The Period of Enlightenment (1872-1898)
After 300 years of passivity under Spanish rule, the Filipino spirit reawakened when the 3 priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were guillotined without sufficient evidence of guilt. This occurred on the 17th of February. This was buttressed with the spirit of liberalism when the Philippines opened its doors to world trade and with the coming of a liberal leader in the person of Governor Carlos Maria de la Torre.
The Spaniards were unable to suppress the tide of rebellion among the Filipinos. The once religious spirit transformed itself into one of nationalism and the Filipinos demanded changes in the government and in the church.
A. THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT (1872-1896)
This movement was spearheaded mostly by the intellectual middle-class like Jose Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar; Graciano Lopez Jaena, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Jose Ma. Panganiban, and Pedro Paterno. The objectives of this movement were to seek reforms and changes like the following:
1. To get equal treatment for the Filipinos and the Spaniards under the law.
2. To make the Philippines a colony of Spain.
3. To restore Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes.
4. To Filipinize the parishes.
5. To give the Filipinos freedom of speech, of the press, assembly and for redress of grievances.
B. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
There were three principal leaders of the Propaganda movement. They were Jose P. Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena. Here are highlights about them and what they have done for our country.
DR. JOSE P. RIZAL
Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado Alonzo y Realonda was born on June 19, 1861 at Calamba, Laguna. His first teacher was his mother Teodora Alonozo. He studied at the Ateneo de Manila, started medicine at UST and finished at the Universidad Central of Madrid. He also studied at the University of Berlin, Leipzig and Heidelberg. He died by musketry in the hands of the Spaniards on December 30, 1896 on charges of sedition and rebellion against the Spaniards. His pen-name was Laong Laan and Dimasalang. His books and writings:
1. NOLI ME TANGERE. This was the novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the revolution against Spain. In this book, he courageously exposed the evils in the Spanish-run government in the Philippines. The Spaniards prohibited the reading of this novel but a lot of translations were able to enter stealthily in the country even if it means death to those caught in possession of them. The NOLI gave Philippine literature the immortal characters Maria Clara, Juan Crisostomo Ibarra, Elias, Sisa, Pilosofong Tasio, Doña Victorina, Kapitana Maria, Basilio and Crispin, Rizal had a powerful pen in the delineation of these characters.
2. EL FILIBUSTERISMO. This is a sequel to the NOLI. While the NOLI exposed the evils in society, the FILI exposed those in the government and in the church. However, the NOLI has been dubbed the novel of society while that of FILI is that of politics.
3. MI ULTIMO ADIOS (My Last Farewell). This was a poem by Rizal while he was incarcerated at Fort Santiago and is one that can compare favorably with the best in the world. It was only after his death when his name was affixed to the poem.
4. SOBRE LA INDOLENCIA DE LOS FILIPINOS (On the Indolence of the Filipinos). An essay on the so-called Filipino indolence and an evaluation of the reasons for such allegations.
5. FILIPINAS DENTRO DE CIEN AÑOS (The Philippines within a Century). An essay predicting the increasing influence of the US in the Philippines and the decreasing interest of Europe here. Rizal predicted that if there is any other colonizer of the Philippines in the future, it would be the US.
6. A LA JUVENTUD FILIPINA (To the Filipino Youth). A poem Rizal dedicated to the Filipino youth studying at UST.
7. EL CONSEJO DE LES DIOSES (The Council of the Gods). An allegorical play manifesting admiration for Cervantes.
8. JUNTO AL PASIG (Beside the Pasig River). Written by Rizal when he was 14 years of age.
9. ME PIDEN VERSOS (You asked Me for Verses): 1882 and A LAS FLORES DE HEIDELBERG (To the Flowers of Heidelberg). Two poems manifesting Rizal’s unusual depth of emotion.
10. NOTAS A LA OBRA SUCESOS DE LAS FILIPINAS FOR EL DR. ANTONIO DE MORGA (Notes on Philippine Events by Dr. Antonio de Morga): 1889
11. P. JACINTO: MEMORIAS DE UN ESTUDIANTE DE MANILA (P. Jacinto: Memoirs of a Student of Manila) 1882
MARCELO H. DEL PILAR
Marcelo H. del Pilar is popularly known for his pen name of Plaridel, Piping Dilat and Dolores Manapat. He was born at Cupang, San Nicolas, Bulacan on August 30, 1850.
