Socio-economic determinants to the nutritional status of childrens.

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Chapter II: Review of Related Literature Malnutrition in children is very critical and alarming because undernourished children are more likely to die from common childhood ailments, and for those who survive, have recurring sicknesses and growth faltering. 1 It is a seemingly serious public health problem that can be lead to morbidity and mortality. That’s why most of the studies are concerned about the child nutrition and health that focuses on the causal factor such as the socioeconomic factors to determine the possible reason behind it and to alleviate it existence. Malnutrition in early childhood is associated with significant functional impairment in adult life, reduced work capacity, and decreasing economic productivity. 2 Researches show that the root causes of many health problems especially malnutrition is poverty. It found out that those who lived in developing countries with low family income have the most malnourished children. Asia, Africa, and Latin America have a higher prevalence of malnutrition according to the studies. 3 The children from households with a low or very low socioeconomic status had 2.5 times the risk of being underweight relative to children who came from households with middle to upper socioeconomic status. 4 As evidenced by the studies, it is clear that childhood malnutrition is associated with a number of socioeconomic and environmental characteristics such as poverty, parents ' education/occupation, and access to health care services. 3,5 In the study done by Nabeela Fazal Babar, Rizwana Muzaffar, Muhammad Athar Khan, Seema Imdad, that focused on the socioeconomic inequalities of parents of the students ages 5-11 from public and private schools. The findings concluded that the important factors responsible for the poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class are poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, mother’s education. To alleviate that, economic, political and social


References: 8 FNRI-DOST. 2011 Survey on Updating Nutritional Status of Filipino Children and Other Population Groups 9 Jamorabo-Ruiz, Serraon-Claudio, Dirige 12 Saltman, R. B. (1997). Equity and distributive justice in European health care reform. International Journal of Health Services, 27(3), 443-453. 15 Latham, M. 1979. Human Nutrition in Tropical Africa. Food and Nutrition Series No. 11, Rev. 1, Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome. 17 Dellova, C., Roxas, M.G., Velasco, Z., Pataunia, M.C. 2009. ABC’s of Nutrition and Diet Therapy for Nursing Students and Healthcare Practitioners. Mutya Publishing House, Inc. 21 Duncan, G. and Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000) ‘Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development’, Child Development, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 188–196 22 Aber, J 23 Bartley M. 1994. Unemployment and ill health: understanding the relationship. JEpidemiol Community Health 48: 333-7. 24 Barnett P, Howden-Chapman P, Smith A. 1995. Unemployment, work and health: opportunities for healthy public policy. N Z Med J 108: 138-40. 25 Mathers CD, Schofield DJ. 1998. The health consequences of unemployment: the evidence. Med J Aust 168: 178-82. 26 Morrell SL, Taylor RJ, Kerr CB. 1998. Unemployment and young people’s health. Med J Aust 168: 236-40. 27 PHC. 1993. Our Health, Our Future. The state of the public health in New Zealand 1993. Wellington: Public Health Commission. 28 Bamfield, L. (2007) Born Unequal: Why we need a progressive pre-birth agenda. London: Fabian Society 29 TUC (2007) Cutting the Cost of Child Poverty. TUC. Available at http://www.tuc.org.uk/ publications/viewPub.cfm?frmPubID=525 30 Fabian Society (2006) Narrowing the Gap: The final report of the Fabian Commission on Life Chances and Child Poverty Dowling, S., Joughin, C., Logan, S., Laing, G. and Roberts, H. (2003) Financial Benefits and Child Health. London: City University HM Treasury (2004) Chid Poverty Review HM Treasury (2008) Ending Child Poverty: Everybody’s Business. London: Crown. Available at http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/3/F/ bud08_childpoverty_1310.pdf.

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