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BODY IN MOTION

How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement.
Skeletal system
Axial = provides a central framework and support axis that includes the skull, vertebral column, sternum and ribs
Appendicular = includes all bones of the limbs as well as shoulder girdle and pelvis which attach them to the axial skeleton major bones involved in movement structure and function of synovial joints; freely moveable and allow for us to exercise e.g. knee ankle hip shoulders and wrists types of synovial joints include
1. hinge; opens and shuts like a door hinge, allows for flexion and extension only e.g. elbow, knee, jaw, fingers
2. ball + socket; shoulder and hip
3. pivot; one bone rotated around the other e.g. atlas and axis
4. gliding; bones that slide across each other e.g. carpals/tarsals
5. saddle; one bone sits atop another e.g. thumb
6. condyloid; bones articulate together e.g. wrist joint actions e.g. flexion extension muscular system major muscles involved in movement. Types include:
1. cardiac muscle; the heart - involuntary and works automatically
2. smooth muscle; found in intestines and is involuntary
3. skeletal muscles; controlled voluntarily and is the muscle used to perform movement
- muscle relationship; muscles work in pairs so that when one muscle contracts to create a desired movement it’s “partner: must relax and stretch to allow the bones to move. This is known as “reciprocal inhibition” . e.g. during hamstring curls, hamstring works while quads relax and stretch. The muscle working is contracting – agonist, opposing muscle is relaxing – antagonist
- types of muscle contraction; When muscles are relaxed they are soft and loose but when they contract to produce a force they become hard and elastic. Two main types of contractions are isotonic; (equal tension) the muscle develops a force in lifting and lowering a load. 1. Concentric isotonic– the muscle develops

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