segregation

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Race is an ambiguous concept possessed by individuals, and according to sociologists Michael Omi and Howard Winant, it is socially constructed; it also signifies differences and structure inequalities. Race divides people through categories which led to cultural and social tensions. It also determined inclusion, exclusion, and segregation in U.S society. Both inclusion and exclusion tie together to create the overall process of segregation — one notion cannot occur without resulting in the others. Segregation is a form of separation in terms of race that includes the processes of inclusion and exclusion. Race was the main factor that caused conflicts among people in society in the realms of culture, education, and residential. Historians, sociologists, and other educators such as Macias, Kelley, Menchaca, Valencia, and Sugrue have researched the issue of segregation, how people use it to include and exclude others, as well as the consequences that followed.
In the U.S society, Whites have fought to prevent interactions between them and Blacks throughout the centuries. One method of segregation that included inclusion and exclusion was through public housing — Whites reinforced means to drive Blacks out of their neighborhoods. In Thomas J. Sugrue's article, "Crabgrass-Roots Politics: Race, Rights, and the Reaction against Liberalism in the Urban North, 1940-1964," he addressed this issue of segregation in public housing for African-Americans. Whites in Detroit, Michigan were preventing the black population from "invading their enclaves." (65) The city of Detroit attracted many African-American migrants after World War II and those who sought upward mobility wanted better housing in primarily white sections of the city. Therefore racial tensions and segregation began as urban whites were "redefining urban geography and urban politics in starkly racial terms" in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. (66) Whites both excluded Blacks and included themselves within an area by

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