development. Social Darwinism is Spencer's application of evolutionary notions and the concept of survival of the fittest to the social world. Karl Marx: The Role of Class Conflict. Karl Marx focused his search for the basic principles of history on the economic environments in which societies develop. He believed that society is divided into those who own the means of producing wealth and those who do not, giving rise to class conflict. Dialectical materialism is Marx's theory that development depends on the clash of contradictions and the creation of new, more advanced structures out of these clashes. Émile Durkheim: Social Integration and Social Facts. Émile Durkheim was especially concerned with social solidarity, distinguishing between mechanical and organic solidarity. He contended that the distinctive subject matter of sociology should be the study of social facts. Max Weber: Subjectivity and Social Organization. Max Weber said that a critical aspect of the sociological enterprise is the study of the intentions, values, beliefs, and attitudes that underlie people's behavior. He used the word Verstehen in describing his approach and contributed his notions of the ideal type and a value-free sociology. American Sociology. In the United States, sociology and the modern university system arose together. The first department of sociology was established at the University of Chicago in 1893, and Chicago served as a "social laboratory" at the beginning of the century. Midcentury sociologists crafted survey techniques and refined models of society. "New breed" sociologists in the 1960s and 1970s refined Marxism and established new research approaches and perspectives. Contemporary Sociology. Contemporary movements in sociology include critical theory, feminism, and postmodern social theory.

Theoretical Perspectives Contemporary sociologists acknowledge three general theoretical perspectives, or ways of looking at how various social phenomena are related to one another. These are the functionalist, the conflict, and the symbolic interactionist perspectives.

The Functionalist Perspective. The structural-functional-or, more simply, functionalist-perspective sees society as a system. Functionalists identify the structural characteristics and functions and dysfunctions of institutions, and distinguish between manifest functions and latent functions. Functionalists also typically assume that most members of a society share a consensus regarding their core beliefs and values. The Conflict Perspective. The conflict approach draws much of its inspiration from the work of Karl Marx and argues that the structure of society and the nature of social relationships are the result of past and ongoing conflicts. The Interactionist Perspective. Symbolic interactionists contend that society is possible because human beings have the ability to communicate with one another by means of symbols. They say that we act toward people, objects, and events on the basis of the meanings we impart to them. Consequently, we experience the world as constructed reality.

Conducting Research

The Logic of Science. Sociology is a social science. Science assumes that every event or action results from an antecedent cause-that is, cause-and-effect relationships prevail in the universe. These causes and effects can be observed and measured, and sociologists look for correlations among variables as a way of doing so. How Do Sociologists Collect Data? Four major techniques of data collection are available to sociologists: experiments, surveys, observation, and archival research. In the experiment, researchers work with an experimental group and a control group to test the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Interviewing and questionnaires constitute the primary techniques used in surveys, using random or stratified random samples. Observation can take the form of participant observation or unobtrusive observation. Other techniques include archival research and feminist methodology. Steps in the Scientific Method: A Close-up Look. The scientific method includes selecting a researchable problem, reviewing the literature, formulating a hypothesis, creating an operational definition, choosing a research design, collecting the data, analyzing the data, and stating conclusions. Research Ethics It is important that sociologists observe the ethics of their discipline in carrying out research. They have an obligation not to expose their subjects to substantial risk or personal harm in the research process and to protect the rights and dignity of their subjects.

Chapter 2

Culture and Social Structure

Components of Culture Culture provides individuals with a set of common understandings that they employ in fashioning their actions, and makes society possible by providing a common framework of meaning. •

Norms. Norms are social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate behavior in given situations. They afford a means by which we orient ourselves to other people. Folkways, mores, and laws are types of norms. Values. Values are broad ideas regarding what is desirable, correct, and good that most members of a society share. Values are so general and abstract that they do not explicitly specify which behaviors are acceptable and which are not. Symbols and Language. Symbols are acts or objects that have come to be socially accepted as standing for something else. Symbols assume many different forms, but language is the most important of these. Language is the chief vehicle by which people communicate ideas, information, attitudes, and emotions, and it serves as the principal means by which human beings create culture and transmit it from generation to generation.

Cultural Unity and Diversity

Cultural Universals. Cultural universals are patterned and recurrent aspects of life that appear in all known societies. All people confront many of the same problems; culture represents an accumulation of solutions to the problems posed by human biology and the human situation. Cultural Integration. The items that form a culture tend to constitute a consistent and integrated whole. For example, societies that value universal education also usually have norms and laws about schools, organize education into a collective activity, and create symbols and share meanings about the value of education and educational organizations.

Ethnocentrism. The cultural ways of our own society become so deeply ingrained that we have difficulty conceiving of alternative ways of life. We judge the behavior of other groups by the standards of our own culture, a phenomenon sociologists term ethnocentrism. Cultural Relativism. In studying other cultures, we must examine behavior in the light of the values, beliefs, and motives of each culture, an approach termed cultural relativism. Subcultures and Countercultures. Cultural diversity may be found within a society in the form of subcultures. When the norms, values, and lifestyles of a subculture are at odds with those of the larger society, it is a counterculture.

Social Structure People's relationships are characterized by social ordering. Sociologists apply the term social structure to this social ordering-the interweaving of people's interactions and relationships in recurrent and stable patterns. •

Statuses. Status represents a position within a group or society. It is by means of statuses that we locate one another in various social structures. Some are assigned to us—ascribed statuses; others we secure on the basis of individual choice and competition—achieved statuses. Roles. A status carries with it a set of culturally defined rights and duties, what sociologists term a role. A role is the expected behavior we associate with a status. Role performance is the actual behavior of the person who occupies a status. Role conflict arises when individuals are confronted with conflicting expectations stemming from their occupancy of two or more statuses. Role strain arises when individuals find the expectations of a single role incompatible. Groups. Statuses and roles are building blocks for more comprehensive social structures, including groups of two or more people. Roles link us within social relationships. When these relationships are sustained across time, we frequently attribute group properties to them. Sociologists distinguish groups from aggregates and categories. Institutions. Institutions are the principal social structures used to organize, direct, and execute the essential tasks of social living. Each institution is built around a standardized solution to a set of problems and encompasses the notions of both cultural patterns and social structure. Societies. Societies represent the most comprehensive and complex type of social structure in today's world. By virtue of their common culture, the members of a society typically possess similar values and norms and a common language. One particular approach for

classifying societies is based on the way people derive their livelihood: hunting and gathering societies, horticultural societies, agrarian societies, industrial societies, and postindustrial societies. Another approach rests on the distinction between traditional and modern types.

Chapter 3


Foundations for Socialization Socialization is the process of social interaction by which people acquire those behaviors essential for effective participation in society, the process of becoming a social being. It is essential for the renewal of culture and the perpetuation of society. The individual and society are mutually dependent on socialization. •

Nature and Nurture. Human socialization presupposes that an adequate genetic endowment and an adequate environment are available. Hereditary and environmental factors interact with and affect each other. Theories of Socialization. Theories of socialization include functionalist and conflict theory perspectives as well as three microlevel approaches. Social learning theory emphasizes conditioning and observational learning. Cognitive developmental theory argues that socialization proceeds differently in the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operations stages. Symbolic interactionists say reflexive behavior facilitates the development of the self. Agents of Socialization. One of the most important early agents of socialization is the family. As children grow, peers and schools become important agents of socialization. The mass media, especially television, also serve as agents of socialization. Social Communication. If they are to adapt to their social environment, human beings must be able to communicate. Communication refers to the process by which people transmit information, ideas, attitudes, and mental states to one another. It includes the verbal and nonverbal processes (body language,

paralanguage, proxemics, touch, and artifacts) by which we send and receive messages. Definition of the Situation. An important part of socialization is learning what constitutes reality-the basic schemes we use to make sense of and understand the social and physical world. Definition of the situation is the interpretation or meaning we give to our immediate circumstances. Our definitions influence our construction of reality, an insight captured by the Thomas theorem.

The Self and Socialization The formation of the self-the set of concepts we use in defining who we areis a central part of the socialization process. The self emerges in the course of interaction with other people and represents the ideas we have regarding our attributes, capacities, and behavior. It typically includes an egocentric bias. •

Charles Horton Cooley: The Looking-Glass Self. Charles Horton Cooley's notion that our consciousness arises in a social context is exemplified by his concept of the looking-glass self—a process by which we imaginatively assume the stance of other people and view ourselves as we believe they see us. Self-image is differentiated from self-conception. Self-esteem is governed by reflected appraisals, social comparisons, and self-attribution. Personal efficacy is another aspect of self-evaluation. George Herbert Mead: The Generalized Other. George Herbert Mead contended that we gain a sense of selfhood by acting toward ourselves in much the same fashion that we act toward others. According to Mead, children typically pass through three stages in developing a full sense of selfhood: the play stage, in which the child plays roles modeled on a significant other; the game stage; and the generalized other stage. Erving Goffman: Impression Management. Erving Goffman pointed out that only by influencing other people's ideas of us can we hope to predict or control what happens to us. Consequently, we have a stake in presenting ourselves to others in ways that will lead them to view us in a favorable light, a process Goffman calls impression management. Goffman introduced the dramaturgical approach.

Socialization across the Life Course Socialization is a continuing, lifelong process. All societies have to deal with the life course that begins with conception and continues through old age and ultimately death. Role socialization involves anticipatory socialization, altering roles, and exiting from roles.

