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The roles of PARENTS TEACHERS ASSOCIATION on teaching and learning performance in primary schools.

By arebiolu Apr 22, 2015 13270 Words
 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLES OF PARENTS-TEACHERS’ ASSOCIATION [PTA] AND ITS IMPACT ON TEACHING ANDLEARNING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS. [A Case Study of Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.]

BY
SOLIU, ABUBAKAR OLAIYA
MATRICNO: PT/11/27100
PRIMARY EDUCATION STUDIES

A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, ADENIRAN OGUNSANYA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, LAGOS. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION (N.C.E)

AUGUST,2014

CERTIFICATION
I certify that this project was carried out by SOLIU, ABUBAKAR OLAIYA in Department of Primary Education Studies, Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto/ Ijanikin , Lagos state.

________________ ______________ MR OGUNMADE , S. A DATE

______________ ___________ HEAD OF DEPARTMENT DATE

DEDICATION

This project is dedicated to the Awesome Glory of Almighty Allah, My help in Ages past and my hope for many years to come. To my wonderful parents Mr.$ Mrs. G.S Soliu without whose effort my upbringing and Education would not have been possible.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
If money or materials items cannot be used to reciprocate for the goodness, humble and appreciation. As a result of this, I am giving my sincere appreciation to the Almighty Allah. He is my source of protection and finance. I will forever appreciate Him. Thank You Allah! For this particular study, I am greatly indebted to Mr. Ogunmade , my supervisor who patiently securitized each section of this project and offered many valuable suggestions, corrections and improvement in this work may God bless you more than your expectation.( Amen) I also acknowledge the effort of my parents for their morals and financial support, specifically my mother ( Mrs. ) Soliu for her motherly care. May god spare your life to reap the fruit of your labour! I equally register my sincere appreciation to my friends and relatives; Bro Azeez Soliu, Mrs Alad, Emmanuel, Jonathan to mention but few. I pray that God will meet you all at the point of your needs. I would consider my acknowledge incomplete without showing my greatest appreciation to Master Arebi Oluranti who serves as backup for me during my writings. I pray that God will grant your heart desire.

ABSTARCT
This project was carried out to assess the roles of parent- Teacher Association on the teaching and learning in primary schools. Some primary schools were selected in Ojo Local Government Area which was used as the sample for the study, consisted of three private and public schools respectively. Hundred Questionnaires were shared for both the parents and pupils of the selected schools which were used as the sample to the study. Four research questions were tested and from the results obtained, the researcher was able to discover that there was a significant impact of the parent-teacher Association in achieving the goals of primary schools. The association has also helped tremendously in providing the necessary materials needed for the schools including fund which has contributed to the performance of the pupils in their examination.

TABLE OF CONTENT
page
Certification ii Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract
Table of content viii

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis 5
1.6 Significant of the study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study 7
1.9 Definition of Terms 7

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 History of Education in Nigeria 14
2.2 Primary Education System in Nigeria 17
2.3 Management and Control of Primary Education 20 2.3.1 Current State of Primary Education (Structure of
Primary Education) 22
2.4 Parent- Teacher Associations in the School System 24 2.5 Roles of Parent-Teacher Association in School Management 25 2.6 Roles of PTA in Teaching and Learning Process 27 2.7 Benefits of Parent- Teacher Association 34 2.7.1 The Benefits of PTA to the Pupils 34

2.7.2 Benefits of PTA to the parents/ Guardian 38 2.7.3 Benefits of PTA to the Teachers 39 2.7.4 Benefits of PTA to Schools 39
2.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Parent Teacher Association 45 2.8.1 Advantages of Parent Teacher Association 46 2.8.2 Disadvantages of Parent Teacher Association 46

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Research Methodology 48
3.2 Research Design 48
3.3 Population of the Study 49
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 49
3.5 The Research Instrument 50
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument 51 3.7 Administration of the Questionnaire 51 3.8 Methods of Data Analysis 51

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data Analysis 52 4.1 Research Question one 52 4.2 Research Question Two 56 4.3 Research Question Three 59 4.4 Research Question Four 63

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Summary 67 5.2 Conclusion 68 5.3 Recommendations 69 References 71 Questionnaire 75 CHAPTER ONE

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Parent involvement is a salient predictor of students’ success (Million, 2003). In fact, many researchers suggest that parent involvement positively impacts students’ achievement, attendance, attitudes, behavior, graduation, and life goals (Burke, 2001 and Belenardo, 2001). There is also much evidence that these benefits cross lines of family income and parent education level. In an era characterized by tremendous emphasis on school accountability as measured by students’ performance, education reform measures are replete with components that address parent involvement (Belenardo, 2001). The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been rigorously advocated in Nigeria in recent years, which aims at the promotion of parent involvement to enhance the educational outcomes of students. The number of PTAs has been increasing drastically. Parents Teachers Association can be identified as very important variable that have potential for promoting directly or indirectly student academic achievements (Olatoye and Ogunkola, 2008). Looking at the quality of products that Nigeria’s secondary schools turn out, it appears the quality of education received by the students is low in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor development there-by making the secondary school system ineffective. Omoregie (2006) lamented that the primary education which is the pivot of the entire educational system in Nigeria is fast loosing relevance, as it is not fulfilling the national objectives as set down in the National Policy of Education. The academic performance of primary school pupils could be attributed to several factors but this study is restricted to the role of parents teachers’ association as a potential factor . It has been noticed in some areas, that school headmasters/headmistress do not involve the parents in the administration of the schools for fear of being criticized. It appears in some cases, parents are no longer allowed to participate in school programmes and parents are no longer allowed to visit their children in school regularly to see how they fare. There are instances where some principals no longer make use of the Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) in schools administration. All these tend to make the parents handicapped in assisting the school in the provision of qualitative education to its students . According to Cotton and Wikelund (2001), many benefits are accrued for the school and for parents themselves when parents become involved in their children’s school activities. They maintained that, school personnel benefit from the improved rapport that generally accompanies increased parents’ involvement. This rapport is often expressed in parents’ increased willingness to support school with their labour and resources during fund-raising activities or special projects. Besides, Henderson (1987), Hicks and Sammons (1992) and Hillman and Mortimore (1995) had showed in their various studies that parental presence in the school activities and participation in committees’ events and other activities all had positive effects on achievement. Adewuyi (2002) also submitted that active parent involvement and positive home-school-community relations have been shown to positively influence effective schooling and students’ achievement. Ajayi (1999) also posited that, effective administration of schools could be hampered where the PTA is not performing its roles as expected. Also, Ajayi (2007) posited that, the school and the community are interdependent and interrelated and for the relationship between them to be meaningful, worthwhile and productive, they must be willing to assist each other to achieve their respective goals in atmosphere of love, mutual trust and cooperation. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

As educators struggle to identify and maximize the use of every resource to improve students’ performance, it is increasingly important that they establish and maintain high levels of parent involvement in their schools. Although parent involvement at the elementary-school level has been studied extensively, more research is needed “to determine why there is a decrease of involvement as the child advances to higher grades” (Smith,2001, p. 149) The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the factors that significantly affect the level of parent involvement during the middle-school years. 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purposes of this study are:
1. To reveal parents’ and teachers’ perceptions towards the PTA in achieving its goals.
2. To examine the impact of parent involvement in the academic Performance of pupils in the primary school. 3. To explore factors that have been perceived to promote or inhibit the parents’ involvement in the academic process of students in pupils school. 4. To investigate the extent of parents’ involvement in school administration and its effect on the development of primary school pupils. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. Are there any differences between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals? 2. To what extent does parent involvement in the academic process affect their performance in primary school? 3. What factors have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of pupils in primary school? 4. To what extent does parents’ involvement in school administration effect the development of primary school pupils? 1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1) There is a significant difference between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals. 2) There is a significant effect on the parent involvement in the academic processes and their performance in primary schools. 3) There are significant factors which have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of pupils in primary school. 4) There is a significant relationship in parents’ involvement in the school administration and it effect on the development of primary school pupils. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help Parents Teachers Association in achieving its school goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their own PTAs, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the rationales and goals set by their own PTAs.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses on the role of Parents Teachers Association in the development of primary school pupils in some selected schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. This research work covers all public primary schools students in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. However, four public primary schools will be used as case study. 1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Apart from time-frame and shortage of finance, the major limitation to this research is the inability of the researcher to cover the whole Public primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area Of Lagos State as the title suggest. 1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

