The Extraction of Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Topics: DNA, Cell, Protein Pages: 5 (1441 words) Published: June 9, 2013
THE EXTRACTION OF DNA

THE EXTRACTION OF DNA
07/02/2013
| By Laura Green, Tasnim Rahman and Sandra Strammiello|

Table of Contents

DNA………………………………………………………………………………………..………… 2 The Discovery of DNA…………………………………………………………………………...…………..…………. 4 The Steps for Extracting DNA…………………………………………………………………………………………….…..… 5 Experiment: Which Product Can the Most Visible Amount of DNA Be Extracted From?.................................................................................................................. 7 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………..9

DNA

What is DNA?
DNA is a molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid which contains the biological instructions, meaning it explains about living species; it makes each species unique. It is passed from adult organisms during reproduction, along with the instructions it contains. Where is DNA Found?

DNA is found inside the nucleus of a cell. Organisms have many DNA molecules per each cell. The nucleus of a cell is very small, and each DNA molecule is secured properly. This form of the DNA is called a chromosome. During DNA replication, DNA untangles so it can be copied. At other times in the cell cycle, DNA untangles, so that its instructions can be used to make proteins and for other living methods. But during cell division, DNA is in its compact chromosome form to approve transfer to new cells. Researchers refer to DNA found in the cell's nucleus as nuclear DNA, which is an organism's complete set of nuclear DNA, and is called a genome. Besides the DNA based in the nucleus, humans and other complicated organisms also have a small amount of DNA in cell formed as mitochondria. Mitochondria generate the energy, which the cell needs to function properly. In sexual reproduction, organisms take over half of their nuclear DNA from the male parent and half from the female parent. However, organisms take over all of their mitochondrial DNA from the female parent. This happens because only egg cells, and not sperm cells, keep their mitochondria during fertilization. What is DNA made of?

DNA is made up of chemical building blocks called the nucleotides. These building blocks are made up of three parts: A phosphate group, a sugar group and one of four types of nitrogen bases. To construct a strand of DNA, nucleotides are joined into chains, with the phosphate and sugar groups exchanging. The four types of nitrogen bases which is found in nucleotides are: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and last but not least, Cytosine (C). The order of these bases control what living information is found in a strand of DNA.  DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to construct units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. What does DNA do?

DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to progress, survive and reproduce. To carry out these functions, DNA codes must be changed into messages that can be used to produce proteins, which are the complex molecules that do most of the work inside our bodies. The Double Helix Form

Sugar and phosphate as a combination is called a Nucleotide. Nucleotides are positioned in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. This looks like a twisted ladder and the base pairs (A, T, G, and C) form the groups of the ladder, and the sugar and phosphate molecules form the sides of the ladder.

The Discovery of DNA
In 1953 James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin all had their part in discovering the structure that is DNA. In 1962 Crick, Watson and Wilkins won a Nobel prize. Rosalind Franklin was not recognized for her contribution to the discovery because she died of cancer at the age 37 so only the rest of the team was honored with the award. Of the four scientists only Rosalind Franklin had any degrees in chemistry. DNA has patterns for making proteins in the body, including the various enzymes. It took them...
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