BIO 310 Homework 3

Topics: DNA, Gene, Genetics Pages: 3 (917 words) Published: April 15, 2015
Cell Division and the Cell Cycle
1) Define the following terms:

Meiosis The production of daughter cells that have one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It enables organisms to reproduce sexually.

Mitosis The production of two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. Parent cell=haploid, daughter cell=haploid. Parent cell=diploid, daughter cell=diploid.

Chromosome A structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, which carry genetic information in the form of genes.

Haploid The term used when a cell has only one set of chromosomes.

Diploid The term used when a cell has two sets of chromosomes.

2) What is the difference between homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids? Homologous chromosomes have the same arrangement of genes but are not connected to each other. Sister chromatids are identical: the result of DNA replication. The two connected chromatids are considered to be one chromosome.

3) What are tumor suppressor genes (11.18-11.19) and what is their role in the cell cycle? Tumor suppressor genes are genes that regulate the growth of cells. When functioning properly, these genes can stop the growth of tumors. They can communicate to the cells when to slow down, when they can divide, and when they can die.

4) What are proto-oncogenes (11.18-11.19) and what is their role in the cell cycle? A proto-oncogene is a normal gene that can mutate into an oncogene, a gene that can induce cancer. Activated oncogenes can prevent a cell from dying, increasing the risk of mutation.


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