A child or young person’s development can be influenced by a range of personal and external factors. Personal factors include genetic inheritance, biological programming, maturation or disability. External factors include insecure early relationships, lack of parental care or control, financial problems/poverty and homelessness, sibling jealousy/rivalry, unrealistic adult expectations/limitations, transitions (such as moving house or schools), inappropriate models, inappropriate learning activities, negative early years’ experience in previous setting , family bereavement or prolonged illness, divorce or separation, family violence or emotional damage through physical/verbal or sexual abuse including being bullied. Childhood experiences and development can have lifelong consequences in terms of health, education and economic status. Personal factors;
Genetic inheritance - All children are unique individuals; babies only a few weeks old already have unique personalities. Children inherit their temperaments which are then influenced by social and environmental factors. It is agreed that children’s personalities are mixture of inheritance (nature) and environmental (nurture).
Biological programming – This is unique internal way our brains operate, learn and develop. Communication and language is an in built disposition in all humans (although the ability may not be there for some due to disability, sensory impairment or learning delay). All children no matter what cultural or lingual background learn in the same manner. First learning one word phrases (holophrases) moving on to two or three word sentences (telegraphic)
Maturation – This refers to the sequences of biological growth and development. As the child matures biologically and developmentally the child acquires new abilities. For example a 3-6 month old baby cannot use language due to the fact his brain has not matured enough to allow him to use language. Before they can talk an infant needs improve upon their thinking and motor skills which requires changes within the brain and nervous system. Another example would be that a child could not learn to tie his shoe laces without first gaining the fine motor skills needed to do so. The maturation of a child is genetically programmed though for a child to reach their full potential the environmental and social conditions need to be optimal i.e. each developmental area needs to be stimulated by providing the child with opportunities of play, social interaction and story time and physical activity and more.
Disability- The individual needs of each varies but more so among children with disabilities, behavioural/social or emotional conditions, learning difficulties, communication or language difficulties or sensory/physical impairment Behavioural social or emotional; conditions that cause the child to lack concentration, can have poor memory skills, lack coordination or be clumsy, can be restless or be/seem distracted. These attributes make it hard for children to learn new skills fine motor skills can be lessened or delayed literacy and numeracy skills that require concentration can take longer to achieve (without additional support). Learning difficulties; learning difficulties is a wide spectrum used to describe children with below average cognitive ability. Usual split into mild, moderate, severe and profound. The needs of mild-moderate learning difficulties can usually be met within a mainstream school with extra support. The intellectual development (sometimes other areas of development can be affected) of the child can be slower due to a cognitive delay. Severe or profound learning difficulties have severe and significant cognitive delay and/or impairments. Because of this intellectual development (this can extend into other developmental categories such as communication, physical social and emotional) can be severely delayed or impaired and majorly effect ability to follow a school’s curriculum...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document