Childhood. Though societies differ in their definitions of childhood, they all begin the socialization process as soon as possible. Children display people-oriented responses at very early ages and develop very quickly in other ways. The "social capital" contained within a family's environment is of vital consequence in channeling and shaping children's futures. Adolescence. In much of the world, adolescence is not a socially distinct period in the human life span. Children in many countries are socialized to assume adult responsibilities by age 13 and even younger, sometimes by way of puberty rites. Adolescence is not necessarily a turbulent period, nor does a sharp generation gap separate American adolescents from their parents. Young Adulthood. The developmental and socialization tasks confronting young adults revolve about the core tasks of work and love. Individuals are strongly influenced by age norms and tend to set their personal watches by a social clock. Some social scientists have looked for stages through which young adults typically pass. Others believe that unexpected events play a more important role in development. People locate themselves during the life course not only in terms of social timetables but also in terms of life events. Middle Adulthood. Middle adulthood is a somewhat nebulous period. The core tasks remain much the same as they were in young adulthood. Increasingly, work is coming to be defined for both men and women as a badge of membership in the larger society. Although economic considerations predominate, people also work as a means to structure their time, interact with other people, escape from boredom, and sustain a positive self-image. Later Adulthood. The last years of one's life may be filled with more dramatic changes than any previous stage. Retiring, losing one's spouse, becoming disabled, moving to a nursing home or other care facility, and preparing for death all require individuals to change and adapt. Societies differ in the prestige and dignity they accord the aged. Death. A diagnosis of impending death requires that an individual adjust to a new definition of self. Changes in medical technology and social conditions have made death a different experience from that of earlier times. Americans are grappling with the issue of euthanasia, and the hospice movement has arisen to provide a more humane approach to the dying experience.

Chapter 4

Social groups and Formal Organizations

Group Relationships Groups—two or more people who share a feeling of unity and who are bound together in relatively stable patterns of social interaction—are products of social definitions—sets of shared ideas. As such they constitute constructed realities. •

Primary Groups and Secondary Groups. Primary groups involve two or more people who enjoy direct, intimate, cohesive relationships and are fundamental to both us and society. Expressive ties predominate in primary groups. Secondary groups entail two or more people who are involved in impersonal, touch-and-go relationships. Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups. In-Groups and Out-Groups. The concepts of in-group and outgroup highlight the importance of boundaries—social demarcation lines that tell us where interaction begins and ends. Boundaries prevent outsiders from entering a group's sphere, and they keep insiders within the group's sphere. Reference Groups. Reference groups provide the models we use for appraising and shaping our attitudes, feelings, and actions. A reference group may or may not be our membership group. A reference group provides both normative and comparative functions.

Group Dynamics The dynamic qualities of groups make them a significant force in human life and important to sociologists. •

Group Size. The size of a group influences the nature of our interaction. Emotions and feelings tend to assume a larger part in dyads than in larger groups. The addition of a third member to a group—forming a triad—fundamentally alters a social situation. In this arrangement one person may be placed in the role of an outsider. Leadership. In group settings some members usually exert more influence than others. We call these individuals leaders. Two types of leadership roles tend to evolve in small groups: a task specialist and a social-emotional specialist. Leaders may follow an authoritarian style, a democratic style, or a laissez-faire style. Social Loafing. When individuals work in groups, they work less hard than they do when working individually, a process termed social loafing.

Social Dilemmas. A social dilemma is a situation in which members of a group are faced with a conflict between maximizing their personal interests and maximizing the collective welfare. Groupthink. In group settings individuals may become victims of groupthink. Group members may share an illusion of invulnerability that leads to overconfidence and a greater willingness to take risks. Conformity. Groups bring powerful pressures to bear that produce conformity among their members. Although such pressures influence our behavior, we often are unaware of them.

Formal Organizations For many tasks within modern societies, people require groups they can deliberately create for the achievement of specific goals. These groups are formal organizations. •

Types of Formal Organization. Amitai Etzioni classified organizations on the basis of people's reasons for entering them: voluntary, coercive, and utilitarian. Bureaucracy: A Functional Approach to Organizations. Small organizations can often function reasonably well on the basis of faceto-face interaction. Larger organizations must establish formal operating and administrative procedures. This requirement is met by a bureaucracy. Characteristics of Bureaucracies. Max Weber approached bureaucracy as an ideal type with these characteristics: Each office has clearly defined duties; all offices are organized in a hierarchy of authority; all activities are governed by a system of rules; all offices have qualifications; incumbents do not own their positions; employment by the organization is defined as a career; and administrative decisions are recorded in written documents. Problems of Bureaucracy. Bureaucracies have disadvantages and limitations. These include the principle of trained incapacity, Parkinson's law, and the iron law of oligarchy. If formal organization is to operate smoothly, it requires informal organization for interpreting, translating, and supporting its goals and practices. Conflict and Interactionist Perspectives. In recent years sociologists from differing perspectives—particularly the conflict, symbolic interactionist, and ethnomethodological approaches—have looked at the ways by which organizational reality is generated through the actions of people and groups of people.

Humanizing Bureaucracies. Among programs that make large organizations more humane are those that allow employee participation, flextime, small work groups, and employee ownership.

Chapter 5

Deviance and Crime

The Nature of Deviance In all societies the behavior of some people at times goes beyond that permitted by the norms. Social life is characterized not only by conformity but by deviance, behavior that a considerable number of people view as reprehensible and beyond the limits of tolerance. •

Social Properties of Deviance. Deviance is not a property inherent in certain forms of behavior; it is a property conferred upon particular behaviors by social definitions. Definitions as to which acts are deviant vary greatly from time to time, place to place, and group to group. We typically find that norms are not so much a point or a line but a zone. Deviant acts also can be redefined, as has happened in recent years in the United States. Most societies can absorb a good deal of deviance without serious consequences, but persistent and widespread deviance can be dysfunctional. But deviance may also be functional by promoting social solidarity, clarifying norms, strengthening group allegiances, and providing a catalyst for change. Social Control and Deviance. Societies seek to ensure that their members conform with basic norms by means of social control. Three main types of social control processes operate within social life: (1) those that lead us to internalize our society's normative expectations (internalization), (2) those that structure our world of social experience, and (3) those that employ various formal and informal social sanctions.

Theories of Deviance Other disciplines are concerned with deviance, particularly biology and psychology. Sociologists focus on five main theories.

Anomie Theory. Émile Durkheim contributed to our understanding of deviance with his idea of anomie. Robert K. Merton built on Durkheim's ideas of anomie and social cohesion. According to his theory of structural strain, deviance derives from societal stresses. Cultural Transmission Theory. A number of sociologists have emphasized the similarities between the way deviant behavior is acquired and the way in which other behavior is acquired-the cultural transmission theory. Edwin H. Sutherland elaborated on this notion in his theory of differential association. He said that individuals become deviant to the extent to which they participate in settings where deviant ideas, motivations, and techniques are viewed favorably. Conflict Theory. Conflict theorists ask, "Which group will be able to translate its values into the rules of a society and make these rules stick?" and "Who reaps the lion's share of benefits from particular social arrangements?" Marxist sociologists see crime as a product of capitalist laws. Labeling Theory. Labeling theorists study the processes whereby some individuals come to be tagged as deviants, begin to think of themselves as deviants, and enter deviant careers. Labeling theorists differentiate between primary deviance and secondary deviance. Control Theory. Control theory attempts to explain not why people deviate but why people do not deviate. Travis Hirschi argued that young people are more likely to conform if their bond to society is strong. This bond has four parts: attachment, involvement, commitment, and belief.

Crime and the Criminal Justice System Crime is an act of deviance that is prohibited by law. The distinguishing property of crime is that people who violate the law are liable to be arrested, tried, pronounced guilty, and deprived of their lives, liberty, or property. It is the state that defines crime by the laws it promulgates, administers, and enforces. •

Forms of Crime. An infinite variety of acts can be crimes. Federal agencies keep records on index crimes—violent crimes against people and crimes against property. Juvenile crime is crime committed by youth under the age of 18. Organized crime is carried out by largescale bureaucratic organizations that provide illegal goods and services in public demand. White-collar crime is crime committed by relatively affluent persons, often in the course of business activities. Crime can be committed by corporations and by governments. In victimless crime no one involved is considered a victim.

Measuring Crime. Statistics on crime are among the most unsatisfactory of all social data. A large proportion of the crimes that are committed go undetected; others are detected but not reported; and still others are reported but not officially recorded. Drugs and Crime. Drugs and crime are related both directly—selling, using, and possessing illegal drugs all are crimes—and indirectly—drug involvement often leads to other sorts of crimes. Drug problems can be dealt with by recognizing that addiction is a brain disease. Other approaches include continued prohibition, depenalization, or legalization. Women and Crime. A growing percentage of youth and adults in the criminal population is female. One-quarter of the youth arrested in the United States are girls; overall, one in five arrests are female. Girls are more likely than boys to be arrested for such offenses as running away from home. The Criminal Justice System. The criminal justice system is made up of the reactive agencies of the state that include the police, the courts, and prisons. Of every 100 felonies committed within the United States, only 36 are reported to the police. Of that 36, only 7 or 8 are cleared by arrest. Of those 7 who are arrested, only 5 are prosecuted and convicted. Only 1 is sent to prison. The Purposes of Imprisonment. There have been four traditional purposes of imprisonment: punishment, rehabilitation, deterrence, and selective confinement.

Chapter 6

Social Stratification

Patterns of Social Stratification Social stratification depends upon, but is not the same thing as, social differentiation—the process by which a society becomes increasingly specialized over time. •

Open and Closed Systems. Where people can change their status with relative ease, sociologists refer to the arrangement as an open system. A closed system is one in which people have great difficulty in changing their status.

Dimensions of Stratification. Sociologists typically take a multidimensional view of stratification, identifying three components: economic standing (wealth and income), prestige, and power.

