whole. The fact that Indian literatures are a product of a multilingual, multicultural and socio-historical mélange cannot be overlooked. Today Indian literature reached at the apex of creation with the contribution of regional and national writers.
This researcher would like to focus on the root and brief literary history of Indian writing in English and the genre – novel in Indo-Anglian literature up to the time of Mulk Raj Anand for better understanding of his novel. Here, it is essential to mention the brief history of Indian writing in English and the contributors of it. Along with the list of the contributors in Indian writing in English, the rise of the new form of literature- novel in India is also necessary to focus. For that researcher would like to divide the history of Indian writing in English into three parts, first to understand the beginning and exploration of Indian writing in English by major contributors, second for the rise and development of new literary genre (novel) in Indo-Anglian literature and third to understand Anand as a novelist. These three parts are foundation of my research work. On the basis of the understanding of the Indo-Anglian literature and the rise and development of novel in Indo-Anglian literature, the major novels of Mulk Raj Anand can be judged properly.
Indo-Anglian literature contributed to the common pool of world writing in English. It is a literature which is a combination of Indian
literature and Indian literature written in English. Indian English Literature refers to the body of work by writers in India who write in the English and whose native or co-native language could be one of the numerous languages of India. It is also associated with the works of members of the Indian Diaspora. It is frequently referred to as IndoAnglian literature. As a category, this production comes under the broader realm of postcolonial literature- the production from previously colonized countries such as India. Indian English literature has a relatively recent history; it is only one and a half centuries old. The first book written by an Indian in English was by Sake Dean Mahomet, titled Travels of Dean Mahomet; Mahomet's travel narrative was published in 1793 in England. In its early stages it was influenced by the Western art form of the novel. Early Indian writers used English unadulterated by Indian words to convey an experience which was essentially Indian.
Indian writings in English are a product of the historical encounter between the two cultures—Indian and the western—for about one hundred and ninety years. It isn’t that Indian people didn’t experience the impact of a foreign culture. It did during the reigns of various foreign rulers. But the difference with the British rule lies in the nature of the economic system that had come into being in Europe after the Renaissance, described by Marx as capitalist system. Before the
introduction of the British rule India had the feudal economic system, in accordance with which the vast population of the country, having various religious faiths and conforming to the caste system, tried to live their life, sometimes fatalistically and sometimes stoically. Above all, it was a closed society with a peculiar cultural racial intolerance. In fact, India had been awaiting a political and cultural change, which became necessary after the weakening and disintegration of the Mogul Empire. British rule in India, first of all, resulted in breaking the barrier of that closed society. Then the greatest cultural impact came with the establishment of four universities and with the introduction of western educational system. The English language provided the natives with a way to the western literature and to the western culture, of course. English...
References: M.K.Naik, A History of Indian English Literature (New Delhi:
Sahitya Akademi, 1995), p.52.
M.K.Naik, A History of Indian English Literature (New Delhi:
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William Walsh, R.K.Narayan: A Critical Appreciation (New Delhi:
Allied Publishers, 1993), p
E.M.Forster, In the preface to Untouchable (London: Lawrence &
Wishart, 1935), p
Manmohan Bhatnagar ed. Indian Writing in English (Delhi:
Atlantic Publishers, 1997), p.182.
Saros Cowasjee, So Many Freedom: A Study of The Major
Fiction of Mulk Raj Anand (Madras: Oxford Uni.Press, 1977), p.7.
Mulk Raj Anand, The Big Heart ( Hutchinson : International
Authors, 1945), p.205.
M.K.Naik, Ironic Vision (Delhi: Sterling publishers, 1963), p.1.
Paul Verghese, Problems of Indian Creative Writing in English
(Delhi: Book Enclave, 1998), p.27.
Mulk Raj Anand, Apology For Heroism (Bombay: A.P.H., 1957),
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