Solar Power

Topics: Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Solar cell Pages: 25 (8373 words) Published: April 3, 2013
Solar power
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about generation of electricity using solar energy. For other uses of solar energy, see Solar energy. The PS10 concentrates sunlight received from a field of heliostats onto a central tower.

Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaics convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect.[1] Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. The 354 MW SEGS CSP installation is the largest solar power plant in the world, located in the Mojave Desert of California. Other large CSP plants include the Solnova Solar Power Station (150 MW) and the Andasol solar power station (150 MW), both in Spain. The over 200 MW Agua Caliente Solar Project in the United States, and the 214 MW Charanka Solar Park in India, are the world’s largest photovoltaic power stations.

Applications

Average insolation showing land area (small black dots) required to replace the world primary energy supply with solar electricity. 18 TW is 568 Exajoule (EJ) per year. Insolation for most people is from 150 to 300 W/m2 or 3.5 to 7.0 kWh/(m2day). Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. Sunlight can be converted directly into electricity using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly with concentrated solar power (CSP), which normally focuses the sun's energy to boil water which is then used to provide power. Other technologies also exist, such as Stirling engine dishes which use a Stirling cycle engine to power a generator. Photovoltaics were initially used to power small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to off-grid homes powered by a photovoltaic array. Concentrating solar power

Further information: Solar thermal energy and Concentrated solar power

Dish Stirling
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. The concentrated heat is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant. A wide range of concentrating technologies exists; the most developed are the parabolic trough [discuss], the concentrating linear fresnel reflector, the Stirling dish and the solar power tower. Various techniques are used to track the Sun and focus light. In all of these systems a working fluid is heated by the concentrated sunlight, and is then used for power generation or energy storage.[2] Thermal storage efficiently allows up to 24 hour electricity generation.[3]

A parabolic trough consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned along the reflector's focal line. The receiver is a tube positioned right above the middle of the parabolic mirror and is filled with a working fluid. The reflector is made to follow the Sun during the daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. Parabolic trough systems provide the best land-use factor of any solar technology.[4] The SEGS plants in California and Acciona's Nevada Solar One near Boulder City, Nevada are representatives of this technology.[5][6] Compact Linear Fresnel Reflectors are CSP-plants which use many thin mirror strips instead of parabolic mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto two tubes with working fluid. This has the advantage that flat mirrors can be used which are much cheaper than parabolic mirrors, and that more reflectors can be placed in the same amount of space, allowing more of the available sunlight to be used. Concentrating linear fresnel reflectors can be used in either large or more compact plants.[7][8] The Stirling solar dish combines a parabolic concentrating dish with a Stirling engine which normally drives an electric generator....

References: ^ Martin and Goswami (2005), p. 45
^ Spanish CSP Plant with Storage Produces Electricity for 24 Hours Straight
^ Perlin (1999), p. 147
^ Corporation, Bonnier (June 1931)
^ Perlin (1999), pp. 18–20
^ Perlin (1999), p
^ Perlin (1999), p. 29–30, 38
^ a b c Solar Cells and their Applications Second Edition, Lewis Fraas, Larry Partain, Wiley, 2010, ISBN 978-0-470-44633-1 , Section10.2.
^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 63, 77, 101
^ "The Solar Energy Book-Once More." Mother Earth News 31:16–17, Jan
^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 249
^ Yergin (1991), pp
^ a b c d e f g h PV Resources.com (2011). World 's largest photovoltaic power plants
^ "DOE Closes on Four Major Solar Projects"
^ Steve Leone (7 December 2011). "Billionaire Buffett Bets on Solar Energy". Renewable Energy World.
^ Roca, Mark (December 29th, 2011). "Europe’s Biggest Solar Park Completed With Russian Bank Debt". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
^ Choudhury, Debasish (20 August 2009). "Lieberose solar farm becomes Germany 's biggest, World 's second-biggest". Global Solar Technology.
^ What is peak demand?
^ RSS Feed for Craig Rubens Email Craig Rubens Craig Rubens (8 August 2008)
^ Andasol 1 has started test run. Solarmillennium.de (15 October 2008). Retrieved 8 November 2011.
^ a b John Quiggin (3 January 2012). "The End of the Nuclear Renaissance". National Interest.
^ Robert Glennon and Andrew M. Reeves, Solar Energy 's Cloudy Future, 1 Ariz. J. Evtl. L. & Pol 'y, 91, 106 (2010) available at http://ajelp.com/documents/GlennonFinal.pdf
^ Mark Clifford (8 February 2012)
^ Andrew Blakers and Klaus Weber, “The Energy Intensity of Photovoltaic Systems”, Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University, 2000.
^ Lund, John W. (June 2007). "Characteristics, Development and utilization of geothermal resources". Geo-Heat Centre Quarterly Bulletin 28 (2) (Klamath Falls, Oregon: Oregon Institute of Technology). pp. 1–9. ISSN 0276-1084. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
^ "IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: 4.3.2 Nuclear energy". IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change. The Nobel Foundation. 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
^ Carr (1976), p. 85
^ "Wind + sun join forces at Washington power plant"
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