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The Social Network influence on Labour Market

By maria-eresmortal Jun 09, 2014 2968 Words
1. INTRODUCTION:
Social networks have existed since time immemorial; although the term did not exist as such, humans have always lived in groups and communities, united by geographical area, business relationship or affective interactions. The peculiarity is that now, these social networks are carried out in the virtual world. What that social networks today are the way to communicate over long distances, as well as a number of tools accompanying the people coexistence. Thus, the social network is called not only to a group of people, but the system that hosts and provides the necessary services.

There are many definitions and theories about what they are and what they are not social networks, but there is still little consensus on it. The vast majority of authors agree that social networking is: “A web site designed to enable users to interact, communicate, share content and create communities”, or as a tool of “democratization of information that transforms those recipients and content producers”. Wikipedia, one of the media most viewed by Internet users, defines Network as "composite social structures of groups of people, which are connected by one or more types of relationships, such as friendship, kinship, common interest or shared knowledge”. A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations) and a set of the dyadic ties between these actors.

Examples of direct social networks are Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia, hi5, Meetic, LinkedIn, Xing, MySpace Fotolog, Digg. While indirect social networks can be classified into the forums and blogs.

The report "Social Media around the World" produced by the Belgian consultancy InSites Consulting in seven regions of the world, where 14 countries (Belgium, Holland, England, Spain, Italy, Portugal, France, Germany, Romania, USA, Brazil, Australia, Russia and China), reveals that 72% of Internet users belong to at least one social network, which means that there are 1.5 million people use social networks.

The technological developments in recent years are shaping the mobile terminal as a team of Internet access that is becoming increasingly central to the detriment of laptops that can access the network through wireless connections and 3G connections. So far, users accessing the Internet from their computers, preferably at their homes or businesses. Through the use of the mobile user is permanently connected to the Web 2.0 and it interacts not only to browse the site, but also share their experiences on social networks. Improved connectivity is one of the factors behind the development of social networks, which enhances the ability of "ubiquity" that the use of these gives users of social networks.

There is something even more important: we've gone from an online world "read-only" to "read / write" where users generate content begins to take centre stage. Visitors can write their opinions on everything from news to reviews of hotels and so, together, will create the content of the new website. This collaborative process and mass participation is based wikis, the most notorious example is the Wikipedia encyclopaedia, compiled through the collaboration. It is also reflected especially in these new Web 2.0 services have gained immense popularity, including social

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networking sites like Facebook are included sites videos and photos generated by users, such as YouTube and Flickr, and virtual reality worlds participatory as Second Life.
The social networking sites propose an online equivalent of social exchanges that take place informally in any community, with the difference that the web contacts are established worldwide.

2. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND LABOUR MARKET:
Labour markets are essentially sells matches on both sides looking for the best partner. Standard models of the labour market focus on individual characteristics, such as levels of human capital, but usually neglected group characteristics, such as social relations between market players. However, many empirical studies show that many workers owe their current employment status, in large part, to its network of social contacts. The labour market is thus much more than a simple anonymous confrontation between supply and demand.

The use of social media is everywhere, for both employers and workers. Social contacts help workers to find jobs and employers find workers. Social networks transmit rich and credible information, which in turn spread widely and quickly on both sides of the market. Therefore, cost effective means for search to expand the quantity and quality of information available to businesses and workers in the labour market. Social networks influence the labour market directly on 3 topics:

2.1. SOCIAL NETWORKS; JOB SEARCH AND TALENT SEARCH:
Contracting is a vital activity for many companies. Given a job to fill, by hiring the best possible combination to find a new employee to be as compatible as possible with the requirements of this position. This involves two types of costs for companies, the costs of search and hiring costs. To hire, companies must first identify a set of candidates or potential employees, which means that search costs (advertising, executive search services, etc...) And the second to make a careful selection among the candidates according to its expected performance, given the characteristics of the vacancy. This involves selection costs (interviews with candidates and other selection processes).

Another very common use, and has little to do with the purpose or main functions of social networks, except for those that are strictly professional, is related to finding information on candidates for jobs in the previous time the commencement of any employment relationship.

Of course, part of the legitimate interests of all employers for most of the skills of their future dependents as they perform business tasks, many of which include the management of valuable information, and therefore involve a high degree confidence and reserve. Even that interest extends to other data that make personal, intimate and / or family life, and may have an impact on performance, the ambitions and needs of job growth, and social relations with the rest of their future colleagues. Therefore, at the time of writing the profiles of each of the candidates for the various jobs, information and personal and professional contacts of content in different social networks involved the candidate is evaluated included. It occurs, for example,

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that the information in "Contacts" or virtual "groups" allow us to infer a number of conclusions about the social success of a person, their sphere of influence, their ability to interact with others, motivations, etc..