A. PTA = Parents Teachers Association.
B. PTO= Parents Teachers Organisation.
C. PTM = Parents Teachers Meeting.
D. PUBLIC SCHOOL = A school that is owned, control and fund by the government. E. ECCE = Early Child Care and Education.
F. LGA = Local Government Authority.
G. SUBEB = State Universal Basic Education Board.
F. PRIMARY EDUCATION = This is the “education given in institution for children aged 6 to 11plus” for a duration of six years.
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 INTRODUCTION
Education is a triangular process of school, teachers and parents for child development. So the parents’ cooperation with teachers is essential for the desired growth of child. Today, parents are involved in school management in the whole world. Involvement of the parents in school management is different names in different parts of the world like school council, given parent teachers’ council, parent teachers’ association. Parent Teachers’ Association (PTA) is considered the essential component of any institution. It is considered that PTA is performing a key role for promoting quality education. According to Govinda and Diwan (2005) community participation is an effective source of promoting education. According to Smith (1961) and Batten (1967) PTA is a valuable asset of any well organized school for welfare of children. It helps to create mutual understanding and communication between parents and teachers for solving educational matters of institute. Past and present governments have all shared the sentiments that a vital part of a country’s infrastructure is its educational system, for education has the ability to shape a nation’s cultural character as well as ensure its long-term social and economic well being. The Government of Nigeria has shown enormous commitment to the achievement of “Education of All” (EFA) through its Poverty Reduction Strategy. (Education Sector Report, 2004). Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS) is the provision of quality education. Quality is simply defined as fitness for purpose (National Universities Commission (NUC) 2002). This definition implies that quality in education could be regarded as the ability of an institution to fulfill its mission or programme of study. The overall goal of the Ministry of Education is to provide quality and relevant education for all Nigerians to enable them acquire skills which will make them functionally literate and productive for the rapid socio- economic development of the country. Over the years, many efforts have been made through educational reforms to improve the quality of education and make it more responsive to the needs and aspirations of the Nigerian society, Nevertheless, recent results of the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) show that standards are still falling. (Akyeampong, 2002) Nigeria’s educational system has experienced a number of challenging reforms, such as the 1987 reform with its modifications, and the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) programme, in 2004 that tried to address them. The low academic performance of pupils in Mathematics and Science, were attributed to inadequate provision of teaching and learning materials, ineffective school management, poor parents’ participation [which is the reason for the this studies], poor monitoring and evaluation, poor supervision, pupil and teacher absenteeism and inadequate supply of text books. Currently, there is a general feeling that the education system in Nigeria is falling continuously, especially at the basic level. (Akyeampong, Fobih and Koomson, 1999). Experts have attributed this pattern to the ineffectiveness of the Parent Teachers Association (PTAs), and had questioned the essence of their existence. In Nigeria, PTAs were among the number of interventions adopted by the Government of Nigeria under the Nigeria Education Act of 1999 in all basic schools which aimed at; 1) Strengthening community participation

2) Mobilization for education delivery, as well as
3) Improving quality teaching and learning .
The PTA is a representation of the entire community (IEDE, 2003). This committee is made up of nine members in each basic school with various representatives from the Municipal Directorate of Education, Head of school, Unit committee, Parent, Chief of the town, Teaching staff, Old Students Association and other co-opted member. The major functions of this committee designated by the Act include; monitoring and supervision of head teachers, teachers and pupils, ensuring maintenance and safety of school infrastructure, ensuring pupil and teacher discipline, assisting teachers to improve teaching and learning, resolving school-community conflict and improving teacher community relations. According to the President's Committee on Review of Education Reform in Ghana, (2002), the SMCs presently do not appear to be effective in many schools due to the following factors; 1. Some head teachers and teachers feign ignorance of their existence and refuse to accept them as part of the management system for local schools, 2. SMCs are competing with the better known and better established and resourced *Parent Teachers Association (PTA) and 3. Some members of PTAs do not understand their roles.

It is based on these issues that have necessitated the researcher to undertake this study on assessing the impact of the role PTAs roles in improving teaching and learning in primary schools in Ojo local government area of Lagos state Municipality. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the review will be done on the following sub-headings: 1. History of education in Nigeria.
2. Primary Education system in Nigeria.
3. Management of primary school as stated in NPE.
4. Concept of parents Teachers Association.
5. Roles of parents Teachers Association in school development. 6. Roles of parent Teachers Association on teaching and learning. 7. The benefits of PTA.
8. The advantages and the disadvantages of Parents-Teachers Association in the Education system

2.1 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
The establishment of school in Nigeria is traceable to the early missionaries’ interventions that brought western educational practice (Fafunwa 1974, Taiwo, 1980). The Church Missionary Society (CMS), Methodist Missionary Society (MMS), Roman Catholic Mission (RCM) and United Presbyterian Church of Scotland and many others were simultaneously competitively embarking on evangelism through establishments of schools. These efforts doubled as converted individuals, families and communities enthusiastically embraced western education, and later government became fully involved having seen education as an effective tool for national development. In fact, the early missions provided the benchmark for establishment of schools in Nigeria till date. In 1887, the first Nigeria education ordinance provided background for government participation in funding education by providing grants; and education was pursued at different developmental stages. The Phelps-Stokes report on education published in 1922 and 1925 memorandum and 1926 code propelled educational development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, educational development became sporadic from 1930 with adequate government participation till date. In light of all these, private school establishments have been in the past traced to missionary adventurers. A lot of mission schools still exist today with greater performances and some state governments have already started handing over these schools to original missions because of decreased quality in the public schools. There is greater individual and corporate private interest in education as an investment opportunity at all the educational levels, with more proliferations in the primary and secondary levels which stern from the popular demand by the teeming population of Nigerians who now see education as an instrument for national development(Maduagwu, 2004). Two notable factors are presumed to have contributed to the proliferations of private schools. A very high society pressure on education, such that effective demand for education is increasing as world population increases. Also the collapsing quality in public schools has pushed many parents to seek for quality education in the private hands. These two factors have causal relationships because as population increases, pressing needs on existing infrastructures increases which the public schools alone cannot accommodate for qualitative system of learning. Put differently, the best education is one that every society accepts as offering the accepted values and virtues in changing the behaviour of the learner to be worthy in character and learning at the end of the period. The explosion on the population rate of school attending pupils at the primary school level manifested into the secondary school level. This increase affected government expenditures as more schools and teachers are required. With this also, there is pressure on the tiny government resources allocated to education thereby affecting public school management that triggered private investment in education. Maduagwu (2004) succinctly postulated amidst these conceptions that private schools establishment promotes quality education, resulting in good academic performance, sound disciplinary and moral practices, and profit making by school proprietors. In surmounting these challenges by private schools in education , government efforts is required for effective public school management in meeting the set out targets and goals of education through known quality assurance process.

