Topics: Love, Gender role, Social psychology Pages: 13 (2625 words) Published: April 16, 2015

Liking: Friendship
Infatuation: puppy love
Empty: empty-shell marriage (staying in a marriage for the children) Romantic: a holiday romance
Companionate: committed marriage
Fatuous: whirlwind courtship
Consummate: all three components are present to a substantial degree SECOND MODEL
Passionate and companionate love (Hatfield & Berscheid, 1978) Scores between 106-135 indicate Extremely passionate you are wildly and recklessly in love Scores between 86-105 indicate passionate
Scores between 66-85 average
Scores between 45-65 cool
Scores between 15-44 extremely cool
Passionate love:
Characterized by high arousal, intense attraction, and fear of rejection

According to Hatfield & Berscheid there are three factors necessary for passionate love to occur: 1. Knowledge of what love is (e.g., movies, books, songs etc.) 2. Physiological arousal
3. Belief that another person is responsible for those feelings of arousal Excitation transfer theory (Zillman, 1983) arousal or excitation created from one stimuli can amplify the excitation response to a totally different stimuli due to prior excitation not completely decaying yet. Companionate Love “The affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined” ATTACHMENT THEORY

Based on child/parent attachments
For adult romantic relationships
Hazen and Shaver suggested this model
Secure 56%(65%)
Avoidant 25% (23)
Anxious 19% (12%)
According to Bartholomew there are 2 types of avoidant attachment style 1. Fearful-avoidant negative view of self (low self-esteem), negative view of others (low interpersonal trust) 2. Dismissing avoidant positive view of self (high self-esteem) negative view of others (low interpersonal trust) SOCIAL INFLUENCE Chapter 8

The term social influence really refers to the attempts by others to influence our ideas, thoughts, behaviours, attitudes etc. There are three different types of social influence we will discuss 1. Conformity going along with the crowd

2. Compliance agreeing to a direct request from someone
3. Obedience being ordered to do something
Conformity refers to the tendency to change our attitudes, beliefs or behaviors in ways that are consistent with those around us. One of the first studies of conformity was conducted by Soloman Asch (1950s) “visual judgment” studies

More than ¾ of the participants (76%) went along at least once with others incorrect answers Of those 37% went along with the others all of the time
Factors the influence conformity
Group size: conformity rates level off about after about 3 or 4 confederates Unanimity: having one confederate break with the others drastically reduced conformity Writing down answers: (as opposed to saying then out loud) conformity almost completely disappeared Attractiveness of group: we conform more when we have a strong desire to belong to a group Age: conformity is highest in adolescence

Gender: people with more masculine gender roles (regardless of their gender) conform less than people with more feminine gender roles People are reluctant to break Social Norms which are unspoken, but shared rules about common, everyday behaviors. There are two kinds of social norms Descriptive norms which are what most people in a group think, feel or do, and Injunctive norms which is what most people in a group approve of. Why do people conform?

1. Normative influence: going along to get along (e.g., to be liked and accepted by others). Public conformity: publically agreeing with others, without necessarily believing them. Private acceptance: (aka private conformity) agreeing with others and genuinely believing them to be right 2. Informational influence: going along to be right

Minority influence: process whereby a small number of people in a group lead to an overall change in the group’s attitudes beliefs, or behaviours. Consistency is key!
Majorities often cause...
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