To this we must add that in the field of social networks, the lines between public and private to disappear, and between professional and personal life, to share or not to share the information and the nature of this depends not only on privacy established by each social network, but mostly what each person decides on your privacy settings. Therefore, many users will have no problem sharing their contact list, photos of family or intimate areas, tastes and opinions on topics that may be considered sensitive, such as data relating to ideology, union affiliation, religion, racial origin, health, sexual life, etc... , While others jealously appreciate all the details of the most intimate sphere. We must not forget that at the same time, takes place in a virtual environment where the average Internet user, behind which is a large majority who belongs to a generation of young narcissists and exhibitionists often more than - high risks of maintaining public profiles available to a wide global audience, not just ignore the different degrees of privacy that each social network allows you to configure, but also ignore the uncontrollable level of disclosure of personal data that is transmitted over the network and that eventually can be used for purposes other than those agreed to grant to the user.

Social networks, especially LinkedIn professional guidance as may be useful for making business contacts and recruit future employees. According to a study by Deloitte, 23% of companies now use social media to help in recruiting. However, in the Internet world, organizations and individuals must be careful to make sure you are dealing with someone you trust.

Regarding the latter, it is noteworthy that many of the social networks allow ( better known as " search engines of the Internet" ) engines index search the profiles of their users, without prior consent , so they are visible from search results . So, lets you centralize all the information a person considered to be dispersed in different network sites. So that search for the name of a person, we will know a number of additional data once - in internet no time, the entered data is indexed and perpetual available indefinitely, were admitted by him or by third parties, or without their consent, in a website.

To this must be added the risk that the information loaded on each social network is not just that which is provided at the beginning of the recording, but the rest of the data or image or refresh after entering. This is the dynamic update permanent desire to interact with others in the virtual world what defines social networks. Based on the above, we see that the situation is not trivial pointed from a legal point of view if we consider that in many cases the use of social networks for recruitment may collide with some provisions, privacy and dignity worker . We think so, during the process of selection of candidates for a job, the employer can make an unlawful use of personal data of workers, especially for discriminatory purposes. We note that, from the existence of a large amount of illicit data bases, many of which may contain sensitive data, and arriving at the hands of employers, May indirectly affected the rights of some workers, such as access to employment or discrimination.

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2.2. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND NEW CAREERS:
Following the Web 2.0, new professions that require medium and rapidly expanded in recent years arise. The birth of new roles is established in various areas, including marketing and librarianship. It was found that social networks could help develop strategies to promote the objectives of companies, and even government and educational institutions. They are a niche to establish a direct and collaborative user or customer, by creating communities communication. These communities take on major importance , to the degree that are taken as a parameter for the success or failure of brands , projects and movements of any kind; including the political , social and cultural .

Activity in social networking has grown to such an extent that currently requires dedicated professionals specifically for this purpose. Social Media Manager, Community Manager, Record Manager, and most recently the Curator Manager: So, roles as they emerge.

The Social Media Manager is the social media strategist. Perfectly know the company, the brand, its scope and social media which must use to reach the target audience and achieve the goals set by the organization or company. The Community Manager or manager or responsible communities (virtual, digital, online), as recommended by the Foundation of Urgent Spanish that is named to this figure, manages certain communities. Their work is closer to the users, for being the voice and listening to the company or institution, as well as voice and listening public to the user or brand. Specifically, represents the company or institution. By the nature of the medium, should have capacity and power of decision as required by the social network in which it operates. If the person who fills this role it runs efficiently, create a positioning and reaction chains.

Many tend to confuse the Social Media Community Manager to manager, but we can define functions within the strategy first and second, in the implementation of strategies designed by the former. The Social Media Manager is responsible for a team of people; dedicated to social media on the Internet. The Community Managers are responsible of one or more social media on the Internet, designed dependending strategy.

As a complement to the previous role arises in the Record Manager 2011 in the United States. Many see it as the equivalent of the head of social media networks. Role is to collect, analyze, evaluate, verify and authenticate the contents of the Web-related company or organization; provide access to them, and keep them updated and even destroy.

Its main function is filtration and objective synthesis of content to share on the network. The Content Curator help in the evolution to Web 3.0; where the search, location and recovery of semantic content in a structured form, attached to standards of accuracy and quality are essential.

Several saw the connection between the Community Manager, Records Manager and Content Curator as the perfect combination to create a successful social marketing campaign designed and planned by the Social Media Manager. Trend Hunters are social scientists, with great ability to analyze and constantly question their surroundings, all aimed to be one step ahead of the present reality. are

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characterized by an outstanding smell and vision, plus absolute sensitivity that gives them the ability to capture the new cool spontaneously and there in the street, looking for signs reading culture that allow you to anticipate, predict or find a trend. Also appear professions as: Manager freelances; that is someone who has the ability to search and identify talent that business needs and manage the occupation thereof; or Virtual Lawyer or Teacher.