The American Class System Inequality follows relatively consistent and stable patterns that persist through time. We often refer to advantaged and disadvantaged groups in the United States as the upper class, middle class, and lower class. •

Is There Inequality in American Society? Since the early 1970s income inequality in the United States has been increasing and is now at its highest level in 50 years. In 1999 the top 20 percent of the population received nearly half of the income. Inequality in wealth is even greater. Identifying Social Classes. Three primary methods are employed by sociologists for identifying social classes: the objective method, the self-placement method, and the reputational method. The Significance of Social Classes. Social class largely determines people's life chances and style of life and influences patterns of behavior, including voting and sexual behavior. Poverty in the United States. Children and the elderly account for nearly half of all Americans living in poverty. Three theories predominate regarding poverty: the culture of poverty theory, poverty as situational, and poverty as a structural feature of capitalist societies.

Social Mobility In many societies individuals or groups can move from one level (stratum) to another in the stratification system, a process called social mobility. •

Forms of Social Mobility. Social mobility takes a number of forms. It may be vertical or horizontal and intergenerational or intragenerational. When sociologists talk about social mobility, they usually mean intergenerational occupational mobility. Social Mobility and Status Attainment. More Americans are upwardly mobile than downwardly mobile across generations. Sociologists study the course of an individual's occupational status over the life cycle by looking at the socioeconomic life cycle. Education has the greatest influence on occupational attainment for white men. The processes of status attainment are different for women and blacks than for white males. Critics of status attainment research contend that it has a functionalist

bias and that the dual labor market operates to sort people into core or periphery sector jobs. What Is Happening to the American Dream? Controversy surrounds the issue of whether the American middle class is an endangered species. Although "equal opportunity" does not apply to all Americans, depending on race, gender, and ethnicity, in real dollars most Americans are better off than their parents.

Explanations of Social Stratification The question of why social inequality and division should characterize the human condition has provided a central focus of sociology. •

The Functionalist Theory of Stratification. The functionalist theory of social inequality holds that stratification exists because it is beneficial for society. Society must concern itself with human motivation because the duties associated with the various statuses are not all equally pleasant to the human organism, important to social survival, and in need of the same abilities and talents. The Conflict Theory of Stratification. The conflict theory of social inequality holds that stratification exists because it benefits individuals and groups who have the power to dominate and exploit others. Marx contended that the capitalist drive to realize surplus value is the foundation of modern class struggle. A Synthesis of Perspectives. Both functionalist and conflict theories have merit, but each is better than the other in answering different questions. A number of sociologists, including Gerhard E. Lenski, have looked for ways of integrating the two perspectives.

Chapter 7

Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity

Some U.S. racial and ethnic groups continue to be the victims of prejudice and discrimination. Sociologists address these questions: Where do race and ethnicity come from? Why and how are they associated with the distribution of society's rewards? How and why do racial and ethnic stratification change? Racial and Ethnic Stratification

Stratification represents institutionalized inequality in the distribution of social rewards and burdens. In this chapter we examined a system of stratification based on race and/or ethnicity. •

Races. The use of the concept of race for sociologists is as a social construct; a race is a group of people who see themselves—and are seen by others—as having hereditary traits that set them apart. An important concept based on race is racism, the belief that some racial groups are naturally superior and others are inferior. Ethnic Groups. Groups that we identify chiefly on cultural grounds— language, folk practices, dress, gestures, mannerisms, or religion—are called ethnic groups. Ethnic groups often have a sense of peoplehood, and to one degree or another many of them deem themselves to be a nation. Minority Groups. Racial and ethnic groups are often minority groups. Five properties characterize a minority. The critical characteristic that distinguishes minority groups from other groups is that they lack power. The Potential for Conflict and Separation. Although racial and ethnic stratification is similar to other systems of stratification in its essential features, there is one overriding difference. Racial and ethnic groups have the potential to carve their own independent nation from the existing state. The question is whether the racial or ethnic segments of the society will be willing to participate within the existing nation-state arrangement.

Prejudice and Discrimination

Prejudice. Prejudice refers to attitudes of aversion and hostility toward the members of a group simply because they belong to it and hence are presumed to have the objectionable qualities ascribed to it. A new form of prejudice against African Americans that appears among affluent, suburban whites has been labeled symbolic racism by sociologists. Discrimination. Discrimination is action, what people actually do in their daily activities, and involves the arbitrary denial of privilege, prestige, and power to members of a minority group. Since World War II whites have shifted from more blatant forms of discrimination to more subtle forms. Institutional Discrimination. In their daily operation, the institutions of society may function in such a way that they produce unequal outcomes for different groups. This is called institutional discrimination. Gatekeeping and environmental racism are mechanisms by which institutional discrimination occurs.

Patterns of Intergroup Relations: Assimilation and Pluralism In multiethnic societies, ethnic groups may either lose their distinctiveness through a process of assimilation or retain their identity and integrity through pluralism. •

Assimilation. Assimilation refers to those processes whereby groups with distinctive identities become culturally and socially fused. Two views toward assimilation have dominated within the United States, the "melting pot" view and the Anglo-conformity view. Pluralism. In U.S. society, Jews, African Americans, Chinese Americans, and numerous other groups have retained their identities and distinctiveness for many years, an example of pluralism, a situation in which diverse groups coexist and boundaries between them are maintained. In equalitarian pluralism, ethnic group members participate freely and equally in political and economic institutions. In inequalitarian pluralism, economic and political participation of minority groups is severely limited by the dominant group and may even entail genocide.

Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States The United States is undergoing a transition from a predominately white society rooted in Western European culture to a global society composed of diverse racial and ethnic groups. By the year 2050 today's minorities will comprise a much larger proportion of the U.S. population than they do today. •

African Americans. African Americans remain disadvantaged. The expected lifetime earnings of African-American men are significantly lower than those of white men, and housing segregation remains substantial. The full integration of African Americans is unlikely in the foreseeable future, primarily because of continuing social and economic barriers and low rates of interracial marriage. Hispanics. The nation's Hispanic population is not a consolidated minority. Hispanic groups have different histories, distinct concentrations in different areas of the United States, and substantially different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Hispanics are twice as likely as blacks and whites to drop out of school and typically earn less than non-Hispanics. Native Americans. Native-American peoples vary substantially in their history, lifestyles, kin systems, language, political arrangements, religion, economy, current circumstances, and identities. They are the most severely disadvantaged of any population within the United States. Forty-one percent of those on reservations live below the

poverty level, and unemployment among males 20 to 64 years old is about 60 percent. Asian Americans. The average family income of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans in the second and subsequent generations is almost one-and-a-half times higher than that of non-Hispanic whites. But Asian Americans are a varied group, with considerable contrasts and diversity. The earnings of Laotians, Cambodians, and Vietnamese are generally low, especially among recent refugees who typically have come from rural areas and who possess few marketable skills. White Ethnics. Most white Americans, including those of northwestern European background, know and identify with their ethnic ancestry, but white ethnicity is neither deep nor stable. "Symbolic ethnicity" is an ethnicity that contributes to individual identity and perhaps to family communion, but does not create or sustain strong ethnic group ties.

Sociological Perspectives on Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity •

The Functionalist Perspective. Functionalists say that ethnic differentiation reduces consensus, increases the chances of conflict, and threatens the equilibrium of a society, but it also promotes group formation and cohesion, functions as a safety valve through scapegoating, and helps maintain a democratic order. The Conflict Perspective. Conflict theorists contend that prejudice and discrimination can best be understood in terms of tension or conflict among competing groups. At least three different conflict theories exist, and they are related to ethnocentrism, Marxism, and the split labor market. The Interactionist Perspective. Interactionists say that the world we experience is socially constructed. In this view, ethnic groups are seen as products of social interaction. Ethnicity arises when communication channels between groups are limited and the different groups develop different systems of meanings.

The Future of Ethnic and Minority Group Relations Ethnic status for Americans with African-, Hispanic-, Asian-, and NativeAmerican roots is not "symbolic," is not a matter of choice, and remains heavily ascriptive. •

Intergroup Relations. Functionalists believe that there are long-run social trends that are eliminating ascription and other irrational features from modern, industrial, socially differentiated, societies. The

conflict perspective, on the other hand, predicts that ethnic stratification will remain as long as it is in the interests of powerful dominant groups to keep it in place. Interactionists would predict that as long as segregation and isolation of minority groups persist, ethnocentrism will continue and probably worsen. Ethnicity. If ethnic stratification persists, then ethnicity will persist as well; if it diminishes significantly, perhaps ethnicity for all groups will become increasingly "symbolic."

Chapter 8

Gender Inequality

Gender Stratification Men and women differ in their access to privilege, prestige, and power. The distribution problem of who gets what, when, and how has traditionally been answered in favor of males. Sex is a biologically determined characteristic; gender is a socially constructed characteristic. All societies use anatomical differences to assign gender roles. Gender identities are the conceptions we have of ourselves as being male or female. •

Sexism and Patriarchy. Sexism operates at both an individual level and an institutional level. The most pervasive form of institutional sexism is patriarchy. Women exhibit four of the five properties associated with a minority group. Gender Inequality around the World. No nation treats its women as well as its men. Women in many countries suffer discrimination and abuse, yet women around the world do considerably better than U.S. women in some areas. Gender Inequality in the United States. U.S. women do most of the household work and childrearing. Despite increasing involvement in the paid workforce, women continue to be excluded from top jobs and to earn less than men. Sexual harassment remains a common workplace hazard for women, and somewhere between 10 and 25 percent of women have been raped. Men still dominate U.S. political life.

