1) What is the difference between pseudoscience and scientific evidence? Pseudoscience: anything being presented, as scientific but is not. Usually characterized by exaggerations, UN falsifiable claims, and anecdotes.
Scientific Evidence: A process of inquiry followed by a body of knowledge.
2) Describe 3 main types of scientific inquiry: 3 types of scientific inquiry. Descriptive: what’s out there? Observing, no manipulations of variables Comparative: Seeks to describe relationships and correlations between variables Experimentation: Uses scientific method. Manipulation of variables under controlled conditions in order to infer cause and affect relationships Researcher forms a hypothesis
Manipulates a variable of interest,
Records and analyze results
Tries to make a conclusion regarding the hypothesis
3) What does correlation does not mean causation mean?
Correlation does not mean causations means just because there is a connection between two variables doesn’t mean they are the cause of each other. It is important to understand because as a member of the general public, I may think the answer to a specific issue is solved/simple just by seeing a similarity or connection when in fact I’m not seeing all the other variables or reasoning etc.
4) How is information disseminated from primary research in a lab down to the general public? Scientific Investigations
Peer reviewed Scientific Journals
(Primary research articles)
Peer reviewed Scientific Journals
(Research review articles)
Popular science magazines/textbooks
Popular press (newspapers, magazines, television, internet)
5) What is the difference between mass media sources and scholarly sources? What are the differences between primary research articles and review articles?
A review article is a secondary source that is written about other articles and does not report original research of its own. A primary research article reports the methods and results of an original study performed by the authors. This kind of study always has raw data that’s been collected and analyzed by the author and conclusions draw from the results of the analysis.
Mass media sources:
Easy to read
Not written by an expert
No actual data
Found in scholarly journals
Written by researcher who did the experiment
Experimental design explained in details
6) How do you read a scholarly scientific article?
Abstract: overview of articles and results. Do you still want to read on? Discussion: What were the results, researchers conclusion
Intro: Describes motivation and importance of the research, provides background information Results: raw data, summarized often in tables/charts. Texts provide extra details Materials/Method: procedures used by researchers/often technical and confusing Reference: use these to search other important articles on the specific topic
7) What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism is taking an idea of someone else’s and making it your own.
8) What are the 4 ways you can avoid plagiarism?
Paraphrasing: rewrite ideas
Interpretation: interpret your own understanding of material Citation: direct quotes, paraphrasing, borrowing and idea
Quotations: only use when statements will lose meaning if reworded
9) Follow proper APA referencing standards.
Articles titles are not italicized/journals are.
(Last name, year).
10) What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative observations?
Qualitative: Descriptive, may be interpreted differently by others. No numbers or units
Ex. It is cold outside
Quantitative: not descriptive/objective. Uses numbers. Interpreted the same by everyone.
Ex. It is -5 outside
11) Be able to use metric system conversion factor table to derive different metric system units.
12) Be able to use a conversion...
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