2.2 PRIMARY EDUCATION SYSTEM IN NIGERIA
Primary school education is widely accepted as the first level of education system where formal education begins. It is seen as very important because it ensures that children acquire basic literacy skills and that they are taught to think critically. It is available to all citizens in every country of the world. This is the reason for the huge investment and involvement of governments of all countries of the world in its administration and processes. In Nigeria, primary education is recognised as the education given to children starting from the age of 6 years to 11 years plus. It runs for a period of six years, and its objectives include developing basic literacy, numeracy, communication skills, adaptation to changing environment and transmission of the culture of the people to younger generations. It should be noted that to fully realise the goals and objectives of this important level of education, efforts and resources must be pulled together by all concerned stakeholders who include government, relevant and concerned organisations as well as parents especially. It is for this reason that the Federal Republic of Nigeria stated in National Policy on Education (2004) that the involvement of voluntary agencies, communities and private individuals, parents inclusive, is welcomed. Parental involvement in public schools has been documented as academically beneficial by educational researchers, supported politically, and valued by many educators and individuals in the general public (Gonzalez-DeHass and Willems, 2003). Hung (2007) and Mwaikimu (2012) both agreed that parental involvement is a way of making the educational system more self governing, developing more power at the local level and allowing for greater accountability by schools to the society. Moreover, they acknowledged that in general, society needs to increase its level of educational involvement, and that this starts with the support by the parents. Dodge et al. (2002) have noted that parents and family members have much to offer the school in terms of support, insights and skills. Research suggests that pupils, parents, teachers and head teachers as well as schools benefit from increased parental involvement.

The National Policy on Education defines Primary Education as the “education given in institutions for children aged 6 to 11 plus” for a duration of six years. This definition is also in consonance with the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), definition which stated that, “Primary Education (ISCED Level 1), sometimes referred to as elementary education, refer to the education programmes that are normally designed on a unit or project basis to give pupils a sound basic education in reading, writing and mathematics along with an elementary understanding of other sources such as, history, geography, natural science, social science, art and music” (EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2002) which serve to develop pupil’s ability to obtain and use information about the immediate environment and the nation. The goals of primary education as stated in the National Policy on Education [NPE, Section 3(16] is to: i. Inculcate permanent literacy and numeracy, and the ability to communicate effectively; ii. Lay a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking; iii. Give citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society; iv. Mould the character and develop sound attitude and morals in the child; v. Develop in the child the ability to adapt to his/her changing environment; vi. Give the child opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable him to function effectively in the society within the limits of his/her capacity; vii. Provide the child with basic tools for further educational advancement including preparation for trades and crafts of the locality. The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Act, which came into effect in May 2004 also seeks to reinforce the national primary education goals and set targets for attaining universal primary education within the global EFA context by year 2015. The Act provided for compulsory, free universal basic education for all children of primary and junior secondary school age in Nigeria (UBE Act, May 2004). 2. 3 MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF PRIMARY EDUCATION

The development of the primary education sub-sector has evolved over the years from a home based single room school strictly managed by Christian missionaries who brought western education to Nigeria in the 19th century with the main priorities of evangelism and conversion to Christianity (ESA, Historical, 2003 pg 36) and remained exclusively in the hands of missionaries for 40 years from 1842-1882. The colonial government intervened only in 1872 through grant in aid to ensure proper management and also enable government to have some measure of control in the education sector. Thereafter, government set the criteria for schools to qualify for the grants and also promulgated the first Education Ordinance in 1882. Other ordinances, acts and decrees got enacted over the years to ensure effective planning, administration and management of education. The dual ownership and control of schools (public/private) lasted till 1970 when at the end of the civil war the then East Central State government promulgated an edict and compulsorily took over all schools in the state. Some other states in southern Nigeria did the same at various times until the Federal Military Government enacted the “Schools Take Over Validation Decree” No. 41 of 1977 which reinforced the powers of state governments to take over all schools to ensure effective implementation of the national programme on Universal Primary Education (UPE) that was launched in 1976. The decree also prohibited the courts from hearing litigations that challenged the takeover of schools by state government. However, between the late 1970s and 1985 permission was granted to private proprietors to establish schools alongside public schools to ease the financial burden on governments. This development has continued till now with private proprietors establishing and managing fee paying primary schools alongside public schools.

2.3.1 CURRENT STATE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION
STRUCTURE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION
Education at this level is provided mainly by the local governments with substantial private efforts mainly at the urban areas for children officially aged 6-11 years and lasts for 6 years. Primary Education administration and management even though on the concurrent legislative list, is the responsibility of state governments under the supervision of State Primary Education Boards, although much of its management is devolved to local governments. The federal government is charged with oversight and quality assurance functions. The curriculum is designed to ensure acquisition of general training and basic education. With the declaration of the UBE in 1999, the 6 years primary education would be phrased out, a 9 year basic education programme will take its place. The first set of candidates for this programme was admitted into class one in year 2000. At present, the primary education curriculum derives from the 6-3-3-4 system of education currently in practice with focus on acquisition of knowledge and skills relevant for functional living. Accordingly, the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004, p.14) provided that: “Curriculum for primary education shall include; 1. Languages: a. Language of the environment b. English c. French 2. Mathematics

3. Science
4. Physical and health Education
5. Religious Knowledge
6. Agriculture/Home Economics
7. Social Studies and Citizenship Education
8. Cultural and Creative Arts (Drawing, Handicraft, Music and Cultural Activities). The curricular provisions have recently been updated in order to address emerging challenges. Accordingly, new subject areas were developed some have been introduced while some have been recommended for approval and policy directive at the 2004 JCCE plenary and the 2004 NCE meeting for introduction. The new subjects target topical/global issues such as Drug Abuse Education, Environmental Education, Population and Family Life education, Sexuality Education, National Values etc which would subsequently be infused into the existing subjects in the primary education Curriculum.

2.4 PARENTS-TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM
Parents-Teachers' Association (PTA) is a formal organization that consists of parents, teachers and non-teaching staff in the school. The Federal Ministry of Education in Nigeria insists as a matter of policy, that every approved school (primary or secondary) in the Country must have a functional Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) (Abdullahi, 2006). In compliance to this, there is a PTA established in every secondary school in Nigeria. The association is usually headed by Chairman/Chairperson. In fact, PTA offers pragmatic pieces of advice to the school management on areas of improvement. The association's meetings are held once every school term, while Annual General Meeting (AGM) is held once a year. Emergency meetings are held whenever the need arises (Bica-Jos, 201 1). Before and shortly after independence in Nigeria, schools were adequately funded while available physical facilities were sufficient for staff and students use. Thus, Parents-Teachers Association was not too prominent in the affairs of the schools. However, due to the numerous challenges In the Nigerian education sector, it became paramount for most of the schools (primary and secondary) to have PTAs to assist in solving their problems. As enunciated by Abdulkareem and Oduwaiye (2010), PTAs have been a major stakeholder in the Nigerian education sector as they constitute a significant supplier of educational resources to the sector. The proliferation of Parents-Teachers Associations in the Nigerian school system has led to the emergence of PTAs at institutional, Local Government Area, State and National levels. This development has made many parents to be more actively involved in school programmes than ever before. In fact, parents have become more formally and effectively engaged in quality assurance efforts in the schools.

2.5 ROLES OF PARENTS-TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION IN SCHOOL MANAGEMENT In Nigeria, today, management of schools is no longer completely in the hands of principals and teachers; rather the parents of the students are on their toes in ensuring that available resources are efficiently utilized to achieve school goals. Parents and teachers come together as a pressure group-PTA. The associations' goals focus mainly on school efficiency and effectiveness, which Fadipe (2000) regarded as quality measures of education. In fact, “many schools rely on their PTAs to salvage them from collapse” (Abdulkareem and Oduwaiye, 2010, p.400). Roles of Parents-Teachers Association can be grouped as advisory; disciplinary; financial; maintenance of school-community relations; provision and maintenance of infrastructural facilities. Abdullahi (1996) viewed PTAs' roles as enabling parents come to grip with the problems of the school their children attend, complementing government efforts in the provision of physical facilities, and providing assistance to the institutions in the areas of funding, supervision, guidance and budgeting, thereby ensuring quality in the schools' activities. The hysterical expansion of student enrolments in the Nigerian school system in recent years, coupled with inadequate resources to cope with the ever-increasing demand for access to the school in the country, has made school leadership and management a much more complex and difficult enterprise now than ever before. To ensure effective management, the school head must not only be innovative, resourceful and dynamic, but must be able to interact well with people both within and outside the school. Such people include the school staff and pupils/students, parents, members of the Parents-Teachers Association and other members of the larger community. All of these need to be considered, in one way or the other, in the decision-making process and quality performance in the school.