Sources of Gender Roles

Gender roles can be seen as arising from biological development or cultural contributions. •

Gender Roles and Biology. The biological aspects of gender consist of the physical differences between men and women, but the role biology plays in producing behavioral differences between men and women is shrouded in controversy. Gender Roles and Culture. Gender roles probably represent the earliest division of labor among humans. Various societies have specific social definitions of approprate behavior for males and females. Gender Roles and Identity. Gender identities are the concepts we have of ourselves as being male or female. Theories of the acquisition of gender identities include Freudian, cultural transmission, and cognitive-development. Differences in self-construal may explain gender differences in the United States.

Sociological Perspectives on Gender Stratification The major sociological perspectives offer interpretations of gender stratification that resemble and parallel their positions on class and racial or ethnic stratification. •

The Functionalist Perspective. Functionalists suggest that families are organized along instrumental-expressive lines, with men specializing in instrumental tasks and women in expressive tasks. The Conflict Perspective. Conflict theorists contend that a sexual division of labor is a social vehicle devised by men to ensure themselves of privilege, prestige, and power in their relationships with women. The Interactionist Perspective. Interactionists argue that gender inequality persists because of the way we define men and women and their appropriate roles in society. Language helps perpetuate inequality. The Feminist Perspective. Feminism is not a single theory but an evolving set of theoretical perspectives. Feminists argue that women are disadvantaged because society is patriarchal; the assignment of group differences is socially costly and repressive. Everyday interactions between men and women recreate and support the gender system.

Chapter 9

Political and Economic Power

Power, Authority, and the State Power determines which individuals and groups will be able to translate their preferences into the reality of day-to-day social organization. •

The State. The state rests on force and consists of people who exercise an effective monopoly in the use of physical coercion within a given territory. Sociological Perspectives on the State. Functionalists say the state performs four functions: enforcement of norms, overall social planning and direction, arbitration of conflicting interests, and protection of a society’s members and interests against outside groups. Conflict theorists say the state is a vehicle by which one or more groups impose their values and stratification system upon other groups and depict it as an instrument of violence and oppression. Legitimacy and Authority. Sociologists distinguish between power that is legitimate and power that is illegitimate. Legitimate power is authority. Sociologist Max Weber suggested that power may be legitimated by traditional, legal-rational, and/or charismatic means.

Political Power Politics refers to the processes by which people and groups acquire and exercise power. Political power is power that is organized and wielded by the state. •

Types of Government. Government can take the form of totalitarianism, authoritarianism, or democracy, which is promoted by a strong civil society. Political Power in the United States. A constitutional system of government defines and prescribes the boundaries within which political power is pursued in the United States. Central to American political processes are political parties, popular electoral participation, interest-group lobbying (including political action committees), and the mass media. Models of Power in the United States. Marxist theory holds that political processes are affected by class

interests and conflict. The elitist model depicts major decisions as being made by a power elite. The pluralist perspective says that no one group really runs the government. Economic Power Modern economic systems provide a different answer to the question of how economic activity is organized--by the market or by the plan—and to the question of who owns the means of production—individuals or the state. •

Comparative Economic Systems. Capitalist economies rely heavily on free markets and privately held property, and socialist economies rely primarily on state planning and publicly held property. Most nations are characterized by mixed economies that include elements of both. Transition from a Command to a Market Economy. Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and China are undergoing a transition from a command to a market economy, with marketization and privatization proceeding slowly and resulting in a high level of social uncertainty.

The Power of Corporations The government is an important participant in the U.S. economy, but the primary productive role is played by private business. •

The Power of National Corporations. Large corporations exercise enormous power in American life and constitute oligopolies. The decisions made by their executives have implications and ramifications that reach throughout the nation. The Power of Multinational Corporations in the Global Economy. The rise of multinational corporations and the growing internationalization of the world economy, including core regions and periphery regions, have given economic power a new dimension. Such firms rival nations in wealth and frequently operate as private governments pursuing their worldwide interests by well-developed foreign policies. The Control of Corporations. Some social scientists say that a managerial revolution has separated ownership and effective control in corporate life, but others point to the institutional constraints, such as corporate interlocks, that operate on corporate decision makers.

The Sociology of Work

Power extends into the workplace, determining whether work will be available, how work will be organized, and the manner in which work will be remunerated. •

Changes in the Work Experience. The work experience of Americans has undergone significant change over the past 160 years; the proportion working on farms has declined, while the proportion employed in service industries has risen. Work in nonindustrialized societies is very different than work in industrialized societies. The Significance of Work. People work for many reasons in addition to "self-interest," and work has many social meanings, especially those that define a person’s position in the social structure. Satisfaction and Alienation in Work. Individuals in occupations that combine high economic, occupational, and educational prestige typically show the greatest satisfaction with their work and the strongest job attachment. When individuals fail to find their work satisfying and fulfilling, they may experience alienation. Marx and Durkheim had differing conceptions of alienation.

Chapter 10

The Family

Structure of the Family: A Global View The way in which we define the family determines the kinds of family we will consider to be normal or deviant and what rights and obligations we will recognize as legally and socially binding. •

Forms of the Family. In the nuclear family arrangement, spouses and their offspring constitute the core relationship. In the extended family arrangement, kin provide the core relationship. Most Americans will belong to a family of orientation and a family of procreation. Descent and inheritance can be patrilineal, matrilineal, or bilineal, and couples may take a patrilocal, matrilocal, or neolocal residence. Most societies are patriarchal,

with some industrialized nations becoming more egalitarian; none are known that are truly matriarchal. Forms of Marriage. Marriage refers to a socially approved sexual union undertaken with some idea of permanence. Two types of marital regulations define the "right" spouse: endogamy and exogamy. Incest taboos are rules that prohibit sexual intercourse with close blood relatives. Societies further structure marriage relationships in one of four ways: monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, and group marriage. Patterns of Courtship. Societies "control" love through child and arranged marriage, social isolation of young people, close supervision of couples, and peer and parental pressures. A variety of factors operate in the selection of a mate: homogamy, physical attractiveness (the matching hypothesis), and complementary needs. Exchange theory provides a unifying link among these factors.

Marriage and the Family in the United States Some see the nuclear family as the source of many modern woes, others as the last bastion of morality in an increasingly decadent world. •

Life within Marriage. Most adult Americans hope to establish an intimate relationship with another person and make the relationship work. However, increasing numbers of Americans no longer view marriage as a permanent institution but as something that can be ended and reentered. Parenthood. Nuclear families that are not disrupted by divorce, desertion, or death typically pass through a series of changes and realignments across time, what sociologists call the family life course. Altered expectations and requirements are imposed on a husband and wife as children are born and grow up. Two-Income Families. More than 60 percent of all mothers with children under age six are in the paid workforce. Such women also do more of the housework and child care than men. Research findings about the effect of working mothers on children are varied. In one-fifth of such couples the woman is the chief breadwinner. Beyond the Traditional Nuclear Family. Americans have a variety of lifestyles, the overall pattern of living that people evolve to meet their biological, social, and emotional needs. Among the lifestyles Americans find themselves adopting are singlehood, single parenthood, cohabitation, and relationships based on homosexuality.

Challenges for American Families and American Society Some family problems stay in the family; others spill over into society.

Family Violence, Child Abuse, and Incest. Family violence, child abuse, and incest are more common than most people think. The sexual abuse of children often leads to behavior problems, learning difficulties, sexual promiscuity, runaway behavior, drug and alcohol abuse, and suicidal behavior. Child Care. Most child psychologists agree that high-quality day care and preschools provide acceptable child care arrangements. The United States is one of the few industrialized nations that have no comprehensive day care program and the quality of child care available is often poor. Divorce. Divorce exacts a considerable emotional and physical toll from all family members. Children raised by single parents are more likely to drop out of high school, to use drugs, to have teen births, to have illegitimate children, and to be poorer than children raised in twoparent homes. More than half the adults who remarry undergo a second divorce. Care for the Elderly. Social scientists call middle-aged adults the "sandwich generation" because they find themselves with responsibilities for their own teenage and college-age children and for their elderly parents. Grown children still bear the primary responsibility for their aged parents.

Sociological Perspectives on the Family

The Functionalist Perspective. Functionalists identify a number of functions families typically perform: reproduction; socialization; care, protection, and emotional support; assignment of status; and regulation of sexual behavior through the norm of legitimacy. The Conflict Perspective. Conflict theorists have seen the family as a social arrangement benefiting men more than women. Some conflict sociologists say that intimate relationships inevitably involve antagonism as well as love. The Interactionist Perspective. Symbolic interactionists emphasize that families reinforce and rejuvenate their bonds through the symbolic mechanism of rituals such as family meals and holidays.

Chapter 11

Religion, Education, and Medicine

What Is Religion? Religion has to do with those socially shared and organized ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that concern ultimate meanings and assume the existence of the supernatural or "beyond." Religion is centered in beliefs and practices that are related to sacred as opposed to profane things and often involves rituals. A Global View: Varieties of Religious Behavior. Religious behavior is so varied that sociologists attempt to categorize it. One scheme distinguishes between simple supernaturalism, animism, theism, and a system of abstract ideals. Religious Organizations. Sociologists distinguish between four ideal types of religious organization: churches, denominations, sects, and cults. Whereas churches and denominations exist in a state of accommodation with the larger society, sects and cults find themselves at odds with established social arrangements and practices. Religion and Secular Change: The Protestant Ethic. Max Weber studied several world religions to see how a religious ethic can affect people's behavior and claimed that religion could be a source of social change. Specifically, he linked the rise of capitalism to the Protestant ethic, particularly Calvinism and asceticism. Adapting Tradition: Religion in Contemporary Life. The secularization thesis states that profane considerations gain ascendancy over sacred considerations in the course of social evolution, but little evidence supports the notion that secularization is occurring in the United States. Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism. Fundamentalist and evangelical groups are on the rise in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Fundamentalism opposes modernity and reaffirms traditional authority, accepting the Bible as the literal word of God. Evangelicals profess a personal relationship with Jesus Christ. State-Church Issues. The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution has provided the foundation for the principle of the separation of church and state. The basic tenet of civil religion is that the United States is a nation under God with a divine mission. The Functionalist Perspective. Functionalist theorists look to the contributions religion makes to societal survival and are interested in totemism. According to Émile Durkheim, religion is the symbolization of society. The Conflict Perspective. Some conflict theorists depict religion as a weapon in the service of ruling elites who use it to hold in check the explosive tensions produced by social inequality and injustice. Other conflict theorists see religion as an active force shaping the contours of social life.

