OUTLINE: (complete this as you read)
1. Define FEMINISM (as bell hooks’ defines it):
Feminism is a collection o movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending a state of equal political, economic, cultural, and social rights for women.
2. the 1st Wave (19th-early 20th centuries) FOCUS:
The 1st Wave focused on the efforts of many fighting for gender equality, race equality, and the women’s’ right to vote.
3. 1st Wave achievement(s)
The 25th Amendment was ratified in 1920, allowing women to vote
4. 2nd Wave (1960s-1980s) FOCUS:
“the problem with no name”
Comes from Frieden’s book The Feminine Mystique. It is the widespread unhappiness of women in the 1950s and early 1960s.
“The Personal is Political”
It refers to the theory that personal problems are political problems. Many of the personal problems women faced, wasn’t their fault but was the result of systematic oppression
1971: Supreme Court used the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to strike down a law that discriminated against women. 1972: The Education Amendments was amended to cover executives, administrators, outside sales people, and professionals since the Equal Pay Act of 1963 didn’t 1972: birth control was legalized and sex discrimination in public and colleges was illegalized by the Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 1973: Abortions were legalized
1974: sex discrimination by creditors against credit applicants was illegalized by the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and sex was added as a protected class under the Fair Housing Act, illegalizing sex discrimination in housing.
5. 3rd Wave (1990s-present) FOCUS
The 3rd Wave focused on questioning, reclaiming, and redefining the ideas, words, and media that have created ideas about gender, gender roles, womanhood, beauty, and sexuality. It also focused more on encouraging young women to become more involved in their community: socially and politically.
6. SCOPE : what was so spectacular about the Women’s Movement? The effort among not only women, but men as well, to create equality among male and female, is what made the Women’s Movement so spectacular. Many women pushed for the termination of women discrimination and as a result of the many great efforts, received many changes in their favor. Not only did they push for equality among genders, but they also pushed for race equality as well, which is another reason why the Women’s Movement was so spectacular.
7. “What made a change in gender order feel necessary to so much of society”? Women were tired of the roles they were forced into, being second to man.
8. How has the understanding of marriage and life changed as a result of the Women’s Movement, according to this article? - Freedom was granted, women’s lives were valued more, and women had more rights. Being married and depending on the husband wasn’t forced. Being a housewife wasn’t a must, but choice after the Women’s Movement.