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The Integumentary System

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The Integumentary System
BSC 2085C – Anatomy & Physiology I
Lab 5: The Integumentary System Name
Directions: There are five (5) activities in this lab. Please be sure to complete them all. For all questions, type your answers into the yellow box ____ (including your name above) it will expand as you write.

Activity 1: The Skin

1-1: Enter the letter of the correct structure in the space provided:

A. adipose tissue
1. __3__
B. eccrine sweat gland
2. __8__
C. arrector pili muscle
3. __7__
D. dermis
4. __1__
E. hair root
5. __5__
F. hypodermis
6. __2__
G. sweat pore
7. __9__
H. sebaceous gland
8. __6__
I. venule
9. __4__

1-2: Please enter the letter of the correct structure in the space provided:

A. dermis
B. epidermis
C. papillary layer
D. reticular layer
E. stratum basale
F. stratum corneum
G. stratum granulosu m __g__ 1. Translucent cells, containing keratin
__f__ 2. Dead cells
__c__ 3. Dermis layer responsible for fingerprints
__a__ 4. Vascular region
__e__ 5. Epidermal region of rapid cell division; deepest epidermal layer
__f__ 6. Scale-like cells full of keratin that constantly flake off
__d__ 7. Site of elastic and collagen fibers
__b__ 8. Site of melanin formation

1-3: Fill in the blanks.
1. Blueness of the skin due to low oxygen concentration in the blood is called __Cyanosis__.
2. A muscle that causes a hair to stand on end is called a/an _Pilioerector___.
3. Cerumen is more commonly known as _Earwax___.
4. The process of removing burned skin from a patient is called _Debridement___.
5. Caucasian skin gets its color mainly from the white dermal collagen and the blood pigment _Hemoglobin___.
6. The dietary pigment __Carotene__ sometimes gives it a yellowish tint, but if both the skin and the whites of the eyes are tinted this color, a disorder called __Jaundice__ may be suspected.
7. Black, brown, tan, and reddish hues are all due to various amounts of _Melanin___.
8. Choking or cardiac arrest may cause an abnormal skin color called _Cyanosis___, due to a low level of oxygen in the blood.
9. The redness of blushing or sunburn is called _Erythema___
1-4: Please enter the letter of the correct structure in the space provided:

A. stratum basale
1. __4__
B. keratinocytes
2. __11__
C. merkel cell
3. __8__
D. stratum corneum
4. __1__
E. sensory nerve ending
5. __9__
F. stratum spinosum
6. __3__
G. stratum granulosum
7. __2__
H. melanocyte
8. __7__
I. dendritic cell
9. __10__
J. desmosomes
10. __5__
K. melanin granule
11. __6__

Activity 2: Appendages of the Skin

2-1: Please enter the letter of the correct structure in the space provided:

1. __6__
A. follicle wall
2. __2__
B. arrector pili
3. __11__
C. cuticle
4. ___5_
D. medulla
5. __14__
E. matrix
6. __15__
F. papilla
7. __16__
G. melanocyte
8. __4__
H. root
9. __14__
I. region of cell division and hair growth
10. __3__
J. sebaceous gland
11. ___7_
K. connective tissue sheath
12. __10__
L. internal root sheath
13. _9___
M. external root sheath
14. __12__
N. cortex
15. __17__
O. adipose tissue
16. __1__
P. hair shaft
17. ___8_
Q. glassy membrane

2-2: Fill in the blanks.
1. The nails and part of the hair are made of a durable, extensively cross-linked protein called hard _Keratin___.
2. A hair grows in a diagonal epithelial tube called a __Follicle__.
3. Coarse, pigmented hair is called __Terminal Hair__, whereas most of the body hair of women and children is called __Vellus Hair__. Most of the hair within this tube is called the root, but it has a dilation at its base called the _Hair Bulb___, where it derives all its nutrition from blood capillaries.
4. The surface of a hair consists of scaly, overlapping cells called the hair _cuticle___. Most hair colors are due to melanin, but red hair gets its color from a pigment called _Pheomelanin___.
5. Chills and fear often cause the hair to stand on end because of the action of the _The arrectores pilorum __ muscles of the hair follicles.
6. Excessive hairiness is called hypertrichosis, while thinning of the hair is called _Alopecia___.

2-3: Please enter the letter of the correct structure in the space provided:

A. eponychiu
1. __3__
B. free edge
2. __1__
C. hyponichium
3. __9__
D. lunule
4. __7__
E. nail bed
5. __10__
F. nail body
6. __2__
G. proximal nail fold
7. __4__
H. lateral nail fold
8. _8___
I. nail matrix
9. _6___
J. nail root
10. __5__
K. phalanx
11. ___11_

2-4: Fill in the blanks.
1. The clear, keratinized portion of a fingernail is known as the nail __BED__ It has a root, body, and free edge.
2. The space under the free edge, called the __HYPONYCHIUM__, must be scrupulously cleaned when scrubbing for patient care.
3. The nail grows from a mitotically active tissue called the __NAIL MATRIX__. Often a little of this is visible at the proximal end of the nail as a white crescent called the _FREE EDGE___.
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Cutaneous Glands
1. Sweat glands are also known as _sudoriferous___ glands. One type, called __eccrine__ glands, serve for evaporative cooling of the body, while the other type, called _apocrine___ glands, are scent glands. One place where the latter type can be found is the _DERMIS___ region.
2. We lose about half a liter of water a day by __INSENSIBLE__ perspiration, which we don’t notice because it evaporates immediately from the skin. More profuse sweating, with noticeable wetness, is called _SENSIBLE PERSPIRATION___.
3. Associated with the hair follicles are holocrine glands called _SEBACEOUS GLANDS___, which produce a skin oil called _SEBUM___.
4. Earwax, or _CERUMEN___, consists mainly of the secretions of the _CERUMINOUS___ glands in the ear canal.
5. The __MAMMARY__ glands are modified sweat glands that show significant development only in pregnancy and maternity.

Activity 3: Disease of the Skin
3-1: Fill in the blanks.
Diseases of the Skin
1. Skin cancer occurs in three forms. The most common but least dangerous type is _BASAL CELL CARCINOMA___, which arises from keratinocytes of the stratum basale.
2. The least common but most deadly form of skin cancer involves the melanocytes and is called _MELANOMA___.
3. The most commonly fatal disorder of the skin is burns. First- and second-degree burns are called _PARTIAL THICKNESS___ burns because they do not destroy all of the dermis.
4. Third-degree burns are called __FULL THICKNESS __ burns because all the dermis and sometimes deeper tissue is destroyed.
5. The most immediate concern in the treatment of third-degree burns is _FLUID LOSS___, and after this comes _INFECTION___.
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