Education Social scientists view learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior or capability that results from experience. Education is one aspect of the many-sided process of socialization by which people acquire behaviors essential for effective participation in society. •

The Bureaucratic Structure of Schools. As schools grew larger they had to standardize and routinize many of their operations and establish formal operating and administrative procedures. The Effectiveness of Schools. Successful schools foster expectations that order will prevail and that learning is a serious matter. Cross-cultural research suggests that teachers in some other countries spend more time developing concepts rather than simply stating them. Alternatives to Traditional Public Schools. Parents are increasingly choosing to educate their children in ways other than in traditional public schools. Alternatives include charter schools, religious schools, nonreligious private schools, and home schooling. The Availability of Higher Education. College and university student populations are highly skewed in terms of race, ethnicity, and family income. Only 20 percent of the nation's undergraduates are young people between 18 and 22 years of age who are pursuing a parent-financed education. The Functionalist Perspective. Viewed from the functionalist perspective, a specialized educational agency is needed to transmit the ways of thinking, feeling, and acting mandated by a rapidly changing urban and technologically based society. The Conflict Perspective. Conflict theorists see schools as agencies that reproduce and legitimate the current social order, citing credentialism as one factor and the correspondence principle as another. By reproducing and legitimating the existing social order, the educational institution benefits some individuals and groups at the expense of others. The Interactionist Perspective. Symbolic interactionists see classrooms as "little worlds" teeming with behavior. They see U.S. schools primarily benefiting advantaged youngsters and alienating disadvantaged youngsters through the hidden curriculum and educational self—fulfilling prophecies.

Medicine The functions now carried out by the institution of medicine were once embedded in the activities of the family and religious institutions.

The U.S. Health Care Delivery System. In recent decades the medical care industry has grown appreciably larger, consuming about 15 percent of the nation's gross domestic product. Hospitals, physicians, and nurses comprise central roles in the health care delivery system. Rising Health Care Costs: Is Managed Care the Answer? Soaring health care costs have led to new arrangements for financing it. Managed care arrangements are part of many traditional insurance plans. They also form the basis for health maintenance and preferred provider organizations. Alternatives to the U.S. Health Care System: A Global Perspective. Health care is managed differently in different countries. In China health care is provided at essentially no charge for most citizens. In Great Britain 90 percent of the funding for its National Health Service comes from general taxation. In Kenya a national health service employs physicians and owns hospitals, but health care is also available from other sources. Canada's system provides medically necessary physician and hospital services to all citizens. The Functionalist Perspective. Functionalists note that health is essential to the preservation of the human species and organized social life. One way societies contain the negative effects of health problems and disease is through institutionalizing illness in a sick role. The Conflict Perspective. Conflict theorists note that some people achieve better health than others because they have access to those resources that contribute to good health and recovery should they become ill. The Interactionist Perspective. Interactionist theorists view sickness as a condition to which we attach socially devised meanings. For example, an increasing number of behaviors that earlier generations defined as immoral or sinful are coming to be seen as forms of sickness-the medicalization of deviance.

Chapter 12

Population and the Environment
Human populations must achieve a working relationship with their environment. Sociologists have applied theories of ecology to the study of

human communities, including use of the concept of ecosystem, with populations as their unit of study. Population Demography is the science dealing with the size, distribution, composition, and changes in population. •

Elements in Population Change. All population change within a society can be reduced to three factors: the birth rate, the death rate, and the migration rate into or out of the society. Demographers look at crude birth rate, general fertility rate, age-specific fertility, fecundity, zero population growth, crude death rate, age-specific death rates, and infant mortality rate. Migration affects population, and demographers measure the net migration rate. Movement may take the form of international migration or internal migration. Births, deaths, and migration affect the growth rate. Population Composition. Sociologists are also interested in the composition of a population, particularly in the sex ratio and age composition. A population pyramid is a useful tool for analyzing population change and discerning population trends. Malthus and Marx: Two Views of Population Growth. Thomas Malthus held that population increases more quickly than food supply. Karl Marx insisted that an excess of population is related to the availability of employment opportunities, not to a fixed supply of food. Neo-Malthusians are those who agree with many of Malthus’s ideas but who favor contraception for population control. Demographic Transition. Demographic transition theory holds that the process of modernization is associated with three stages in population change: high potential growth, transitional growth, and population stability. Population Policies. Fertility reduction policies are based on family planning, a developmentalist strategy, or a societalist perspective. The Effects of Crowding. Population buildup has bad effects on deer, rats, and a variety of other organisms; the impact of crowding on human behavior is more complex and does not invariably result in pathology. Social scientists distinguish between density and crowding.

The Urban Environment The city is one of the most striking features of our modern era, basic to many of the characteristics of modern society.

The Origin and Evolution of Cities. Preindustrial cities were primarily small affairs. Urbanization has proceeded rapidly during the past 180 years, resulting in industrialurban centers, metropolitan cities, megalopolises, and global cities. Patterns of City Growth. Sociologists provide a number of models of city growth: the concentric circle model, the sector model, and the multiple nuclei model. Ecological Processes: Segregation and Gentrification. The structural patterning of cities derives from a number of underlying ecological processes. One process by which natural areas are formed is segregation. Invasion and succession are also critical ecological processes. Urban gentrification is the return of middle-class professionals to older urban neighborhoods. Urban Crisis: Cities in Decline. Urban decline in many American cities has been both descriptive and functional. Sprawling Urban Growth: The Rise of "Edge" Cities. "Outer cities,""minicities," or "edge cities" have been made possible by beltways and expressways, and the development of a service-based economy in which telecommunications allow service-sector firms to locate anywhere.

The Ecological Environment Humans have transformed one-third to one-half of the earth’s land surface and use more than half of all the world’s accessible surface fresh water; some 25 percent of the world’s bird species have been driven to extinction, and forested areas have decreased by a third since the rise of agriculture. •

Human-Environment Interactions: A Closer Look. Sociologists are interested in the relationships between population size, politics and economics, environment, and technology. While humans can overexploit natural resources, they can also protect and restore them. The Functionalist Perspective. Functionalist theorists see the ecosystem as exhibiting a tendency toward equilibrium in which its components maintain a delicately balanced relationship. The Conflict Perspective. Some conflict theorists say that the basic issue is not one of how much is available but which individuals and groups will secure a disproportionate share of what is available. The Interactionist Perspective. Symbolic interactionists focus on "people behaviors" related to

environmental issues. Interests include the gap between people’s attitudes and actions and the difference between public and expert perceptions of risk. Entering the New Millennium. In 1997, Jane Lubchenko, the president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, called upon scientists to look at the environment as the most important issue of the future. Economist Julian Simon, in contrast, felt that the free market will result in life improving indefinitely. Others see that we have made progress in solving some environmental problems and could continue to do so. Historical analysis shows that the earth’s human inhabitants have changed their view of nature as a usable resource to nature as a lifesustaining global ecosystem.

Chapter 13

Social Change
A World of Change Sociologists refer to fundamental alterations in the patterns of culture, structure, and social behavior over time as social change. It is a process by which society becomes something different while remaining in some respects the same. •

Sources of Social Change. Many factors interact to generate changes in people's behavior and in the culture and structure of their society, including the physical environment, population, clashes over resources and values, supporting values and norms, innovation (discoveries and inventions), diffusion, and the mass media. Perspectives on Social Change. Evolutionary theorists, particularly those with a unilinear focus, depict history as divided into sequential stages characterized by an underlying trend. Cyclical theorists look to the course of a civilization or society, searching for generalizations regarding their stages of growth and decline. Functionalist theorists see society as a system that tends toward equilibrium, with cultural lag an important factor in social change. Conflict theorists hold that tensions between competing groups are the basic source of social change. Social Change in the United States. Computers have consequences for the use and manipulation of social power. They alter the manner in which people relate to one another,

and they have implications for individual privacy, the confidentiality of communications and personal data, and employment. Social Change in Developing Nations. The modernization approach sees development as entailing a pattern of convergence as societies become increasingly urban, industry comes to overshadow agriculture, and other changes occur. According to world system and dependency analysis, an unequal exchange takes place between core and periphery nations, with development in core nations occurring at the cost of underdevelopment in periphery nations.

Collective Behavior Collective behavior is not organized in terms of established norms and institutionalized lines of action. •

Varieties of Collective Behavior. Collective behavior comes in many forms, including rumors, fashions and fads (which can turn into crazes), mass hysteria, panic, and crowds. Types of crowds include the acting crowd, the casual crowd, the conventional crowd, and the expressive crowd. These crowd types share three characteristics: suggestibility, deindividualization, and invulnerability. Preconditions for Collective Behavior. One framework for examining collective behavior is based on the value-added model popular among economists and specifies six determinants of collective behavior. Explanations of Crowd Behavior. Sociologists offer three approaches to crowd behavior: contagion theory, convergence theory, and emergent-norm theory. Social Movements Social movements are vehicles whereby people collectively seek to influence the course of human events through formal organizations.