2.3. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND NEW LABOUR RELATIONS:
The definition of telework adopted in European framework agreement on telework is "a form of organization and / or job performance using information technology as part of a contract or employment relationship, in which a work, which also could have done at the premises of the business, usually run out of those places. "(Europe Social Partners, 2006:4).

But there are different conceptualizations of more or less open in its definition telework. Among the most significant differences found regarding the employment of the person performing telework: in some cases is limited to considering only the hired help, and other, autonomous or self-employed persons are also included. Telecommuting can take different forms depending on what level of autonomy, the relationship with the rest of labour agents and the understanding of the time flexibility that implies.

3. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND EDUCATION:
I should also mention this aspect in influencing the social networks. Perhaps indirectly, not usually considered in many cases, but it seems important to consider. Social networks are part of what is known as Web 2.0 technologies, and that is why we have great potential in education because they drive students active and involved in their learning.

In the current statistics , both worldwide and in our country , it is clear that is growing significantly using them , so it is convenient to consider them as viable spaces arrives educational information to students , once connected you can use your time to consult educational content and interact with teachers and other students. In this sense, today multiple sites and services that facilitate the generation of public and private social networks for specific purposes, which can be exploited by interested teachers web that are already available.

Meta- skills such as communication and conflict management are taught from an early age with the idea that students, when they finish their training, they are easier to start a self-directed work life than previous generations, regardless of their professional qualifications.

4. CONCLUSIONS:
Using Social Networks in the Internet and Web 2.0, is earning increasing importance in all areas of society, therefore, we can not doubt his influence on the labour market.

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Since more and more companies use social media in their recruitment and talent search, it is imperative that anyone who wants to conduct an active job search should be present in these networks. But only stay is not enough. There are guidelines to follow to highlight our profile within these networks and to position ourselves in advantage over other candidates.

With the emergence of any new technology, theory or advancement, industry adapts creating new professional profiles and new professions and positions appear in companies, they should be covered. In this particular case, it is noteworthy that not only have been created professions working with social networking but have also created new professions working in social networks.

It is also true that all these tools allow anyone to communicate and relate to more geographically distant people, share information, cooperate, etc... This opens the possibility of creating new relationships between employer and employee, such as teleworking. In addition, social networks are creating labour disputes, as happened previously with phones and e-mail, which will go solving and regulating. Finally, although it may be indirectly influences the education job market. Since social networks are opening new educational alternatives, new skills and abilities, presumably, in the medium term, the labour market is seen openly influenced by those.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Deloitte LLP, 2009, Ethics & Workplace Survey.
Calvó-Armengol, A. Redes Sociales y Mercado Laboral, Els Opuscles del CREI, nº 17, 2006.
Manpower Inc, 2010, Redes Sociales y Empresa.
Infoempleo.com, 2013, Informe 2013 Infoempleo-Adecco, Redes Sociales y Mercado de Trabajo.
García Faroldi, L. 2007, Redes sociales y mercado de trabajo, REDES- Revista hispana para el análisis de redes sociales Vol.13,#10, Diciembre 2007. ONTSI, 2011, Las Redes Sociales en Internet.
Talwar, R at al. 2010. The shape of jobs to come. Fast Future, January 2010. Cinco Días, 2014, Redes Sociales: nuevas profesiones en Internet. Video report available at: http://cincodias.com/cincodias/2014/01/16/videos/1389892806_077380.html. InSites Consulting, 2012, Social Media around the world.

Luna Gonzaález, L. 2012, Nuevas Profesiones en la Web 2.0 y el Nicho de las Redes Sociales. Revista Digital Universitaria 1 de junio 2012 • Volumen 13 Número 6. PWC, 2012, Impacto de las Redes Sociales en Selección de Talento Humano. Boletín Digital nº 3 – 2012.

Valenzuela Argüelles, R. 2013. Las Redes Sociales y su aplicación en la Educación. Revista Digital Universitaria 1 de abril 2013 • Volumen 14 Número 4. Alastruey, R. El Networking y las Redes Sociales, la perfecta herramienta para el teletrabajo. Universitat Jaume I, aviable at: http://www3.uji.es/~soro/Teletrabajo.pdf. Llorente & Cuenca. 2010, El impacto de las Redes Sociales en los Conflictos Lanborales, Madrid, Septiembre 2010.

Universia España. 2011, La búsqueda de Trabajo a través de las Redes Sociales. Aviable at: http://noticias.universia.es/en-portada/reportaje/2011/05/18/828092/busquedatrabajo-traves-redes-sociales.pdf

Quinn, S.2013, Young People’s Consumer Confidence Index Growth & Developed Markets. On Device Research, May 2013.

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