Dr. Maria Melvyn Alamis
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
151 Muralla St. Intramuros, Manila
Dear Ms. Alamis:
We are submitting to you the research, due March 2, 2015 that you requested. The research is titled Sufficiency and Effectiveness of the Design of Angat Dam. The purpose of the research is to inform you of the structural design of the dam. The content of this research concentrates on the structural aspects of Angat dam. This research also discusses the purpose, effects, and the risks in constructing a dam. If you have any questions regarding our research and paper, feel free to ask Paolo Pio Alaan at email@example.com . Sincerely,
Paolo Pio Alaan
Sufficiency and Effectiveness of the Design of Angat Dam
A Research Proposal submitted to the
Faculty of Engineering of
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements for oral communication
Alaan, Paolo Pio
Atijera, Renzo Angelo
Ma. Melvyn P. Alamis, Ph.D.
February, 25, 2015
Dams are barriers that hold water or underground streams. They are huge walls of stone or concrete built in a path of a river to form an artificial lake or reservoir. They have the most important roles in utilizing water resources. It is constructed long years before gaining present information about hydrology and hydromechanics. It’s not an ordinary engineering building. Dam projects are useful in meeting the demand for water in desired times and in regulating stream system, have undertaken an important function in the development of civilization. It serves a primary purpose of retaining water.
Dams have different kinds of purposes like in irrigation, hydropower, water supply for domestic and industrial use, inland navigation, and flood control. It has been a great use since the early times. Dams were used to control water level and release the extra if it reaches the critical level. The reservoir may be used as a water supply for towns and cities, or to produce electricity in a power station.
The Dam is most important and sensitive part of the hydroelectric power plants. It holds a large quantity of water which is used for human consumption and generating electricity. Improper use of location, materials and design may lead into a devastating effect in the surrounding areas. There is a high risk when creating dams that’s why risk factors should be considered. The factors to be considered when making a dam are the maximum quantity of water in river, the effect of earthquake in the area, the impact in the surrounding environment, and human displacement. These factors may affect the structure of the dam, if not considered it may destroy the whole basin of the dam.
The ancient Egyptian built the first known dam to exist using limestone. The dam was called the Sadd el-Kafara. The first dam was a failure and the Egyptians never built another dam until modern times. The second dam was Nimrod in Mesopotamia around 2000BC using clays, earth and wood. And the Romans are the first to use concrete and mortar for their gravity dams. In modern times the commonly used dams are the arch dams and buttress dams.
Dams are classified into different types it could be by size, use and material. The four basic types are the Gravity, Arch, Buttress, Embankment dams (Fig 1).
The concept of Dam and water resource system was came from our colonial masters like the Spaniards and Americans. In the Philippines one of the most famous dams is the Angat Dam, which is the supplier of water in the Manila Metropolitan Area. It was built in October 1967, which cost of almost 315.344 Million pesos. It is located in Norzagaray, Bulucan, Philippines. It does not only supply potable water but also it supplies energy in the Metro Manila area. The operator of the Angat Dam is the NAPOCOR or...
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