Causes of Social Movements. Some sociologists seek the roots of social movements in social and economic deprivation; others look to the resources and organizations aggrieved persons can muster as providing the key to an understanding of social movements. Types of Social Movements. An ideology is critical to a social movement. Common forms of social movements include revolutionary, reform, resistance, and expressive movements. Social Revolution. Social revolutions are most likely to occur when: (1) a good deal of political power is concentrated in the state,

(2) the military is no longer a reliable tool for suppressing domestic disorders, (3) political crises weaken the existing regime, and (4) a substantial segment of the population mobilizes in uprisings. Terrorism. Although what constitutes terrorism is a matter of social definition, sociologists have come to see terrorism as a new mode of warfare with far-reaching implications.

Glossary achieved status acting crowd A status that individuals secure on the basis of choice and competition. An excited, volatile collection of people who are engaged in rioting, looting, or other forms of aggressive behavior in which established norms carry little weight. Rules that define what is appropriate for people to be and to do at various ages. The number of deaths per 1,000 individuals in a specific age group. The number of live births per 1,000 women in a specific age group. A collection of anonymous individuals who are in one place at the same time. A pervasive sense of powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and self-estrangement. A belief in spirits or otherworldly beings. A social condition in which people find it difficult to guide their behavior by norms they experience as weak, unclear, or conflicting. The process in which people think about, experiment with, and try on the behaviors associated with a new role. The use of existing records that have been produced or maintained by persons or organizations other than the researcher. A way of life characterized by hard work, sobriety, thrift, restraint, and the avoidance of earthly pleasures. A status assigned to an individual by a group or society. Those processes whereby groups with distinctive identities become culturally and socially fused. A political system in which the government

age norms age-specific death rate age-specific fertility aggregate alienation

animism anomie

anticipatory socialization

archival research


ascribed status assimilation


tolerates little or no opposition to its rules but permits nongovernmental centers of influence and allows debate on issues of public policy. authority bilineal Legitimate power. An arrangement based on reckoning descent and transmitting property through both the father and the mother. Physical motions and gestures that provide social signals. A social structure made up of a hierarchy of statuses and roles that is prescribed by explicit rules and procedures and based on a division of function and authority. An economic system relying primarily on free markets and privately held property. A collection of people who have little in common with one another except that they may be viewing a common event, such as looking through a department store window. A collection of people who share a characteristic that is deemed to be of social significance. Power that is legitimated by the extraordinary superhuman or supernatural attributes people attribute to a leader. A religious organization that considers itself uniquely legitimate and enjoys a positive relationship with the dominant society. A relatively dense and permanent concentration of people who secure their livelihood chiefly through nonagricultural activities. Elements of nationalism and patriotism that take on the properties of a religion. A social realm of mediating groups, networks, and institutions that sustains public life outside the worlds of the state and the economy. The view of Karl Marx that society is divided

body language bureaucracy

capitalist economy casual crowd


charismatic authority



civil religion civil society

class conflict

into those who own the means of producing wealth and those who do not, giving rise to struggles between classes. closed system coercive organization collective behavior A stratification system in which people have great difficulty changing their status. A formal organization that people become members of against their will. Ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that develop among a large number of people and that are relatively spontaneous and unstructured. The process by which people transmit information, ideas, attitudes, and mental states to one another. Two different personality traits that are the counterparts of each other and that provide a sense of completeness when they are joined. The approach to city growth stating that the modern city assumes a pattern of concentric circles, each with distinctive characteristics. A form of learning in which the consequences of behavior determine the probability of its future occurrence. Our experience of the world. Meaning is not something that inheres in things; it is a property that derives from, or arises out of, the interaction that takes place among people in the course of their daily lives. An approach to crowd behavior that emphasizes the part played in crowd settings by rapidly communicated and uncritically accepted feelings, attitudes, and actions. The group that affords a neutral standard against which the changes in an experimental group can be measured. A number of people who have assembled for some specific purpose and who typically act in accordance with established norms, such as people attending a baseball game or concert.


complementary needs

concentric circle model


constructed reality

contagion theory

control group

conventional crowd

convergence theory

An approach to crowd behavior stating that a crowd consists of a highly unrepresentative body of people who assemble because they share the same predispositions. Geographical areas that dominate the world economy and exploit the rest of the system. Networks of individuals who serve on the boards of directors of multiple corporations. A change in one variable associated with a change in another variable. The notion set forth by Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis that the social relations of work find expression in the social relations of the school. A fad that becomes an all-consuming passion. The requirement that a worker have a degree that does not provide skills needed for the performance of a job. An act prohibited by law. The reactive agencies of the state that include the police, courts, and prisons. A temporary, relatively unorganized gathering of people who are in close physical proximity. The perception by people that too many other individuals are present in a situation. The number of live births per 1,000 members of a population in a given year. The number of deaths per 1,000 members of a population in a given year. A religious movement that represents a new and independent religious tradition. The view that immaterial culture must constantly "catch up" with material culture, resulting in an adjustment gap between the two forms of culture. A value-free or neutral approach that views the behavior of a people from the perspective

core regions corporate interlocks correlation correspondence principle

craze credentialism

crime criminal justice system crowd crowding crude birth rate crude death rate cult cultural lag

cultural relativism

of their own culture. cultural universals culture Patterned and recurrent aspects of life that appear in all known societies. The social heritage of a people; those learned patterns for thinking, feeling, and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next, including the embodiment of these patterns in material items. The view that the poor possess selfperpetuating lifeways characterized by weak ego structures, lack of impulse control, a present-time orientation, and a sense of resignation and fatalism.

culture of poverty

definition of the situation A concept formulated by William I. Thomas which refers to the interpretation or meaning people give to their immediate circumstances. deindividualization democracy A psychological state of diminished identity and self-awareness. A political system in which the powers of government derive from the consent of the governed and in which regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials. A view of population change that holds that the process of modernization passes through three stages: high potential growth, transitional growth, and population stability. The science dealing with the size, distribution, composition, and changes in population. A religious organization that accepts the legitimacy of other religious groups and enjoys a positive relationship with the dominant society. The physical compactness of people in space. The variable that is affected in an experimental setting. Behavior that a considerable number of people in a society view as reprehensible and beyond

demographic transition theory

demography denomination

density dependent variable deviance

dialectical materialism

the limits of tolerance. The notion in Marxist theory that development depends on the clash of contradictions and the creation of new, more advanced structures out of these clashes. The notion that the earlier, the more frequent, the more intense, and the longer the duration of the contacts people have in deviant settings, the greater the probability that they too will become deviant. The process by which culture traits spread from one social unit to another. An addition to knowledge. The arbitrary denial of privilege, prestige, and power to members of a minority group whose qualifications are equal to those of members of the dominant group. A condition in which an organism does not function properly because of biological causes. The sociological perspective associated with Erving Goffman that views the performances staged in a theater as an analytical analogy and tool for depicting social life. An economy characterized by two sectors. The primary, or core, sector offers "good jobs," and the secondary, or periphery, sector offers "bad jobs." The actions that others can legitimately insist that we perform. A two-member group. Observed consequences that lessen the adaptation or adjustment of a system. The study of the interrelations between the living and nonliving components of an ecosystem. A believer in the doctrine that economic factors are the primary determinants of the structure of societies and social change.

differential association

diffusion discovery discrimination

disease dramaturgical approach

dual labor market

duties dyad dysfunctions ecology

economic determinist


A relatively stable community of organisms that have established interlocking relationships and exchanges with one another and their natural habitat. The transmission of particular attitudes, knowledge, and skills to the members of a society through formal, systematic training. The fact that many children fail to learn, especially inner-city and minority youngsters, because those who are charged with teaching them do not believe that they will learn, do not expect that they can learn, and do not act toward them in ways that help them to learn. An arrangement in which power and authority are equally distributed between husband and wife. The tendency to place ourselves at the center of events so that we overperceive ourselves as the victim or target of an action or event that in reality is not directed at us. An approach to crowd behavior stating that crowd members evolve new standards for behavior in a crowd setting and then enforce the expectations in the manner of norms. The requirement that marriage occur within a group. All the surrounding conditions and influences that affect an organism or group of organisms. The practice of deliberately locating incinerators and other types of hazardous waste facilities in or next to minority communities. The perspective and values engendered by a religious way of thinking. Groups identified chiefly on cultural groundslanguage, religion, folk practices, dress, gestures, mannerisms. The tendency to judge the behavior of other


educational self-fulfilling prophecies (also called teacher-expectation effects)

egalitarian authority

egocentric bias

emergent-norm theory

endogamy environment environmental racism

ethic ethnic groups


groups by the standards of one's own culture. ethnomethodology Procedures-the rules and activities-that people employ in making social life and society intelligible to themselves and others. The painless putting to death of an individual who suffers from an incurable and painful disease. The view proposing that people involved in a mutually satisfying relationship will exchange behaviors that have low cost and high reward. The requirement that marriage occur outside a group. A technique in which researchers work with two groups that are identical in all relevant respects. They introduce a change in one group, but not in the other group. The procedure permits researchers to test the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable. The group in which researchers introduce a change in an experimental setting. An aggregation of people who have gotten together for self-stimulation and personal gratification, such as occurs at a religious revival or a rock festival. A movement that is less concerned with institutional change than with a renovating or renewing of people from within. Social links formed when we emotionally invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to other people. A family arrangement in which kin-individuals related by common ancestry-provide the core relationship; spouses are functionally marginal and peripheral. A folkway that lasts for a short time and enjoys acceptance among only a segment of the population.