He established the Diariong Tagalog in 1883 where he exposed the evils of the Spanish government in the Philippines and in order to avoid the false accusations hurried at him by the priests. To avoid banishment, he was forced to travel to Spain in 1888.
He was assisted by Fr. Serrano Laktaw in publishing a different Cathecism and Passion Book wherein they made fun of the priests. They also made the DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN and KAIINGAT KAYO taken from the word IGAT, a kind of snake fish caught in politics.
Upon his arrival in Spain, he replaced Graciano Lopez Jaena as editor of LA SOLIDARIDAD, a paper which became the vehicle thru which reforms in the government could be worked out.
Writings of Marcelo H. del Pilar
1. PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA (Love of Country). Translated from the Spanish AMOR PATRIA of Rizal, published on August 20, 1882, in Diariong Tagalog.
2. KAIINGAT KAYO (Be Careful). A humorous and sarcastic dig in answer to Fr. Jose Rodriquez in the novel NOLI of Rizal, published in Barcelona in 1888. He used Dolores Manapat as pen-name here.
3. DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN (Prayers and Jokes). Similar to a cathecism but sarcastically done agains the parish priests, published in Barcelona in 1888. Because of this, del Pilar was called “filibuster.” Done in admirable tone of supplication and excellent use of Tagalog.
4. ANG CADAQUILAAN NG DIOS (God’s Goodness). Published in Barcelona, it was also like a cathecism sarcastically aimed against the parish priests but also contains a philosophy of the power and intelligence of God and an appreciation for and love for nature.
5. SAGOT SA ESPANYA SA HIBIK NG PILIPINAS (Answer to Spain on the Plea of the Filipinos). A poem pleading for change from Spain but that Spain is already old and weak to grant any aid to the Philippines. This poem is in answer to that of Hermenigildo Flores’ Hibik sa Pilipinas (A Plea from the Philippines).
6. LA SOBERANIA EN PILIPINAS (Sovereignty in the Philippines). This shows the injustices of the friars to the Pilipinos.
7. PASIONG DAPAT IPAG-ALAB NG PUSO NG TAONG BABASA (Passion that should arouse the hearts of the readers)
GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA (1856-1896)
A most notable hero and genius of the Philippines, Graciano Lopez Jaena was born on December 18, 1856 and died on January 20, 1896. The pride of Jaro, Iloilo, he won the admiration of the Spaniards and Europeans. He is a known writer and orator in the Philippines. He wrote 100 speeches which were published by Remigio Garcia, former bookstore owner in Manila Filatica and which are still read up to no by modern Filipinos.
Lopez Jaena left the Philippines in 1887 with the help of Don Claudio Lopez, a rich uncle, in order to escape punishment form his enemies and arrived at Valencia, the center of the Republican movement of the Spaniards. From Valencia, he moved to Barcelona where he established the first magazine LA SOLIDARIDAD. This later became the official voice of the Association Hispano de Filipinas (a Filipino-Spanish Association) composed of Filipinos and Spaniards who worked for reforms in the Philippines. Because of this, Jaena successfully showed the Spaniards and the people of the world how a newspaperman can introduce changes in law and reforms towards a better life and progress.
The Works of Graciano Lopez Jaena
1. ANG FRAY BOTOD (Friar Botod). One of his works written in Jaro, Iloilo in 1876, six years after the Cavite Revolt attacking the friars in the Philippines. He exposed how some of the friars were greedy, ambitious and immoral.
2. LA HIJA DEL FRAILE (The Child of the Friar) and EVERYTING IS HAMBUG (Everything is mere show). Here Jaena explains the tragedy of marrying a Spaniard.
3. SA MGA PILIPINO...1891… A speech which aimed to improve the condition of the Filipinos to become free and progressive.
4. TALUMPATING PAGUNITA KAY KOLUMBUS (An Oration to Commemorate Columbus). A speech he delivered in Madrid on the 39th anniversary of the discovery of America
5. EN HONOR DEL PRESIDENTE MORAYTA DE LA ASSOCIACION HISPANO FILIPINO 1884. Here he praised Gen. Morayta for his equal treatment of the Filipinos.
