Study Guide on Natural Selection and Conditioning

Pages: 6 (1547 words) Published: March 21, 2015
Exam 1 review
Quiz 1 review
A major problem with natural selection as an adaptive mechanism is that it is slow.   —true Natural selection helps the individual adapt to changes in its environment during its lifetime.—false Every known reflex contributes to the individual’s survival. --false Learning is defined as – a change in behavior

Most mutations --- are not helpful to survival
Bridger (1961) found that infants’ heart rate increased when a novel sound was presented, but that heart rate increased less and less each time the sound was presented. This is an example of --- habituation A reflex is best defined as ---  

a relationship between an event and a simple response
The author of your text evidently believes that--- learning is the way of adapting to change Variation and natural selection are the foundations of – evolution Behavior is anything an animal or person does that can be—measured

The rooting of pigs (for worms, larvae, and truffles) is an example of a- MAP

The evolution of most species is now complete.-False

The chief advantage of learning over natural selection as a means of adapting to change is that learning- is faster

Learning is an evolved-modifiability
Experience refers to---events that affect behavior

Quiz 2
Learning researchers note that results with humans usually parallel (i.e., show the same effects as) those with non-human animals.-- True Experiments differ from other ways of acquiring knowledge in that they allow one to – determine cause and effect Response topography is measured moment by moment on a cumulative record.—false All of the following are reasons nonhuman animal research is conducted EXCEPT which? --- can develop computer models to answer questions Harry teaches an advanced painting class. His goal is to teach students to paint more creatively. Harry will probably measure learning as a change in response—topography Which of the following describes the difference between a general search and a focal search? -- General searches occur when an animal does not yet know specifically where to look for food, while focal searches are spatially localized. A variable that an experimenter manipulates is a/an ____ variable --- independent A person who says, "Everyone knows that...." is referring to—anecdotal evidence Which of the following is likely to be the most stereotyped response?—squirrel eating a walnut An operational definition is like a recipe for a stimulus or behavior.—true

The statement, “She went swimming because she just felt like it” is an example of------a circular explanation Which of the following most correctly describes a sign stimulus?--- sufficient for eliciting a modal action pattern

The natural science approach emphasizes physical events.----True

The main problem with using computer simulations as a substitute for animal research is that----no one knows what behavior to program until the research has been done A survey found a significant positive correlation between taxi drivers wearing coats and number of traffic accidents. From this we can conclude that wearing a coat disrupts driving and causes accidents.-----False In between-group experiments, researchers often use ____ to make the two groups be equivalent.-----random sampling

A ____ explanation is one in which the evidence for the explanation of an event is the event itself.-----circular

Quiz 3
A tone was paired with meat powder until the tone elicited salivation. Then, a black square was paired with the tone. The black square soon elicited salivation. This is an example of _____.—higher order conditioning The procedure of pairing a neutral stimulus with a well-established CS is called higher-order conditioning.—true In Pavlovian conditioning, contiguity usually refers to the ____-- time between CS and US

If a NS is presented several times alone, and is then repeatedly paired with a US, conditioning proceeds more rapidly than if the NS had never been presented alone. False...
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