exchange theory

exogamy experiment

experimental group expressive crowd

expressive movement

expressive ties

extended family



Traditionally defined as a social group whose members are related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption and who live together, cooperate economically, and care for the young. Changes and realignments related to the altered expectations and requirements imposed on a husband and a wife as children are born and grow up. A nuclear family that consists of oneself and one's father, mother, and siblings. A nuclear family that consists of oneself and one's spouse and children. A folkway that lasts for a short time and enjoys widespread acceptance within society. The potential number of children that could be born if every woman of childbearing age bore all the children she possibly could. Norms people do not deem to be of great importance and to which they exact less stringent conformity. Power whose basis is the threat or application of punishment. A group formed deliberately for the achievement of specific objectives. Observed consequences that permit the adaptation or adjustment of a system. Individuals specializing in the study of the future; they seek to understand, predict, and plan the future of society. The decision-making process whereby people are admitted to offices and positions of privilege, prestige, and power within a society. The sociocultural distinction between males and females. The conceptions we have of ourselves as being male or female. Sets of cultural expectations that define the ways in which the members of each sex should

family life course

family of orientation family of procreation fashion fecundity


force formal organization functions futurists


gender gender identities gender roles

behave. general fertility rate generalized other The annual number of live births per 1,000 women age 15 to 44. The term George Herbert Mead applied to the social unit that gives individuals their unity of self. The attitude of the generalized other is the attitude of the larger community. The deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial or ethnic group. Those political processes that have to do with the authoritative formulating of rules and policies that are binding and pervasive throughout a society. Two or more people who share a feeling of unity and who are bound together in relatively stable patterns of social interaction. The marriage of two or more husbands and two or more wives. A decision-making process found in highly cohesive groups in which the members become so preoccupied with maintaining group consensus that their critical faculties are impaired. The difference between births and deaths, plus the difference between immigrants and emigrants per 1,000 population. As defined by the World Health Organization, "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Individuals whose reproductive structures are sufficiently ambiguous that it is difficult to define them exclusively as male or female. A complex of unarticulated values, attitudes, and behaviors that subtly fit children in the image of the dominant institutions. The tendency of like to marry like. A preference for an individual of the same sex

genocide government


group marriage groupthink

growth rate



hidden curriculum

homogamy homosexuality

horizontal mobility hospice

as a sexual partner. Movement from one social status to another that is approximately equivalent in rank. A program or mode of care that attempts to make the dying experience less painful and emotionally traumatic for patients and their families. A proposition that can be tested to determine its validity. A set of ideas that provides individuals with conceptions of the purposes of a social movement, a rationale for the movement's existence, an indictment of existing conditions, and a design for action. The term Erving Goffman applied to the process whereby we present ourselves to others in ways that will lead them to view us in a favorable light. Rules that prohibit sexual intercourse with close blood relatives. The amount of money people receive. The variable that causes an effect in an experimental setting. Crimes reported by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in its Uniform Crime Reports. These offenses consist of four categories of violent crime against people-murder, rape, robbery, and assault-and four categories of crime against property-burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. The number of deaths among infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births. Interpersonal networks and ties that arise in a formal organization but that are not defined or prescribed by it. A group with which we identify and to which we belong. The functioning of the institutions of society in

hypothesis ideology

impression management

incest taboos income independent variable index crimes

infant mortality rate informal organization

in-group institutional

discrimination institutions

a way that produces unequal outcomes for different groups. The principal instruments whereby the essential tasks of living are organized, directed, and executed. Social links formed when we cooperate with other people to achieve some goal. Organizations of people who share common concerns or points of view. People who share common concerns or points of view. A comparison of the social status of parents and their children at some point in their respective careers. The process by which individuals incorporate within their personalities the standards of behavior prevalent within the larger society. Population movement within a nation. Population movement between nations. A comparison of the social status of a person over an extended period of time. A new type of people, institution, or activity that encroaches on an area occupied by a different type. The use of existing knowledge in a new form. The principle that states that bureaucracies invariably lead to the concentration of power in the hands of a few individuals who use their offices to advance their own fortunes and selfinterests. A socially structured system of sound patterns (words and sentences) with specific and arbitrary meanings. The view associated with Noam Chomsky that human beings possess an inborn languagegenerating mechanism. The basic structure of language is seen as biologically channeled, forming a sort of prefabricated filing system to

instrumental ties interest groups interests intergenerational mobility internalization

internal migration international migration intragenerational mobility invasion

invention iron law of oligarchy


language acquisition device

order the words and phrases that make up human languages. latent functions laws Consequences that are neither intended nor recognized by the participants in a system. Rules that are enforced by a special political organization composed of individuals who enjoy the right to use force. A relatively permanent change in behavior or capability that results from experience. Power that is legitimated by explicit rules and rational procedures that define the rights and duties of the occupants of given positions. The likelihood that individuals and groups will enjoy desired goods and services, fulfilling experiences, and opportunities for living healthy and long lives. The interweave of age-graded trajectories with the vicissitudes of changing social conditions and future options that characterize the life span from conception through old age and death. Turning points at which people change some direction in the course of their lives. The overall pattern of living that people evolve to meet their biological, social, and emotional needs. The term that Charles Horton Cooley applied to the process by which we imaginatively assume the stance of other people and view ourselves as we believe they see us. The study of large-scale and long-term social processes. The notion that there is in nature a diffuse, impersonal, supernatural force operating for good or evil. Consequences that are intended and recognized by the participants in a system. A socially approved sexual union between two

learning legal-rational authority

life chances

life course

life events lifestyle

looking-glass self

macrosociology mana

manifest functions marriage

or more individuals which is undertaken with some idea of permanence. mass hysteria The rapid dissemination of behaviors involving contagious anxiety, usually associated with some mysterious force. Those organizations-newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and motion pictures-that undertake to convey information to a large segment of the public. A key or core status that carries primary weight in a person's interactions and relationships with others. The notion that we typically experience the greatest payoff and the least cost when we select partners who have a degree of physical attractiveness similar to our own. A family arrangement in which power is vested in women. An arrangement based on reckoning descent and inheritance through the mother's side of the family. The residence pattern in which a bride and groom live in the household or community of the wife's family. An increasing number of behaviors that earlier generations defined as being immoral or sinful are coming to be seen as forms of sickness. An institution providing an enduring set of cultural patterns and social arrangements responsible for problems of health and disease. A strip city formed when the rural interstices between metropolitan centers fill with urban development. The detailed study of what individuals say, do, and think moment by moment as they go about their daily lives. A racially or culturally self-conscious

mass media

master status

matching hypothesis

matriarchal authority matrilineal

matrilocal residence

medicalization of deviance medicine



minority group

population, with hereditary membership and a high degree of in-group marriage, which suffers oppression at the hands of a dominant segment of a nation-state. modernization The process by which a society moves from traditional or preindustrial social and economic arrangements to those characteristic of industrial societies. The marriage of one husband and one wife. The belief in one god. Norms to which people attach a good deal of importance and exact strict conformity. A procedure in which rituals employed by coercive organizations render individuals vulnerable to institutional control, discipline, and resocialization. Firms that have their central office in one country and subsidiaries in other countries. The approach to city growth that assumes a city has several centers, each of which specializes in some activity and gives its distinctive cast to the surrounding area. Geographic areas with distinctive characteristics. The view that social revolutions pass through a set of common stages and patterns in the course of their development. The fluid, ongoing understanding and agreements people reach as they go about their daily activities. The residence pattern in which newlyweds set up a new place of residence independent of either of their parents or other relatives. The increase or decrease per 1,000 members of the population in a given year that results from people entering (immigrants) or leaving (emigrants) a society. The rule that children not be born out of

monogamy monotheism mores mortification

multinational corporations multiple nuclei model

natural areas natural history of revolutions negotiated order

neolocal residence

net migration rate

norm of legitimacy

wedlock. norms nuclear family Social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate behavior in given situations. A family arrangement in which the spouses and their offspring constitute the core relationship; blood relatives are functionally marginal and peripheral. An approach to the identification of social classes that employs such yardsticks as income, occupation, and education. Learning that occurs when people reproduce the responses they observe in other people, either real or fictional; also referred to as modeling or imitation. A market dominated by a few firms. A stratification system in which people can change their status with relative ease. A definition developed by taking abstract concepts and putting them in a form that permits their measurement. Large-scale bureaucratic organizations that provide illegal goods and services in public demand. A group with which we do not identify and to which we do not belong. Irrational and uncoordinated but collective action among people that is induced by the presence of an immediate, severe threat. Nonverbal cues surrounding speech-voice, pitch, volume, pacing of speech, silent pauses, and sighs-that provide a rich source of communicative information. The principle that states that work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion. A technique in which researchers engage in activities with the people that they are observing.

objective method

observational learning

oligopoly open system operational definition

organized crime

out-group panic


Parkinson's law participant observation

patriarchal authority patriarchy patrilineal

A family arrangement in which power is vested in men. A system of social organization in which men have a disproportionate share of power. An arrangement based on reckoning descent and inheritance through the father's side of the family. The residence pattern in which a bride and groom live in the household or community of the husband's family. Geographical areas that provide raw materials to the core and are exploited by it. The belief that one can overcome obstacles and achieve goals.

