The European Union foreign relations challenges in the year 2012
In the year 2012, the EU had 27 members and had 61 years of history behind (if we consider its beginnings to be rooted in the European Coal and Steel Community or 19 years since the Maastricht treaty which formally created the European Union. Aside from the 27 official members, Croatia is expected to become a member this year, on the 1st of July, There are five candidate countries: Iceland, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey. Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina are officially recognized as potential candidates. Kosovo is also listed as a potential candidate but the European Commission does not list it as an independent country because not all member states recognize it as an independent country separate from Serbia. Four countries forming the EFTA (that are not EU members) have partly committed to the EU's economy and regulations: Iceland (a candidate), Liechtenstein and Norway and Switzerland. The relationships of the European microstates, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican include the use of the euro and other areas of cooperation. EU-US relationship in 2012
The transatlantic relationship is the world’s largest economic relationship, accounting for half of global economic output and nearly one trillion dollars in goods and services trade and supporting millions of jobs on both sides of the Atlantic. Still, there is more to be done to deepen and broaden the ties. A strong outcome can enhance not only transatlantic economic ties, but also address shared market access challenges in third countries and encourage a forward-looking multilateral trade liberalization agenda. So, in June 2012 there were some changes regarding the EU-US relationship. There were identified some policies and measures to increase trade and investment to support mutually beneficial job creation, economic growth, and competitiveness, working closely with public and private sector stakeholder groups, and drawing on existing dialogues and mechanisms, as appropriate: Elimination or reduction of conventional barriers to trade in goods, such as tariffs and tariff-rate quotas.
Elimination, reduction, or prevention of barriers to trade in goods, services, and investment.
Opportunities for enhancing the compatibility of regulations and standards.
Elimination, reduction, or prevention of unnecessary “behind the border” non-tariff barriers to trade in all categories.
Enhanced cooperation for the development of rules and principles on global issues of common concern and also for the achievement of shared economic goals relating to third countries.
The EU and the US have interests in keeping their good relations and in 2012 they both did so.
EU- Transnistria relation
Transnistria is a breakaway territory located mostly on a strip of land between the River Dniester and the eastern Moldovan border with Ukraine. Since its declaration of independence in 1990, and especially after the War of Transnistria in 1992, it is governed as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as Pridnestrovie), a state with limited recognition. The Republic of Moldova does not recognise PMR and considers most territory of Transnistria as part of Moldova. After the dissolution of the USSR, tensions between Moldova and the breakaway unrecognized state escalated into a military conflict that started in 1992. Although the ceasefire has held, the territory's political status remains unresolved: while internationally unrecognised, Transnistria is, in effect, an independent state, organized as a presidential republic, with its own government, parliament, military, police, postal system, and currency. However, following a 2005 agreement between Moldova and Ukraine, all Transnistrian companies seeking to export goods through the Ukrainian border must be registered with the Moldovan authorities. This agreement was implemented after the European Union...
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