teenage pregnancy

Topics: Teenage pregnancy, Adolescence, Abortion Pages: 28 (8935 words) Published: February 12, 2014
Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in human females under the age of 20 at the time that the pregnancy ends. A pregnancy can take place in a pubertal female before menarche (the first menstrual period), which signals the possibility of fertility, but usually occurs after menarche. In well-nourished girls, menarche usually takes place around the age of 12 or 13.

Pregnant teenagers face many of the same obstetrics issues as other women. There are, however, additional medical concerns for mothers aged under 15.[2] For mothers aged 15–19, risks are associated more with socioeconomic factors than with the biological effects of age.[3] However, research has shown risks of low birth weight, premature labor, anemia, and pre-eclampsia are connected to the biological age itself, as it was observed in teen births even after controlling for other risk factors (such as utilization of antenatal care etc.).[4][5]

In developed countries, teenage pregnancies are often associated with social issues, including lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty, and other poorer life outcomes in children of teenage mothers. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries is usually outside of marriage, and carries a social stigma in many communities and cultures.

By contrast, teenage parents in developing countries are often married, and their pregnancies welcomed by family and society. However, in these societies, early pregnancy may combine with malnutrition and poor health care to cause medical problems. Definition

The age of the mother is determined by the easily verified date when the pregnancy ends, not by the estimated date of conception.[6] Consequently, the statistics do not include women who became pregnant at least shortly before their 20th birthdays, but who gave birth, experienced a miscarriage, or had a voluntary abortion on or after their 20th birthdays.[6] Similarly, statistics on the mother's marital status are determined by whether she is married at the end of the pregnancy, not at the time of conception. Prevalence

Main article: Prevalence of teenage pregnancy
Teenage birth rate per 1,000 females aged 15–19, 2000–2009[7] Worldwide

In reporting teenage pregnancy rates, the number of pregnancies per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 when the pregnancy ends is generally used.[8]

Worldwide, teenage pregnancy rates range from 143 per 1000 in some sub-Saharan African countries to 2.9 per 1000 in South Korea.[9][10] In the United States, 82% of pregnancies in those between 15 and 19 are unplanned.[11] Among OECD developed countries, the United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand have the highest level of teenage pregnancy, while Japan and South Korea have the lowest in 2001.[12] According to a 2001 UNICEF survey, in 10 out of 12 developed nations with available data, more than two thirds of young people have had sexual intercourse while still in their teens. In Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States, the proportion is over 80%. In Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, approximately 25% of 15-year-olds and 50% of 17-year-olds have had sex.[10] According to The Encyclopedia of Women's Health, published in 2004, approximately 15 million girls under the age of 20 in the world have a child each year. Estimates were that 20–60% of these pregnancies in developing countries are mistimed or unwanted.[13]

Save the Children found that, annually, 13 million children are born to women aged under 20 worldwide, more than 90% in developing countries. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of mortality among women aged 15–19 in such areas.[2] Sub-Saharan Africa

The highest rate of teenage pregnancy in the world is in sub-Saharan Africa, where women tend to marry at an early age.[9] In Niger, for example, 87% of women surveyed were married and 53% had given birth to a child before the age of 18.[14] India

In the Indian subcontinent, early marriage...