patrilocal residence

periphery regions personal efficacy pluralism

A situation where diverse groups coexist side by side and mutually accommodate themselves to their differences. political action committees Interest groups set up to elect or defeat (PACs) candidates, but not through the organization of a political party. political party An organization designed to gain control of the government by putting its people in public office. Power that is organized and wielded by the state. The processes by which people and groups acquire and exercise power. The marriage of two or more husbands and one wife. The marriage of one husband and two or more wives. The belief in many gods with equal or relatively similar power. The age and sex composition of a population as portrayed in the tree of ages. The ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will.

political power politics polyandry polygyny polytheism population pyramid power


Attitudes of aversion and hostility toward the members of a group simply because they belong to it and hence are presumed to have the objectionable qualities ascribed to it. The social respect, admiration, and recognition associated with a particular social status. Behavior that violates social norms but usually goes unnoticed by the agents of social control. Two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another. Those aspects of social reality that are everyday and commonplace. The Calvinist ethos that embodied the spirit of capitalism. The way we employ social and personal space to transmit messages. Initiation ceremonies that symbolize the transition from childhood to adulthood. Interest groups that pursue policies that presumably would be of no greater benefit to their members than to the larger society. A population that differs from other populations in the incidence of various hereditary traits. The belief that some racial groups are naturally superior and others are inferior. A sampling procedure in which researchers select subjects on the basis of chance so that every individual in the population has the same opportunity to be chosen. Relapse into criminal behavior. A social unit we use for appraising and shaping our attitudes, feelings, and actions. Appraisals of ourselves that we see reflected in the behavior of others. Actions through which people observe,

prestige primary deviance primary group

profane Protestant ethic proxemics puberty rites public-interest groups


racism random sample

recidivism reference group reflected appraisals reflexive behavior

interpret, evaluate, communicate with, and attempt to control themselves. reform movement A social movement that pursues changes that will implement the existing value scheme of a society more adequately. An association that lasts long enough for two people to become linked together by a relatively stable set of expectations. Discontent associated with the gap between what we have and what we believe we should have. Those socially shared and organized ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that concern ultimate meanings and assume the existence of the supernatural or "beyond" and that are centered in beliefs and practices related to sacred things. An approach to identifying social classes that involves asking people how they classify others. A social movement that arises to block change or eliminate a previously instituted change. A process by which a person's old roles and identities are stripped away and new ones are created. A social movement that advocates the replacement of a society's existing value scheme. Actions that we can legitimately insist that others perform. Social acts prescribed by rules that dictate how human beings should comport themselves in the presence of the sacred. A set of expectations (rights and duties) that define the behavior people view as appropriate and inappropriate for the occupant of a status. The situation in which individuals are confronted with conflicting expectations


relative deprivation


reputational method

resistance movement resocialization

revolutionary movement

rights rituals


role conflict

stemming from their simultaneous occupancy of two or more statuses. role performance role set role strain The actual behavior of the person who occupies a status. The multiple roles associated with a single status. The situation in which individuals find the expectations of a single role incompatible, so that they have difficulty performing the role. The strong physical and emotional attraction between a man and a woman. A difficult-to-verify piece of information that is transmitted from person to person in relatively rapid fashion. Those aspects of social reality that are set apart and forbidden. Deviance that individuals adopt in response to the reactions of other individuals. Two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. A religious organization that stands apart from the dominant society but is rooted in established religious traditions. The approach to city growth that assumes that large cities are made up of sectors-wedgeshaped areas-rather than concentric circles. The notion that profane (nonreligious) considerations gain ascendancy over sacred (religious) considerations in the course of social evolution. A process of clustering wherein individuals and groups are sifted and sorted out in space based on their sharing certain traits or activities in common. The set of concepts we use in defining who we are.

romantic love rumor

sacred secondary deviance secondary group


sector model

secularization thesis



self-conception self-esteem self-image

An overriding view of ourselves; a sense of self through time. The belief that one is a good and valuable person. A mental conception or picture we have of ourselves that is relatively temporary; it changes as we move from one context to another. An approach to identifying social classes that involves self-classification. A reference to whether one is genetically male or female; determines the biological role that one will play in reproduction. The set of cultural and social processes that justify and promote disadvantage for women. A set of cultural expectations that define what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior for people with a disease or health problem. The term George Herbert Mead applied to a social model, usually an important person in an individual's life. Fundamental alterations in the patterns of culture, structure, and social behavior over time. A cultural timetable based on age norms and used by individuals to pace the major events of their lives. Comparing one's performance, ability, or characteristics with those of others and rating oneself as positive, neutral, or negative. Methods and strategies that regulate behavior within society. The application of evolutionary notions and the concept of survival of the fittest to the social world. The process by which a society becomes increasingly specialized over time.

self-placement method sex

sexism sick role

significant other

social change

social clock

social comparisons

social control Social Darwinism

social differentiation

social dilemma

A situation in which members of a group are faced with a conflict between maximizing their personal interests and maximizing the collective welfare. Those aspects of social life that pattern institutional development and have to do with social change. A leadership role that focuses on overcoming interpersonal problems in a group, defusing tension, and promoting solidarity. Those aspects of social life that cannot be explained in terms of the biological or mental characteristics of the individual. People experience the social fact as external to themselves in the sense that it has an independent reality and forms a part of their objective environment. An economic system relying primarily on state planning and publicly held property. A process of social interaction by which people acquire the knowledge, attitudes, values, and behaviors essential for effective participation in society. The process in which individuals work less hard when working in groups than they do when working individually. The process in which individuals or groups move from one level (stratum) to another in the stratification system. A more-or-less persistent and organized effort on the part of a relatively large number of people to bring about or resist change. The overthrow of a society's state and class structures and the fashioning of new social arrangements. Those aspects of social life that have to do with order and stability and that allow societies to hold together and endure. The structured ranking of individuals and

social dynamics

social-emotional specialist social facts

socialist economy socialization

social loafing

social mobility

social movement

social revolution

social statics

social stratification

groups; their grading into hierarchical layers or strata. social structure The interweaving of people's interactions and relationships in more or less recurrent and stable patterns. A group of people who live within the same territory and share a common culture. A sequence of stages that begins with birth into a family with a specific social status and proceeds through childhood, socialization, schooling, job seeking, occupational achievement, marriage, and the formation and functioning of a new family unit. The ability to see our private experiences and personal difficulties as entwined with the structural arrangements of our society and the historical times in which we live. The scientific study of social interaction and social organization. Interest groups that primarily seek benefits from which their members would derive more gains than the society as a whole. An economic arena in which large differences exist in the price of labor at the same occupational level. The apparent relationship between two variables produced by a third variable that influences the original variables. An arrangement that consists of people who exercise an effective monopoly in the use of physical coercion within a given territory. A position within a group or society; a location in a social structure. A sampling procedure in which researchers divide a population into relevant categories and draw a random sample from each of the categories.

society socioeconomic life cycle

sociological imagination

sociology special-interest groups

split labor market

spurious correlation


status stratified random sample

structural conduciveness structural strain style of life subculture

Social conditions that permit a particular variety of collective behavior to occur. A condition in which important aspects of a social system are "out of joint." The magnitude and manner of people's consumption of goods and services. A group whose members participate in the main culture of a society while simultaneously sharing a number of unique values, norms, traditions, and lifestyles. Invasion that continues until the encroaching type of people, institution, or activity displaces the previous type. A method for gathering data on people's beliefs, values, attitudes, perceptions, motivations, and feelings. The data can be derived from interviews or questionnaires. A form of racism in which whites feel that blacks are too aggressive, do not play by the rules, and have negative characteristics. Acts or objects that have come to be socially accepted as standing for something else. A leadership role that focuses on appraising the problem at hand and organizing people's activity to deal with it. The use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, a formal organization, or a civilian population in furtherance of political, religious, or social objectives. A religion centered in a belief in gods who are thought to be powerful, to have an interest in human affairs, and to merit worship. The notion that our definitions influence our construction of reality; as stated by William I. Thomas and Dorothy S. Thomas: "If [people] define situations as real, they are real in their consequences." A "total state" in which the government



symbolic racism

symbols task specialist



Thomas theorem


undertakes to control all parts of the society and all aspects of social life. totemism A religious system in which a clan (a kin group) takes the name of, claims descent from, and attributes sacred properties to a plant or animal. Power that is legitimated by the sanctity of age-old customs. The term Thorstein Veblen applied to the tendency within bureaucracies for members to rely on established rules and regulations and to apply them in an unimaginative and mechanical fashion. A three-member group. A technique in which researchers observe the activities of people without intruding or participating in the activities. The return of the middle class-usually young, white, childless professionals-to older urban neighborhoods. A formal organization set up to achieve practical ends. The idea that each step in the production process-from raw materials to the finished product-increases the economic value of manufactured goods. The view of Max Weber that sociologists must not allow their personal biases to affect the conduct of their scientific research. Broad ideas regarding what is desirable, correct, and good that most members of a society share. A concept that can take on different values; the term scientists apply to something they think influences (or is influenced by) something else. An approach to the study of social life developed by Max Weber in which sociologists

traditional authority trained incapacity

triad unobtrusive observation

urban gentrification

utilitarian organization value-added

value-free sociology




mentally attempt to place themselves in the shoes of other people and identify what they think and how they feel; translates roughly as "understanding." vertical mobility victimless crime voluntary organization wealth white-collar crime Movement of individuals from one social status to another of higher or lower rank. An offense in which no one involved is considered a victim. A formal organization that people enter and leave freely. What people own. Crime committed by relatively affluent persons, often in the course of business activities. An approach that views development as involving an unequal exchange between core and periphery nations, with development at the former end of the chain coming at the cost of underdevelopment at the other end. The point at which a modern population replaces itself without immigration- 2.1 children per woman.

world system

zero population growth

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