6. EN HONOR DE LOS ARTISTAS LUNA Y RESURRECCION HIDALGO. A sincere expression of praise for the paintings of Hidalgo on the condition of the Filipinos under the Spaniards.
7. AMOR A ESPAÑA O A LAS JOVENES DE MALOLOS (Love for Spain or To the Youth of Malolos). The theme is about how girls were taught Spanish in schools and whose teachers were the governors-general of the place.
8. EL BANDOLERISMO EN PILIPINAS (Banditry in the Philippines). Jaena refuted the existence of banditry in the Philippines and of how there should be laws on robbery and other reforms.
9. HONOR EN PILIPINAS (Honor in the Philippines). The triumphant exposition of Luna, Resurrecion and Pardo de Tavera of the thesis that intellect or knowledge gives honor to the Philippines.
10. PAG-ALIS SA BUWIS SA PILIPINAS (Abolition of Taxes in the Philippines)
11. INSTITUCION NG PILIPINAS (Sufferings of the Philippines). Jaena refers here to the wrong management of education in the Philippines 1887.
B. OTHER PROPAGANDISTS
Antonio Luna was a pharmacist who was banished by the Spaniards to Spain. He joined the Propaganda Movement and contributed his writings to LA SOLIDARIDAD. Most of his works dealt with Filipino customs and others were accusations about how the Spaniards ran the government. His pen name was Tagailog.
Some of his works are:
1. NOCHE BUENA (Christmas Eve). It pictured true Filipino life.
2. SE DEVIERTEN (How They Diverted Themselves). A dig at a dance of the Spaniards where the people were very crowded.
3. LA TERTULIA FILIPINA (A Filipino Conference or Feast). Depicts a Filipino custom which he believed was much better than the Spanish.
4. POR MADRID (For Madrid). A denouncement of Spaniards who claim that the Philippines is a colony of Spain but who think of Filipinos as foreigners when it comes to collecting taxes for stamps.
5. LA CASA DE HUEPEDES (The Landlady’s House). Depicts a landlady who looks for boarders not for money but in order to get a husband for her child.
Mariano Ponce became an editor-in-chief, biographer and researcher of the Propaganda Movement. He used Tikbalang, Kalipulako, and Naning as pennames. The common themes of his works were the values of education. He also wrote about how the Filipinos were oppressed by the foreigners and of the problems of his countrymen. Among his writings were:
1. MGA ALAMAT NG BULACAN (Legend of Bulacan). Contains legends, and folklores of his native town.
2. PAGPUGOT KAY LONGINOS (The Beheading of Longinos). A play shown at the plaza of Malolos, Bulacan.
3. SOBRE FILIPINOS (About the Filipinos)
4. ANG MGA PILIPINO SA INDO-TSINA (The Filipinos in Indo-China)
Pedro Paterno was a scholar, researcher and novelist of the Propaganda Movement. He also joined the Confraternity of Masons and the Asosacion Hispano-Pilipino in order to further the aims of the Movement. He was the first Filipino writer who escaped censorship of the press during the last day of the Spanish colonization.
The following were a few of his wrtings:
1. NINAY. The first social novel in Spanish by a Filipino.
2. A MI MADRE (To My Mother). Shows the importance of a mother especially in the home.
3. SAMPAGUITA Y POESIAS VARIAS (Sampaguitas and Varied Poems). A collection of his poems.
JOSE MA. PANGANIBAN
Jose Ma. Panganiban hid his identity behind his penname JORMAPA. He was also known for having photographic mind. He was a member of a number of movements for the country. Some of his writings were: 1. ANG LUPANG TINUBUAN (My Native Land) 2. ANG AKING BUHAY (My Life) 3. SU PLANO DE ESTUDIO (Your Study Plan) 4. EL PENSAMIENTO (The Thinking)
C. PERIOD OF ACTIVE REVOLUTION (1896-1898)
The Filipinos did not get the reforms demanded by the propagandists. The government turned deaf ears to these petitions; oppression continued and the church and the government became even more oppressive to the Filipinos. The good intentions of Spain were reversed by the friars who were lording it over in the Philippines.