2.6 ROLES OF PTA IN TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS
The historical development of PTA in both the developed and developing countries is partly linked to school Board of Governors’ failures and partly due to the need for extra financial support from the local community for school development (Hurt, 1985). In Kenya, for instance, PTA was created following a presidential directive in 1980 (World Bank, 2008). It is assumed that it was set up to raise extra funds for school development, however, later on there seems to be a growing feeling that Board of Governors (BOGs) are politically elected and therefore are not the right forum to address the interest and needs of parents and the community in general (World Bank, 2008). Therefore, PTAs are seen as a better option. In Southern Sudan, PTA is mandated by the Southern Sudan Education Act 2008 (Kamba, 2010). It is stipulated in the Act 2008 that: School management committees and parent teachers association shall be established by committees at the school level as a means of engaging communities and creating community ownership and commitment to delivery and management of education services to the citizens of Southern Sudan in accordance with the Interim constitution of Southern Sudan 2005 (Part1:Chapter1;Clause 41.1.b). It is therefore expected to enhance community engagement, community ownership, community commitment and management of education services. Macbeth (1990) has identified six purposes of a parental association but warns that they may conflict. They include: To provide support for teachers; To represent parent’s interest; To provide a forum for educational discussion and a means of communication; To foster educational partnership between home and school for the benefit of children; To assist members who have difficulties; To advance an ideology (e.g. religion, educational etc). But clearly teachers’ interests are excluded from the list. In the UK the current breed of PTAs is strongly associated with the Plowden report, which recognised it as an important means by which parents could be involved in the life of the school. Edwards and Redfern (1988), argues that PTA eliminated traditional barriers and thus provided an informal setting by which communication with parents and other stakeholder could be improved. However, historically, evidence shows that in the UK there has been PTAs (the National Confederation of Parent-Teacher Association-NCPTA) long before 1956. However the early configuration was rather different- a loose kind of PTAs which was isolated and based on individual schools. So there is evidence of a long history there, which dates far way back long before the Plowden report. Therefore Plowden report’s recommendation onthe formation of PTA is not seen as a new development (Edwards and Red, 1998). Also in the UK, according to Munn (1993), the school boards play a role in the formation of PTAs. In some other contexts PTA is regarded as pressure group. They are likened to ‘a football supporters’ club in their capacity to raise money’ (Brighouse, 1985). They are also perceived as a parent interest group whose existence and growth is associated with the notion of consumerism (Macbeth, 1993). However the way PTAs are defined and used depends on individual schools and local contexts (Wolfendale, 1992). Interestingly, most head teachers in the review perceive PTAs very positively as a group that has a genuine interest in the welfare of the school, that is less threatening to the running of the school and as a valuable resource in the life of the school. They are also esteemed as good social functions or events organizers. Further review reveal that head teachers regard PTAs as ‘a reserve battalion’ especially when tackling local authorities disputes over resources and other needs (Brighouse, 1985). But Edwards and Redfern (1988) note that during early days headteachers and teachers felt that PTAs involvement in schools consumed a lot of their valuable time. Cyster et al., (1979) conducted a study on head teacher’s views towards PTAs and report both positive and negative perceptions.

The roles of PTA have been widely reported and especially that of fund-raising (Bereford and Herdie,1996; Bastiani, 1993; McConkey, 1985; Dufla et al., 2009; The Save the Child, 2005). For, instance, they organise events such as social or family evening for either socialising or fund-raising purposes or both. Besides, they hold such events ‘to nourish the growth of links with the community. In the USA, for instance, Lin (2010) reports a number of roles performed by PTAs, they include, involving parents in classroom decision, promoting communications, social events and fundraising and, lobbying the state and national legislatives on behalf of the students. The PTAs forum therefore affords parents and teachers an opportunity to socialise and raise funds (Wolfendale, 1992; Yahie, 2000; Novicki,1998). Social events also served the purpose of promoting good relationship between parents and teachers as well as improving relationship among parents themselves. But as Macbeth (1993) points out many of the activities organised by PTAs are less appealing to parents. Edwards and Redfern (1998) have also identified fund raising as one of the most controversial aspect of PTAs’ social events. In the UK, Her Majesty’s inspections of 1983/4 reported of schools becoming increasingly dependent on PTAs funds. The funds could be used in any of the following items or areas: textbooks, equipment, minibuses, furniture, library books and school redecoration. Other roles of social events include, disseminating information to parents and in some occasion welcome new parents to the school (Edwards and Redfern, 1988). The danger associated with fundraising events is that schools may tend to exert enormous and unnecessary pressure on the associations in order to raise more funds as circumstances may dictate regardless whether the kind of events they use are controversial or not. The other danger is that PTAs membership may be adversely affected. The other claim is that fund-raising activities impacts negatively on the establishment of what Edwards and Redfern (1988) describe as, ‘a true educational partnership between parents and teachers.’ They argue that fund-raising events not only absorb much effort and energy but also distracts the process through which such relationship is established and strengthened. In other words the focus is lost. Also, Macbeth (1993) warns that ‘when the interests of parents and schools do not coincide, PTAs may be of little value.’ Also Miguel (1999) highlights problems associated with ethnic diversity, which are reflected in less parental participation in PTAs, in school meetings and sharp reduction in the amount of money received through fundraising activities. Wolfendale (1992) reports that limitations have been reported related to this kind of forum resulting in alternative forums such as a parents association, an education association and mini-association. This view is also reported by Macbeth (1993) who observes that their ‘peripheral nature’ is linked to the emergence of ‘parallel parental activist groups’ in many countries. The views that PTAs were peripheral associations appear to have prevailed prior to the 1990s because Macbeth (1990) comments that, that image may be changing leading to a genuine relationship between schools and parents. The other claim by Wragg (1989) and Macbeth, (1993) is that the PTA forum was powerless as far as parents were concerned and that it was similar to a staff social club and therefore does not appeal to parents. They have also been criticised for lack of a clear mechanism for dealing with conflicts (Macbeth, 1993). The other criticism is that of ‘failing to be educationally central’. They also lack clear aims and scope. However, heads leadership has been identified as key to the success of PTAs roles (Macbeth,1990). Parents and Teachers Association (PTA) also manages the affairs of the school In that this is a welfare body that brings together the teaching staff and the parents of the school. This body generally provides the funds approved by the BOG for the development of the school. Other roles may include the following: bringing closer the staff and the parents of the school; providing a forum for discussion on all aspects concerning the school and its activities; providing opportunity for exchange of views between the staff and parents; organizing social activities with an aim of bringing staff, parents and the BOG closer together; providing, through its fund raising efforts, for equipment, scholarships, improvements and development to the school; both BOG and PTA steer the school academic standards to a level that is admirable and this is seen through the improvement of results of Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations (KCSE). The PTA also plays an important role in two areas; participating in the discussions concerning the annual school budget; they receive the recommendations of the BOG and discus them. They then approve it, which in effect approves the school fees to be charged every year; participating in the discussions concerning the identification of development projects and prioritization. They then participate in the implementation of the projects.

2.7 BENEFITS OF PARENTS-TEACHERS ASSOCIATION
As reported by Olsen and Fuller (2010), eighty-five studies that documented the comprehensive benefits of parental involvement were reviewed and analysed by Henderson and Berla (1994). Their analysis and other studies show that parent involvement activities that are effectively planned and well implemented resulted in substantial benefits to children, parents, teachers and schools.

