SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND ITS CYTOTOXIC
EFFECT AGAINST THP-1 CANCER CELL LINE
Department of Biotechnology, Modern College, Shivajinagar, University of Pune, Pune, India.
Mrs Rebecca Thombre
Nanotechnology is a field of science which involves the synthesis and applications of nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles (AgNp) have applications in various fields due to their unique optical, physical, electrical and medicinal properties. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by biophysical method. Silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (Surface Plasmon absorption at 418-420 nm), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X- ray diffraction (XRD). The cytotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles on acute myeloid leukemia cell line (THP – 1 cell line) was studied in vitro. The activity of chemotherapeutic drugs Cyclophosphamide and Busulfan was enhanced in presence of silver nanoparticles whereas Mercaptopurine was found to be more effective when used individually against the THP- 1 cell line.
Silver nanoparticles, Anti-cancerous property, Cyclophosphamide, Mercaptopurine, Busulfan
Nanotechnology is a promising arena and has exposed a panorama of applications in industrial, mechanical and medical field. In general nanoparticles are defined as particles with size < 100nm. Various methods are used for the synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles like chemical 1, electrochemical 2, laser ablation 5, photochemical 4 and biological, γ-radiation 3. Among all metallic nanoparticles, silver (Ag) nanoparticles are used in diverse fields because of their unique physical, chemical as well as their anti cancerous property
Silver nanoparticles are
generally produced by chemical methods including reductions of silver salts such as silver nitrate, silver sulphate by different reducing agents such as hydrazine hydrate 8, ethanol 9, Isopropyl alcohol 10
, Polyvinyl Alcohol
and also by using other methods such as the sol-gel route
precipitation13. Ag nanoparticles were produced by physical methods including, γ-radiation 3, microwave irradiations 9, and ultra sonication vibrations 10.
In recent years, the approach of production was shifted towards less harmful and eco friendly biological methods which involve extracts from plants such as Carica papaya 14, Ocimum15 and Capsicum annuum16. Synthesis of nanoparticles can be brought about by usingsome microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis 17 and fungi like Penicillium sp.containing extracellular or intracellular enzymes18. Biosynthetic methods utilize either biological microorganisms or plant extracts which have emerged as a simple and possible alternative to chemical synthesis procedures and physical methods17. Some bacteria and fungus secrete minute, diffusible redox compounds that can operate as electron shuttle linking the microbes and the insoluble iron substrate. It was evident thatsuch compounds or reducing agents (e.g.Glycosyltransferase, Reductase, and Hydroquinones) reduce the metallic ions to nanoparticles19. Such reduction takes place within minutes and is very rapid20.Microwave radiation9, γ-radiation3 raise the temperature of system which support the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles19.
Silver Nanoparticles displays a synergistic effect21 and also a cytotoxic effect on cell viability which have a chief role in antitumor and anticancer effect22. Silver nanoparticles aid in gathering and transporting drug into the cancer cells21 and they also obstruct with metabolism of cancer and tumor proliferation6. There are diverse types of leukemia like chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia23. Several drugs such as...
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