Social Infrastructure

Topics: Sociology, Social work, Social sciences Pages: 12 (3963 words) Published: November 2, 2008
Table of Contents
1. Social Work
1.2. Origins
1.3. Qualifications for social work
1.4. Role of the professional social worker
1.5. Professional social work associations
1.6. Social work knowledge building
2. Education in Kazakhstan
2.1. Public Funding of Education
2.2. Projects and Programs
2.3. Problems
3. Social Projects
3.1. Karachaganak Petroleum Operating Company’s Social Projects 3.2. Yerzhan Tatishev’s Foundation’s Social Projects
4. Health Care System
4.1. Financing
4.2. Health Care System in Kazakhstan
The List of Used Literature


Social Infrastructure consists of different kinds of Government’s and not only its activities. I examined this subject on Kazakhstan’s example. First of all let’s determine what Social Infrastructure means. Sociology (from Latin: socitus, "companion"; and the suffix -ology, "the study of", from Greek λόγος, lógos, "knowledge") is the systematic and scientific study of society and societal behavior. Infrastructure is generally structural elements that provide the framework supporting an entire structure. The term has diverse meanings in different fields, but is perhaps most widely understood to refer to roads, airports, and utilities. These various elements may collectively be termed civil infrastructure, municipal infrastructure, or simply public works, although they may be developed and operated as private-sector or government enterprises. So basically, social infrastructure is a system of social services, networks and facilities that support people and communities. In social sciences, infrastructure is the set of socio-psychological feedback loops that maintain a coherent and meaningful structure in a given society, or part thereof. It can include the culture, institutions, power structures, roles, and rituals of the society. It is that which, through conditioned behaviors (both interpersonal and situational), enforces a set of constraints and guidelines on human activity in a stable and effective fashion, such that it engenders a society's characteristic organization, and it is that characteristic organization itself. By most sociological schema, infrastructure does not refer to the specific materials of an organization, such as a school or a store, but rather to the set of psychological or semantic configurations whereby that structure is rationalized and reproduced in human experience. That is, it is the "invisible force" behind or within the structure, or perhaps, it is the anthropocentric "reason" for the structure. According to one sociological perspective, infrastructure may be revealed by examining the direct interpersonal engagements that take place within canonical (typical) settings or situations, through the hermeneutic of sociobiology.

1. Social Work
Workers are concerned with social problems, their causes, their solutions and their human impacts. Social workers work with individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities, as members of a profession which is committed to social justice and human rights. Their approach is to consider the whole individual (including their biological, psychological, sociological, familial, cultural, and spiritual subsystems) within the context of their current situation. Social Work is the profession committed to the pursuit of social justice, to the enhancement of the quality of life, and to the development of the full potential of each individual, group and community in society. 1.2. Origins

The concept of charity goes back to ancient times, and the practice of providing for the poor has roots in all major world religions. However, the practice and profession of social work has a relatively modern (19th century) and scientific origin. Charity in Europe was considered to be a responsibility and a sign of one’s piety. This charity was, generally, in the form of direct relief (i.e. money, food, etc.). After the end of feudalism, a need arose to have an...
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