2.7.1 THE BENEFITS OF PARENTS-TEACHERS ASSOCIATION TO THE PUPILS As for children, they achieved more, regardless of ethnic or racial background, socioeconomic status, or parents' education level, had better self-esteem, were more self-disciplined and showed higher aspirations and motivation towards school. Seven Ways PTAs Can Impact Student Learning – by Julie Lyons PTA’s are traditionally known for supporting the schools with engaging programs and activities. At my children’s schools, for example, the PTA runs talent shows, organizes classroom and school-wide parties, and holds fundraisers for items such as playground equipment and classroom technology. In the school district where I teach, our parents run the school store, help chaperone dances, and bring in special assemblies for students to enjoy. Clearly, our children benefit from the PTA’s involvement, and these dedicated parents should be commended for their hard work and commitment by making programs and activities possible that may otherwise not be feasible. An increasingly popular discussion topic for these involved parents relates to a high-stakes subject: how PTA’s can impact student learning. With tight budgets and cuts to school funding, PTA’s have an even larger role to fill – today more than ever. Schools may not be able to fully implement programming and activities that could boost student achievement, and a parent-teacher organization can be that vital missing link. Consider the following seven ways that PTA’s today can help:

BEGIN WITH THE END IN MIND.
Grant Wiggins, the author of Understanding By Design, explains how teachers can more effectively educate their students by planning lessons based on goals they expect students to reach by the end of the lesson, unit, or school year. With this model, planning with the end result in mind leads to better outcomes. Likewise, if the PTA focuses on educational goals, they can take already-existing events and transform them in such a way that they are both enjoyable and achievement-oriented. For example, at the next school dance, the PTA can send home a tip sheet on how to balance schoolwork and extra-curricular activities. Or, in planning the next assembly, the focus might be on a particular subject area (such as reading, math, science, or social studies), and the PTA may design the event based on that theme. FUNDRAISE.

Use fundraising proceeds to make purchases that will boost student learning. In my children’s district, the PTA funded the purchase of Smart boards, document cameras, and projection devices for the classroom. Without their contribution, the majority of classrooms in my daughter’s school would be without this technology.

PROMOTE MATH AND LITERACY.
The research shows that strong literacy and mathematical skills are imperative for students entering today’s workforce. PTA’s can be invaluable partners with the schools to promote improved literacy and mathematics development. The Center for Public Education reports that when the PTA of a Title I school targeted struggling students with more support (by “sending materials home, meeting face to face with parents, and maintaining frequent telephone contact when their children had problems”), that school enjoyed a 40% increased improvement rate with respect to student achievement. Plan events focused on learning. In program planning, focus on ways that your PTA can improve learning, such as hosting workshops to help parents • • • help children with homework and new curriculum. In my district, we hosted “Game Nights” when we implemented a new math program that parents found confusing and unfamiliar. By educating parents on the games students would play in the classroom, families now could reinforce school learning at home by playing these games with their children. IMPROVE PARENTING SKILLS.

It is true that students who exhibit behavior problems may miss key information throughout the school year due to excessive absences, suspensions, and office referrals. By promoting pro- social, positive behavior at home, parents can help their children improve their behavior at home and school, which will benefit the child academically. Since many parents may be embarrassed to admit they need help with parenting skills, offering free workshops and seminars will allow concerns to be addressed in a non-threatening way to interested families. COLLABORATE!

Work with teachers, principals, and curriculum supervisors. What goals do they have for students? What are the students’ strengths and weaknesses? By reinforcing school-wide programs with related PTA- sponsored events, school efforts will be more likely to meet with success.

2.7.2 BENEFITS OF PTA TO THE PARENTS/ GUIDIANS
In relation to parents, they increased their interaction and discussion with their children and are more responsive and sensitive to their children's social, emotional, and intellectual developmental needs, were more confident in their parenting and decision-making skills, had better understanding of the teacher's job and school curriculum, became more involved in their children's learning activities at home, had improved perceptions of the school, had stronger ties and commitment to the school and were more aware of, and become more active regarding policies that affect their children's education (Henderson and Berla, 1994).

2.7.3 BENEFITS OF PARENTS-TEACHERS ASSOCIATION TO THE TEACHERS As for teachers and head teachers, they experienced higher morale, earned greater respect for their profession from the parents, experienced improved communication and relations between them and parents, acquired a better understanding of families' cultures and diversity and they reported an increase in job satisfaction.

2.7.4 .BENEFITS OF PARENTS-TEACHERS ASSOCIATION TO THE SCHOOL In relation to the school, they established better reputations in the community, experienced better community support, did better and had higher quality programs than programs that do not involve parents (Henderson and Berla, 1994). It is perhaps for the benefits of parental involvement in education that prompted the South African government, as reported by Duma et al. (2011), to pass the 1996 South African Schools Act (Act No 84 of 1996) in order to establish school governing bodies that included parents in the governance of schools in such areas like planning, organising, leading, supervising, policy-making and decision-making among others. As noted by Desforges and Abouchaar (2003), among the forms parental involvement takes are contact with schools to share information; participation in school events; participation in the work of the school and participation in school governance among others. This submission by Desforges an Abouchaar (2003) supports the Epstein’s (1995) six types of parental involvement (parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision–making and collaborating with the community) which are further expatiated by Hatchuel Tabernik and Associates (2004). The purport of the Afr Educ Res J 210 submission by Desforges and Abouchaar (2003) and the types of parenting identified by Epstein are that parents should be involved in all areas of school activities such as making instructional materials available, implementing curriculum and participating in administration.

Researchers have claimed that instructional materials play very important role in the teaching and learning process and that the success of any learning enterprise depends on them. Instructional materials provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more (Okobia, 2011). Meremikwu and Enukoha (2010) had found in their study that when instructional materials were used, pupils’ Mathematics achievement was significantly higher. Despite the importance of instructional materials, it seems that they are not available in our primary schools. This is why in Nigeria, Olaitan et al. (2012) found in their study that instructional materials are not adequately available in primary schools and so teacher do not use them. On way by which this problem could be overcome is to involve parents in primary school education. Parents could help to provide instructional materials to schools, join teachers in improvising them and assist teachers on how to effectively operate or handle certain instructional materials. The question however is how much are parents of public primary school children involved in providing instructional materials to schools in Nigeria? Apebende et al. (2010) had found in their study that parental involvement in their children’s education was significantly low in Nigeria. Pansiri and Bulawa (2013) also found on the foreign scene that there is minimal parental support especially in rural and remote areas and in boarding primary school system in Botswana. As submitted by the Commonwealth of Learning (2000), curriculum implementation entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses of study, syllabuses and subjects. The process involves helping the learner acquire knowledge or experience. Implementing the curriculum is the most crucial and sometimes the most difficult phase of the curriculum development process. According to Ornstein and Hunkins (1998), curriculum implementation requires a supportive atmosphere in which there is trust and open communication between administrators, teachers and educators. It is dependent on understanding relationships, the traditions, the roles and responsibilities of individuals in the school system as well as outside the school system. It could be said therefore, that curriculum implementation requires the support of parents. This becomes important because Nigerian parents now interact with the changes in the wider society, they should therefore play their major roles and contributions to enhance efficient learning (Adebile, 2009). Parents could provide information on the culture, values and traditions of the society, provide additional information on the best ways by which teachers should disseminate the content of the curriculum, provide materials to aid effective implementation and assist the teachers in providing activities that aid the process of curriculum implementation. Meanwhile, despite the efforts that the federal government of Nigeria has made in refurbishing and implementing the primary school education curriculum, it does not seem as if any achievement has been made even as primary education continues to be plagued with problems such as poor performance and lack of interest in learning. Administration is an organisational behaviour which deals with a wide range of activities involving the mobilisation and co-ordination of human and material resources in order to accomplish some set objectives. In the primary school system, administration is a process of getting things done by a judicious utilisation of available human and material resources for the realisation of the objectives and goals of primary education. The resources in the primary school system include persons, equipment, finance, time, space, work techniques and policies implementation among others. As observed by Iwu and Iwu (2013), head teachers face myriad administrative problems which militate against effective running of schools. Such problems may include lack of qualified and dedicated teachers, lack of fund to maintain schools, lack of accommodation for pupils, indiscipline on the part of teachers and pupils among others. It is worthy of note to mention that parents could be of assistance in administration of primary education. Parents could attend Parents Teachers Association (PTA) meetings and take valuable decisions-concerning the school’s administration, volunteer to assist the school with fund raising, supply valuable suggestions on schools internal rules and regulation, organise workshop and other educational programmes for teachers, assist in building, maintenance and repair of school facilities classrooms, staffrooms, laboratory and other important buildings and assist to act as members of committees in the school.

