Technology: Cultural information about the ways in which the material resources of the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires.
Status: A term used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society.
Social structure: The way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.
Out-group: A group or category to which people feel they do not belong.
Role exit: The process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity.
Role conflict: The situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.
Social role: A set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status.
Social network: A series of social relationships that links a person directly to others, and through them indirectly to still more people.
Master status: A status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position in society.
In-group: Any group or category to which people feel that they belong.
Industrial society: A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services.
Group: Any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis.
Formal organization: A group designed for a special purpose and structured for maximum efficiency.
Classical theory: An approach to the study of formal organizations that view workers as being motivated almost entirely by economic rewards.
Bureaucracy: A component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency.
Ascribed status: A social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics.
Hunting-and-gathering society: A preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily