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Topics: Health, Public health, Blood Pages: 12 (3646 words) Published: October 10, 2013

How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement. Skeletal system
Axial = provides a central framework and support axis that includes the skull, vertebral column, sternum and ribs Appendicular = includes all bones of the limbs as well as shoulder girdle and pelvis which attach them to the axial skeleton major bones involved in movement

structure and function of synovial joints; freely moveable and allow for us to exercise e.g. knee ankle hip shoulders and wrists types of synovial joints include
1. hinge; opens and shuts like a door hinge, allows for flexion and extension only e.g. elbow, knee, jaw, fingers 2. ball + socket; shoulder and hip
3. pivot; one bone rotated around the other e.g. atlas and axis 4. gliding; bones that slide across each other e.g. carpals/tarsals 5. saddle; one bone sits atop another e.g. thumb
6. condyloid; bones articulate together e.g. wrist
joint actions e.g. flexion extension
muscular system
major muscles involved in movement. Types include:
1. cardiac muscle; the heart - involuntary and works automatically 2. smooth muscle; found in intestines and is involuntary
3. skeletal muscles; controlled voluntarily and is the muscle used to perform movement - muscle relationship; muscles work in pairs so that when one muscle contracts to create a desired movement it’s “partner: must relax and stretch to allow the bones to move. This is known as “reciprocal inhibition” . e.g. during hamstring curls, hamstring works while quads relax and stretch. The muscle working is contracting – agonist, opposing muscle is relaxing – antagonist - types of muscle contraction; When muscles are relaxed they are soft and loose but when they contract to produce a force they become hard and elastic. Two main types of contractions are isotonic; (equal tension) the muscle develops a force in lifting and lowering a load. 1. Concentric isotonic– the muscle develops tension while shortening e.g. upward phase of a bicep curl. 2. Eccentric isotonic – the muscle develops tension while lengthening e.g. downward face of bicep curl. This phase occurs when the muscle is acting as a brake against gravity. Isometric (no change in length) isometric exercise are those done where a muscle develops tension without changing length e.g. downhill skiing, surfing, holding poses in gymnastics. Respiratory system

Using oxygen in metabolic reactions to create energy which produce carbon dioxide. - structure and function; organs include the nose, pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi and the lungs. The respiratory systems functions are to breath in air, transfer oxygen into the blood, remove carbon dioxide from blood, return air to environment and create speech. - lung function: respiration is the exchange of gases between the cells, blood and atmosphere. Pulmonary ventilation (breathing) allows a continuous flow of air from outside into and out of the lung alveoli. Inspiration – occurs when air outside has a higher pressure than in the lungs. Diaphragm muscle contracts and flattens whilst inter-coastal muscles raise the thorax and sternum out. Chest cavity gets bigger which lowers the pressure in the lungs to less that that of the environment. Expiration – the diaphragm muscle relaxes and forms a dome shape whilst the intercostal muscle relax to lower the thorax and sternum in. The chest cavity gets smaller which raises the pressure in the lungs to more than that of the environment. - exchange of gases: this occurs because of differences in pressure levels. It begins with the inspiration and ends with the expiration of a breath. When the pressure is lower inside the lungs (expiration) air that is weighed down with oxygen is drain into the lungs and as the pressure increases as a result of inspiration gaseous exchange occurs in the alveoli. Pulmonary diffusion refers to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the...
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