Because of this, not a few of the Filipinos affiliated with the La Liga Filipina (a civic organization suspected of being revolutionary and which triggered Rizal’s banishment to Dapitan). Like Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Apolinario Mabini, Jose Palma, and Pio Valenzuela decided that there was no other way except to revolt.
The gist of literature contained mostly accusations against the government and was meant to arouse the people to unite and to prepare for independence.
D. THE HIGHLIGHTS OF THE ACTIVE REVOLUTION
The noted leaders of this period were Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and Apolinario Mabini. These are their contributions to our country.
Andres Bonifacio is best known as the Father of Filipino Democracy, but more than others, as the Father of the Katipunan because he led in establishing the Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangan Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK). Andres Bonifacio came from a poor family and it is said that what he learned he got from the school of experience.
He was a voracious reader and among those he loved to read which aroused his revolutionary spirit were the NOLI and the FILI of Rizal. He joined the La Liga Filipina founded by Rizal in 1892. He established the Katipunan which triggered the spirit of freedom especially when Rizal was banished to Dapitan, Mindanao. Bonifacio is better known as the great Revolutionary rather than a writer but he also wrote things which paved the way for the revolution and which also became part of our literature. Among his works were:
1. ANG DAPAT MABATID NG MGA TAGALOG (What the Tagalogs Should Know)
2. KATUNGKULANG GAGAWIN NG MGA ANA NG BAYAN (Obligations of Our Countrymen).
3. PAG-IBIG SA TINUBUAN LUPA (Love of One’s Native Land). A poem with a title similar to that of Marcelo H. del Pilar.
4. HULING PAALAM (Last Farewell). A translation of Mi Ultimo Adios of Rizal in Tagalog.
Emilio Jacinto was the intelligent assistant of Andres Bonifacio in the establishment of the Katipunan. He is called the Brains of the Katipunan. He edited Kalayaan (Freedom) a Katipunan newspaper. Bonifacio withdrew his writing of the Kartilya in deference to Jacinto’s work as secretary of the Katipunan. His Kartilya was the one followed by the members of the organization. Here are few of his writings:
1. KARTILYA NG KATIPUNAN (A primer book on the Katipunan)
2. LIWANAG AT DILIM (Light and Darkness). A collection of essays on different subjects like freedom, work, faith, government, love of country.
3. A MI MADRE (To My Mother). A touching ode to his mother.
4. A LA PATRIA (To My Country). His masterpiece.
Apolinario Mabini is known in literature and history as the Sublime Paralytic and the Brains of the Revolution.
He became the right-hand of Emilio Aguinaldo when the latter founded his Republic in Malolos. His contributions to literature were writing on government society, philosophy and politics. Here are some of his works:
1. EL VERDADERO DECALOGO (The True Decalogue or Ten Commandments). This was his masterpiece and his aim here was to propagate the spirit of nationalism.
2. EL DESAROLLO Y CAIDA DE LA REPUBLICA (The Rise and Fall of the Philippine Republic)
3. SA BAYANG PILIPINO (To the Filipino Nation)
4. PAHAYAG (News)
JOSE PALMA - Jose Palma became popular because of his Himno Nacional Filipino (The Philippine National Anthem) which was set to music by Julian Felipe.
He joined the revolution against the Americans together with Gregorio del Pilar, the youngest Filipino general who died during the revolution. Aside from the National Anthem, here are his other works:
1. MELANCOLIAS (Melancholies). A collection of his poems.
2. DE MI JARDIN (In My Garden). A poem expressing one’s longings for his sweetheart.
E. NEWSPAPERS DURING THE REVOLUTION
In the effort of the Revolutionists to spread to the world their longings for their country, many newspapers were put up during the Revolutionary period. They were:
1. HERALDO DE LA REVOLUCION. Printed the decrees of the Revolutionary Government, news and works in Tagalog that aroused nationalism.
2. LA INDEPENDENCIA (Independence). Edited by Antonio Luna and whose aim was for Philippine Independence.
3. LA REPUBLICA PILIPINA (The Philippine Republic). Established by Pedro Paterno in 1898.
4. LA LIBERTAD (Liberty). Edited by Clemente Zulueta.
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