With these many roles that parents can play in administration of primary school education, one wonders if parents of pupils in public primary school in Nigeria play such roles. Findings from a study carried out by Amanchukwu (2011) in Rivers State had revealed that parents display a lukewarm attitude towards the meeting of PTA. This could be the reason for the recommendation made by Iwu and Iwu (2013) that primary schools should maintain a co-operative community by incorporating parents of pupils of private individuals, organisations and most especially parents in its administration and implementation. Despite this, it seems that many things are wrong with primary school education in Nigeria in the areas of availability of instructional materials, curriculum implementation and administration. This could be because parents of primary school children are not actively involved in primary education. It is based on this background that this study investigated the level of parents’ involvement in primary school education in the areas of provision of instructional materials, curriculum implementation and administration. An examination of involvement of parents of public primary school education in these areas would lead to valuable suggestions and proposition of practical steps that could be taken to improve primary education in Nigeria.

2.8 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PTA.
There was great resistance by the teacher community against the formulation of PTAs and SCs in Pakistan. The teachers of Pakistan were against as they think that in this way school discipline and quality of education will suffer and it is unjustified check on them. It may be true in limited sense as it has both advantages and disadvantages. Hatch and Stefflre (1961) has described following advantage and disadvantage of community participation in schools. 2.8.1 ADVANTAGES

1. Provides an opportunity for the group judgment of a problem or situation. 2. Provides for increased cooperation of all units individuals affected. 3. Provides a means of increased cooperation in the execution of the recommendation. 4. Provides an opportunity for individuals to become acquainted with the broad problems and objectives of our system. 5. Provides for continuity of the objectives of a given activity.

DISADVANTAGES
1. Results are slower action.
2. Inherent danger of compromise decision.
3. Tendency to divide responsibility since the member may not sense of obligation. 4. Expense, since many individuals are involved in the process.

Now the PTA is running in the management of every school in Nigeria. Community participation was assessed in states through some researches but not a single research was conducted to assess the performance of PTA in Lagos state. So this research was conducted to fill the gap and to explore/to find the true picture of community participation in the schools of Ojo Local Government. The results of this research will be significant for researchers, teachers, PTAs’ body, heads of schools and concerned officers as it will provide sufficient information related to performance of PTA in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos, Nigeria.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This study examined the assessment of the roles of Parents-Teachers Association [ PTA] and its impacts on teaching and learning in primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state. For a meaningful research to be carried out, the researcher adopted the research design, population, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity and reliability of the instrument, the research procedure and analysis of data.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
The experiment is performed using three groups of schools. The design used was basically descriptive survey and inferential in nature. It is descriptive survey because a survey instrument was used to collect data for the study. Hence, inferential statistics were used to analyze the data in order to draw necessary inference for the study.

This approach was deemed the most appropriate for the study while descriptive approach was use to describe such observation inferences. One instruments was utilized, “Questionnaire” which the teachers and parents responded to.

3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The population of this study involved all public and private primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. Six schools were eventually selected out of this population in the Local Education District.

3.2 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
The samples for this study were the selected primary school-teachers and parents. The schools were randomly selected and stratified to allow for equal chances at the selected. Basically, the sample consisted of both Parents and Teachers which are one hundred in number. The parents and the teachers are also randomly selected to allow for equal representation. They are given the opportunity to hear their candid opinions on the roles of the Parents-Teachers Association [PTA] in their schools. Therefore, seventy parents were selected while thirty teachers were selected from the chosen schools. The chosen schools for the purpose of this study are: 1) Ilogbo Elegba Primary School, Ojo Local Government.

2) Hopebay Primary school Ojo Local Government.
3) Alaworo primary school Ojo Local Government.
4) Saint Micheal Primary School, Ojo local Government.
5) The Lord Choosen Nursery/ Primary school. ojo
6) Local Authority primary school, Oto- Awori, Ojo LG.

3.3 THE RESERACH INSTRUMENT
The instrument used in gathering and soliciting information from the parents and teachers was questionnaire. This structured questionnaire consisted of two sections: Section A and Section B. The section A solicits for the personal Bio-data of the respondents while section B, seeks to measure the roles of Parents- Teachers Association [PTA] and its effect on teaching and learning in Primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area. The likert scale used contain: Agreed and Disagreed. 3.4 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

The reliability of the instrument was ensured by presenting the drafted questionnaire to the supervisor who fastidiously scrutinized and effect by the researcher’s supervisor.

3.5 ADMINISTRATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE
The questionnaires were administered by the researcher. The questionnaires were given to the students to be given to their parents at home for responses. They [ the questionnaire] were therefore collected from the students on the days’ interval. The teachers’ questionnaire were personally doled out and retrieved from them. 3.6 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

Simple percentage was employed to calculate and determined the frequency of data collected from both parents and teacher of the selected schools.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Presentation of result and discussion on of research findings. In this chapter, results of data analysis and discussion of research finding are presented. The researcher gave out 100 copies of questionnaire to the respondents in all. Thirty of the questionnaires to the teachers and the other seventy to the parents of the selected primary schools in Ojo Local Government area of Lagos State. The questions raised in the research questions and corresponding answers are secured from the respondents are here by presented in the table below. QUESTION ONE

Are there any differences between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals?

TABLE ONE
S/N
ITEMS
AGREE
%
DISAGREE
%
1
Parents attend PTA meetings and take valuable decisions-concerning the school’s administration. 98
98%
2
2%

2
Schools internal rules and regulation is made following valuable suggestions supplied by Parents-Teachers Association. 70
70%
30
30%
333
The drop-out rate has been decreased after the establishment of PTA. 64
64%
36
36%
4
PTA supports the school management in disciplinary action.
89
89%
11
11%
5
PTA members meet the Head Teachers to discuss absenteeism among the teacher. 52
52%
48
48%

TOTAL
373
74.6%
127
25.4%

FINDINGS
In the above table, the opinions of the respondents were collected, majority which constitute 373 or 74.6% agreed while 127 or 25.4% of the respondents disagreed that there is a significant difference between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals. This shows that the hypothesis was accepted that the involvement of PTA can quickly aid the achieving of the schools goals. DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

The first statement in the first hypothesis states that “Parents attend PTA meetings and take valuable decisions-concerning the school’s administration.” 98% of the responders agreed to this assertion while 2% only of the answerers dissented with the statement. This implies that the consecutive meetings and the valuable decisions of the PTA has positive effects on the schools administration. The second statement says Schools internal rules and regulation is made following valuable suggestions supplied by Parents-Teachers Association. 70% of the responders fell in with the idea while 30 % of the respondents said no to the statement. From this, one can deduce most of the rules and regulations of the primary schools are brought out from the conclusions of the reasonable meetings of the Parents-Teachers Association. The third statement of the first hypothesis states that, “the drop-out rate has been decreased after the establishment of PTA”. The total number of 64 out 100 respondents agreed with the statement while the 36% of the answerer contradicted the statement. From this result we can see that the formation of Parents-Teachers Association in the area of this study has been helping in reducing the rate of drop-out level in our primary schools. The fourth statement states that PTA supports the school management in disciplinary action. This statement was warmly concurred with, with the 89% of the respondents subscribed to it While 11% of the answerers demurred the statement. From the reactions of the respondents towards the question, we can conclude that the Parents- Teachers Association has always throwing their support hands to the schools managements for disciplinary actions on their children. The fifth statement states that PTA members meet the Head Teachers to discuss absenteeism among the teacher. 52% of the respondents agreed with this idea while 48% disagreed. This shows that only few of the primary schools Parents-teachers Association usually meet with the head teachers of their wards’ schools to discuss the issue of absenteeism among their teachers which I consider as one of the factors that can affect teaching and learning in our primary schools.

