Industrial Revolution & After
Total Replacement Fertility- Number of children a couple has to have in order to replace themselves. Stable population. In order to have 0 population growth.
What can reduce/limit population size.
Socio-economic and cultural factors contributing to declining birth/fertility rates. *Female changes in reproductive rates.
Female employment status
Children not needed for family labour
Urbanization (people moving to cities)
Decreased infant mortality
Older age of first marriage
Cost (of birth control)
Pension availability (you’ll be able to take care of yourself. Don’t have to rely on children to take care of you)
High concern for environment among public is a decreasing trend. Should be a non-class addressed issue. Doesn’t matter which party – we’re all going to be affected the same.
Varied political Approaches
Conservative. (Behind the scenes, structured, institutional, radial approaches (GreenPeace) Provoked by alienation from traditional politics.
As a result of freedom of information and education. – IF you have the knowledge, it makes you want to change. Access from companies so that someone is checking. Social Movement
Purposive, collective actions whose outcome, in victory and defeat, transform the values and institutions of society.
Environmentalist – Not the same as environmental scientist. Anyone can be an environmentalist. Environmental Justice
Direct connection between social classes and distribution of environmental issues. Women – poverty, domestic duties, positions of power.
Globally women are still conducting domestic duties (Cleaning, washing, cooking) Exposes them to more toxins & pollutants. Development, implementation and enforcement.
-Hard to implement changes.
-An issue may be more important to some countries than others. Argument against...
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