The Effects of Bullying
Bullying is defined as a repeated aggression in which one or more persons intend to harm or disturb another person physically, verbally or psychologically. It can take many forms such as physical aggression, verbal aggression or social isolation. Bullying is a significant social problem and has likely occurred throughout human history. Research has shown that bullying not only affects a child’s learning but it also has detrimental consequences on a child’s future development. Effects on victims include low self-esteem, depression, school failure and anxiety. Implications for aggressors include delinquent behaviour and low levels of happiness. It will be argued that bullying is not normal and that children are not able to cope with it.
Bullying is acknowledged to be a common and widespread form of violence in the school context in many countries (Smith et al., 1999). Olweus (1993) defines bullying as a subtype of aggressive behaviour in which an aggressor intentionally and repeatedly over time harms a weaker victim either physically and/or psychologically. Effects on victims of bullying include low self-esteem, depression, school failure and in extreme cases, suicide. Bullying is a significant social problem in many countries and presents a serious threat to a healthy development during the school career. Research shows that victims of bullying tend to be withdrawn, cautious and insecure. They also exhibit poor psychosocial functioning. Although victims respond in various ways to bullying, avoidance behaviours are the most common (Batsche & Knoff, 1994; Kumpulainen et al., 1998). On the other hand, research suggests that children identified as bullies demonstrate poorer school adjustment, both in terms of achievement and well-being and also perceive less social support from teachers. This implies that bullying has detrimental consequences for both bullies and victims. This essay is set out to investigate the factors relating to bullying and the
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