References: ^ Jump up to: a b Hamilton, Brady E. and Ventura, Stephanie J. (April 10, 2012). "Birth Rates for U.S. Teenagers Reach Historic Lows for All Age and Ethnic Groups". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
Jump up ^ Teenage pregnancy –Definitions. Statcan.gc.ca (2007-06-05). Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
^ Jump up to: a b Treffers, P. E. (2003). "Teenage pregnancy, a worldwide problem". Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 147 (47): 2320–2325. PMID 14669537. edit
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i UNICEF
Jump up ^ Marnach, M. L.; Long, M. E.; Casey, P. M. (2013). "Current Issues in Contraception". Mayo Clinic Proceedings 88 (3): 295–299. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.01.007. PMID 23489454. edit
Jump up ^ A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations
^ Jump up to: a b "Teen Pregnancy" (2004) in Encyclopedia of Women 's Health.
^ Jump up to: a b c Locoh, Therese (1999). "Early Marriage And Motherhood In Sub-Saharan Africa". African Environment 3–4 (39–40): 31–42. doi:10.4314/ae.v10i3.22558.
Jump up ^ Dawan, Himanshi (28 November 2008). "Teen pregnancies higher in India than even UK, US". The Economic times. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
Jump up ^ U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Rate Drops For 10th Straight Year." Retrieved July 7, 2006.
Jump up ^ Martin, Joyce A.; Hamilton, Brady E.; Sutton, Paul D.; Ventura, Stephanie J.; Menacker, Fay; Kirmeyer, Sharon and Mathews, T.J. (January 7, 2009). "Births: Final Data for 2006". National Vital Statistics Reports 57 (7).
Jump up ^ U.S. teen birth rates fall to historic lows. CBS News (2012-04-10). Retrieved on 2013-09-26.
Jump up ^ Dryburgh, H. (2002). Teenage pregnancy. Health Reports, 12 (1), 9–18; Statistics Canada . (2005). Health Indicators, 2005, 2. Retrieved from Facts and Statistics: Sexual Health and Canadian Youth – Teen Pregnancy Rates
Jump up ^ Stepp, G
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. (2002). Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention 's Link to Other Critical Social Issues PDF (147 KB). Retrieved May 27, 2006.
Jump up ^ Bunting, Madeleine (May 27, 2005). "It isn 't babies that blight young lives". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 25, 2010.
Jump up ^ Males, Mike (2008-07-13). "The real mistake in 'teen pregnancy '". Opinion (Los Angeles Times). Retrieved 2009-02-15.
Jump up ^ Kalmuss DS, Namerow PB (1994). "Subsequent childbearing among teenage mothers: the determinants of a closely spaced second birth". Fam Plann Perspect 26 (4): 149–53, 159. doi:10.2307/2136238. JSTOR 2136238. PMID 7957815.
Jump up ^ Hofferth SL, Reid L (2002). "Early Childbearing and Children 's Achievement And Behavior over Time". Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 34 (1): 41–49. doi:10.2307/3030231. JSTOR 3030231. PMID 11990638.
Jump up ^ Crockenberg S (1987). "Predictors and correlates of anger toward and punitive control of toddlers by adolescent mothers". Child Dev 58 (4): 964–75. doi:10.2307/1130537. JSTOR 1130537. PMID 3608666.
^ Jump up to: a b Furstenberg FF, Levine JA, Brooks-Gunn J (1990). "The children of teenage mothers: patterns of early childbearing in two generations". Fam Plann Perspect 22 (2): 54–61. doi:10.2307/2135509. JSTOR 2135509. PMID 2347409.
Jump up ^ Maynard, Rebecca A. (Ed.). (1996).Kids Having Kids. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
Jump up ^ East, P. L. (1996). "Do adolescent pregnancy and childbearing affect younger siblings?". Family planning perspectives 28 (4): 148–153. doi:10.2307/2136190. PMID 8853279. edit
^ Jump up to: a b East PL, Jacobson LJ (2001)
Jump up ^ East, Patricia L. "Impact Of Adolescent Childbearing On Families And Younger Sibling: Effects That Increase Younger Siblings ' Risk For Early Pregnancy." Applied Developmental Science 2.2 (1998): 62. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Dec. 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b Guttmacher Institute (2003) In Their Own Right: Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Men Worldwide. pp. 19–21.
Jump up ^ Allen, Colin. (May 22, 2003). "Peer Pressure and Teen Sex." Psychology Today. Retrieved July 14, 2006.
^ Jump up to: a b c Besharov, Douglas J. and Gardiner, Karen N. (1997). "Trends in Teen Sexual Behavior". Children and Youth Services Review 19 (5/6): 341–67. doi:10.1016/S0190-7409(97)00022-4.
Jump up ^ Sax, Leonard (2005) Why Gender Matters. Doubleday books, p. 128, ISBN 0786176814
Jump up ^ Slater, Jon
Jump up ^ Adams, A. and D 'Souza, R. (2009). "Teenage contraception". General Practice Update 2 (6): 36–39.
^ Jump up to: a b National Surveys of Family GrowthJames Trussell and L.L. Wynn (January 2008). "Reducing unintended pregnancy in the United States". Contraception 77 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2007.09.001. PMID 18082659.
^ Jump up to: a b J. Joseph Speidel, Cynthia C. Harper, and Wayne C. Shields (2008). "The Potential of Long-acting Reversible Contraception to Decrease Unintended Pregnancy". Contraception.
Jump up ^ "Teenage pregnancy myth dismissed". BBC News. January 22, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
Jump up ^ Study Links Childhood Sexual Abuse, Teen Pregnancy University of Southern California, Science Blog, 2004
^ Jump up to: a b Rosen D (2004)
Jump up ^ Quinlivan J (Winter 2006). "Teenage pregnancy" (PDF). O & G 8 (2): 25–6. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
Jump up ^ "Teenage Conceptions By Small Area Deprivation In England and Wales 2001-2" (Spring 2007)Health Statistics Quarterly Volume 33
Jump up ^ Males, Mike (2001) America’s Pointless "Teen Sex" Squabble, c Youth Today.
Jump up ^ Tamkins, T. (2004) Teenage pregnancy risk rises with childhood exposure to family strife Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, March–April 2004
Jump up ^ Anda, R
Jump up ^ Park, Alice (November 3, 2008). "Sex on TV Increases Teen Pregnancy, Says Report". Time.
Jump up ^ Oringanje, C; Meremikwu, M.; Eko, H; et al. (2009). "Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies among adolescents". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005215.pub2.
Jump up ^ Valk, Guus (July 2000). "The Dutch Model". The UNESCO Courier 53 (7): 19. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
Jump up ^ Hauser, Emily L. (2008-09-07). "Advise, console". Opinion (Chicago Tribune). Retrieved 2009-02-15.
Jump up ^ Fe Moncloa, Marilyn Johns, Elizabeth J. Gong, Stephen Russell, Faye Lee and Estella West (2003). "Best Practices in Teen Pregnancy Prevention Practitioner Handbook". Journal of Extension 41 (2).
Jump up ^ National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. (2007). Do most teens who choose to raise the child get married when they find out they 're pregnant?
Jump up ^ "Census 2001 People aged 16–29" Office For National Statistics
Jump up ^ Joyner, K; Peters, H.E.; Hynes, K; et al. (2012). "The Quality of Male Fertility Data in Major U.S. Surveys". Demography 49 (1). doi:10.1007/s13524-011-0073-9.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay on Teenage Marriage
  • The Negative Effects of Teenage Dating Essay
  • Sample Research Proposal on Teenage Pregnancy Essay
  • Essay on Teen Pregnancy
  • Essay on Against Teen Pregnancy
  • Teenage Marriages Essay
  • Teenage Relationship Essay
  • Teen Pregnancy Paper

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free