QUESTION TWO
To what extent does parent involvement in the academic process affect their performance in primary school?
TABLE TWO S/N
ITEMS
AGREE
%
DISAGREE
%
6
PTA motivates hardworking teachers and others to improve their performance. 71
71%
29
29%
7
PTA sensitizes parents on the need to contribute towards effective outcome of test. 54
54%
46
46%
8
The Common Entrance results of school has been improved by establishment of PTA. 20
20%
80
80%
9
Parents supply/provide instructional materials to make teaching and being more read and interesting. 54
54%
46
46%
10
Parents assist in guiding teachers on how to effectively operate or handle some instructional materials. 51
51%
49
49%

TOTAL PERCENTAGE
250
50%
250
50%

FINDINGS
From the table above 250 (50%) agreed with the hypothesis while 250 (50%) also disagreed with the hypothesis that “There is a significant effect on the parents involvement in the academic processes and their performance in primary schools. In the view of the result shown above, it means that the hypothesis is neither accepted nor rejected. DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

Base on the hypothesis two, that was neither accepted nor rejected. The following questions are set to test the hypothesis: The item six states, PTA motivate hardworking teachers and others to improve their performance.71 % of the subscribed to the fact that the Parents-Teachers Association always reinforces the hardworking teachers either in group or in isolation while 29% only disagreed with the item. The seventh statement says, PTA sensitizes parents on the need to contribute towards effective outcome of test. 54% of the answerers agreed while 46% of the answerers disagreed. This shows that PTA has low influence on the parents to effect the outcome of their wards tests. The eighth items states, “The Common Entrance results of school have been improved by establishment of PTA”. 20% of the respondents agreed with this item number eight while 80% of them disagreed with it. From the responds one can easy evaluate that the establishment of the PTA has nothing to do with the pupils performances in the Common Entrance Examination to Secondary schools in Ojo local Government Area. The ninth statement “Parents supply/provide instructional materials to make teaching and being more real and interesting”, was supported by 54% of the responders while 46% of them disagreed with it. From the result, one can see that the parents improvise the teaching apparatus for the teachers as at when needed. The tenth statement formed from the second hypothesis states that, “Parents assist in guiding teachers on how to effectively operate or handle some instructional materials”. 51% of the answerers agreed with the statements while 49% also disagreed. QUESTION THREE

What factors have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents ’involvement in the academic progress of pupils in primary school? S/N
ITEMS
AGREED
%
DISAGREED
%
11
Parents, with teachers, come up with initiatives on how best the curriculum can be implemented. 16
16%
84
8%
12
PTA members acts as resource persons when teachers are in short supply 40
40%
60
60%
13
Parents help to organize workshop andother educational programmes for teachers. 21
21%
79
79%
14
Parents volunteer to assist the school with fund raising for the schools’ projects. 78
78%
22
22%
15
School management has been improved by the establishment of PTA. 75
75%
25
25%

TOTAL
30
46%
270
54%

FINDINGS
From the table above, 230 respondents which constitutes 46% agreed with the hypothesis that, “There are significant factors which have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of pupils in primary school. But 270 of the responders disagreed with the hypothesis. From the result, it shows that the hypothesis was rejected. DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

“Parents, with teachers, come up with initiatives on how best the curriculum can be implemented” was the eleventh item of the questionnaire. 11% persons agreed with the item while 89% of the respondents disagreed with the assertion. This shows that PTA has nothing to do with the formation and implementing the primary schools curriculum. The twelfth item states that PTA members acts as resource persons when teachers are in short supply. 40 % of the answerers agreed with the statement while 60% of them disagreed with it. This indicates that the members of the PTA hardly make themselves available as resources person when the schools are lacking teachers. The thirteenth statement form based on the third hypothesis was “ Parents help to organize workshop and other educational programmes for teachers. Surprisingly only 21% of the respondents agreed with the assertion while 79% of them disagreed. This shows that the Parents-Teachers Association doesn’t usually do anything that has to do with the personal development of the in service teachers. The fourteenth item on the third hypothesis states that “ “Parents volunteer to assist the school with fund raising for the schools’ projects”. 78% of the answerers agreed with the item while 22% of them disagreed. From this one can say that the Parents-Teachers Association always contribute towards the capital projects of the primary schools in Ojo Local Govt. Area. Item fifteen, “School management has been improved by the establishment of PTA”. 75% of the respondents agreed with the item while 25% disagreed. This shows that the establishment of PTA has improved the management of our schools tremendously in the area of this study. QUESTION FOUR

To what extent does parents’ involvement in school administration effect the development of primary school pupils? S/N
ITEMS
AGREED
%
DISAGREED
%
16
The enrolment of pupils to schools has been increased after establishment of PTA. 71
71%
29
29%
17
PTA cooperates with school management in fund generating campaign. 61
61%
39
39%
18
The financial problems of the schools have been overcome by the help of PTA. 54
54%
46
46%
19
Conflict between teachers and other members of the community are resolved by PTA. 43
43%
57
57%
20
Opportunity for interaction between teachers, parents and the community are created by PTA.

83
83%
17
17%

TOTAL
312
62.4%
188
37.6%

FINDINGS
From the table above, 312 of the respondents which represent 62.4 % agreed to the fourth hypothesis that, “There is a significant relationship in parents’ involvement in the school administration and it effect on the development of primary school pupils” while 188 of the answerers which represent 37.6% disagreed with it. From this result we can say that the hypothesis was accepted. DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

The sixteenth item from the hypothesis four states,” The enrolment of pupils to schools has been increased after establishment of PTA. 71% of the respondents agreed with the motion while 29% disagreed. This means that the enrolment of the pupils to schools has been improved dramatically since the establishment of the PTA. The seventeenth item read thus; PTA cooperates with school management in fund generating campaign. 61% of the answerers concurred with the idea while 39% of them contradicted it. This shows that the PTA has always support the management of the schools in generating funds for different projects. “The financial problems of the schools have been overcome by the help of PTA”, was the item numbered eighteen. 54% of the responders agreed with the item while 46 others disagreed. From this result, one can say that PTA has only help in decreasing the financial problems of the school it has not eradicated this problem totally. The nineteenth item states that,” Conflict between teachers and other members of the community are resolved by PTA”. 43% of the respondents assented with the idea but 57% of them said no to the item. This result shows that the Parent –Teachers Association has little or nothing to do with resolving the conflict between any teacher and the member of the schools’ community. The last item formed on the fourth hypothesis read thus: Opportunity for interaction between teachers, parents and the community are created by PTA. 83% of the respondents agreed with the item while 17% of the respondents disagreed. This result shows that the Parents-Teachers Association has created chances for cordial or mutual relationship for the teachers, parents and the community which of course has contributed tremendously to teaching and learning in primary schools in Ojo local Government Area of Lagos state.
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY
The researcher was very interested in determining the roles of Parents-Teachers Association [ PTA] and its impacts on teaching and learning in primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. As a summary, attempt was made by the researcher to look at the different angles in which active parents involvement and positive home-school-community relations have positively influenced effective schooling and students’ achievement. The instrument designed for the study was questionnaire in six different primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area. The population for this study comprised of thirty teachers and seventy parents who are randomly chosen within the population. Data analysis was done by using simple percentage (%) techniques. The findings of this study reveal that the Parents-Teachers Association has done a lot in advancing teaching and learning which of course has affected the performance of the wards positively but they (PTA) needs to extend its hand to the private Schools. 5.2 CONCLUSION

Parental involvement in education through PTAs is now widely recognized. The PTAs are considered part of the school leadership and governance structure. Their involvement is underpinned by the assumption that they would contribute positively to the learning of their children and therefore the quality of education would improve and that children would attain better results. Also that children’s behaviour would improve. PTAs roles are not only driven by legislative reforms, but also are purely voluntary. But questions have been raised in relations to their commitments, skills and capacity to perform certain roles. While PTAs have been recognized for raising extra funds for various development projects among other activities in the life of the school, concerns have been reported regarding fund-raising activities. Many of the parents resent fundraising events employed PTAs; as a result membership has been negatively affected. Resentments have also been reported regarding PTA involvement in education in general because they are regarded as non-professional and lay people operation in a foreign territory, that of professionals.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
In order to improve quality teaching and learning at the Basic schools in Ojo Local Government, the researcher recommends the following; 1. PTA should intensify their monitoring and supervision of head teachers, teachers and pupil’s attendance in order to solve teacher and pupil absenteeism. 2. PTA should assist teachers to ensure maintenance and safety of school infrastructure by mobilizing resources with parents for repairs and employment of security guards. 3. Hardworking teachers and other non-teaching staff should be motivated adequately in order to improve teaching and learning. 4. Organization of in-service training for teachers especially newly trained teachers should by supported by PTA in terms of adequate logistics and resource personnel. 5. Hard working and brilliant students should be supported by PTA with scholarships to motivate other students to learn. 6. PTA in private schools should concern itself in ensuring that proprietors provide good standard of teaching and learning to enhance high quality of education. 7. The proprietors should ensure that PTA roles are mere supportive not absolutely to veto revenue generation. 8. That PTA moderates administrative process in order to facilitate effective teaching and learning but not financiers of the school. 9. There should be implementation of standard projects related to academic pursuit that cannot overstretch their capacity to bear therefore resting the burden on parents. 10. PTA should act as source of fund raising for public or mission sponsored private schools which are not outright for profit making. The mission schools take the form of public school in funding which is entirely missions’ responsibility in providing quality of services, and considerable cheaper fees compared to profit run private schools. 11. Finally, the Federal, State and Local governments respectively must be the promoters of education. They should build confidence in public school education by intervening in rehabilitating dilapidated public schools for adequate teaching and learning. There is need for provision of infrastructural and instructional facilities, minimization of industrial actions through improved welfare packages, professional development through training and retraining of teachers, planners and administrators in educational system.

REFERENCES
Abiodun Oyebanji Olayemi (2012) Class size and teachers’ productivity in Primary schools in Ekiti State. Journal of Education and Social researcher . Vol. 2(1). Adebile, R. F. (2009). The role of Nigerian teachers and parents: A prerequisite for efficient and dynamic curriculum development. African Research Review, 3(1):362-372. Adeshina S. A (1977) Planning and education development in Nigeria. Lagos Education industries Nigeria Limited. Amanchukwu, R. N. (2011). The role of parents in the effective management of primary education in Rivers State. African Journal of Social Sciences, 1(3):142-148. Ann Condy (1998) Improving the Quality of teaching and learning through community participation: Achievements, Limitations and risks- Social development working paper No.2 Apebende, E. U., Akpo, O. B., Idaka, I., and Ifere, A. B. E. (2010). Parental involvement and effective nation’s implementation of the universal basic education (UBE). African Research Review, 4(2):311-321. Desforges, C., and Abouchaar, A. (2003). The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achievement and adjustment. A literature review. DfES Research Report 433. Dodge, A., Colker, J. H., and Heroman, C. (2002). Parents and teachers at work. New York: Croom Helm. Duma, M. A. N., Kapueja, I. S., and Khanyile, P. D. (2011). Educators’ experiences on the role of parents in the school. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 1(3):44-52. Epstein, J. L. (1995). School, family, community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 701-712. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on Education. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council, Yaba, Lagos. Gonzalez-DeHass, A. R., and Willems, P. P. (2003). Examining the underutilization of parent involvement in the schools. The School Community Journal, 13(1):85-99. Hatchuel Tabernik and Associates (2004). Joyce Epstein’s typology: Types of parent involvement in education. Retrieved from http://cscinnovation.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/EpsteinsTypology-of-Parent-Involvement.pdf Henderson, A. T., and Berla, N. (1994). A new generation of evidence: The family is critical to student achievement. National Committee for Citizens in Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from Retrieved from the ERIC database.(ED375968) Hung, C. L. (2007). Family, schools and Taiwanese children’s outcomes. Educational Research, 49(2):115-125. Iwu, C. G., and Iwu, I. C. (2013). Factors inhibiting effective management of primary schools in Nigeria: The case of Ebonyi State. Journal of Social Science, 35(1):51-60. Mannathoko, M. C., and Mangope, B. (2013). Barriers to parental involvement in primary schools: A case of Central North Region of Botswana. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education,6(1):47-55. Meremikwu, A., and Enukoha, O. (2010). Instructional aids, school variables and pupil’s Mathematics achievement in primary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. In Joubert, M. and Andrews, P. (Eds.). Proceedings of the British Congress for Mathematics Education. Mwaikimu, A. (2012). Parent involvement in public primary schools in Kenya. A dissertation submitted to the Department of Educational Management at the University of South Africa. Okobia, E. O. (2011). Availability and teachers’ use of instructional materials and resources in the implementation of social studies in junior secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria. Review of European Studies, 3(2):90-97. Olaitan, O. L., Oniyangi, S. O., Oyerinde, O. O., and Onifade, O. A. (2012). Availability and utilization of Instructional materials for teaching Health Education in primary schools in Kwara State, Nigeria. International Scientific Research Journal, 4(2):89. Ornstein, A., and Hunkins, F. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, principle and issues. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Pansiri, N. O., and Bulawa, P. (2013). Parents’ participation in public primary schools in Botswana: Perceptions and experiences of head teachers. International Education Studies, 6(5):68-77. The Commonwealth of Learning (2000). Curriculum theory, design and assessment. Retrieved from http://www.col.org/stamp/module13.pdf

ADENIRAN OGUNSANYA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
OTTO/ IJANIKIN.
RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear Respondent,
This questionnaire is designed as an instrument to investigate and determine the roles of Parents- Teachers Association [ PTA] and its impacts on teaching and learning in primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state. Please, kindly fill the questionnaire. The items in the questionnaire is not meant to test your knowledge but for research purpose.

SECTION A [ PERSONAL DATA]
NAME OF THE SCHOOL ---------------------------------------------- PARENT ( ) TEACHER ( ) SEX:- MALE [ ] FEMALE [ ] QUALIFICATION :- SSCE [ ] OND [ ] NCE [ ] HND [ ] BSC/BA/ B. ED [ ] MA/ ED [ ] OTHERS SPECIFY ----------- AGE:- 18- 20( ) 21- 40 ( ) 40- ABOVE ( ) SECTION B

s/n
ITEMS
AGREED
DISAGREED
1
Parents attend PTA meetings and take valuable decisions-concerning the school’s administration.

2
Schools internal rules and regulation is made following valuable suggestions supplied by Parents- Teachers Association

3
The drop-out rate has been decreased after establishment of PTA.

4
PTA supports the school management in disciplinary action.

5
PTA members meet Head teachers to discuss absenteeism among teachers.

6
PTA motivates hardworking teachers and others to improve their performance.

7
PTA sensitizes parents on the need to contribute towards effective outcome of test.

8
The Common Entrance results of school has been improved by establishment of PTA.

9
Parents supply/provide instructional materials to make teaching and being more real and interesting.

10
Parents assist in guiding teachers on how to effectively operate or handle some instructional materials.

11
Parents, with teachers, come up with initiatives on how best the curriculum can be implemented.

12
PTA members to acts as resource persons when teachers are in short supply

13
Parents help to organize workshop and other educational programmes for teachers.

14
Parents volunteer to assist the school with fund raising for the schools’ projects.

15
School management has been improved by the establishment of PTA.

16
The enrolment of pupils to schools has been increased after establishment of PTA.

17
PTA cooperates with school management in fund generating campaign.

18
The financial problems of the schools have been overcome by the help of PTA.

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