Topics: Racism, Race, Black people Pages: 5 (1567 words) Published: October 28, 2014
Race is an ambiguous concept possessed by individuals, and according to sociologists Michael Omi and Howard Winant, it is socially constructed; it also signifies differences and structure inequalities. Race divides people through categories which led to cultural and social tensions. It also determined inclusion, exclusion, and segregation in U.S society. Both inclusion and exclusion tie together to create the overall process of segregation — one notion cannot occur without resulting in the others. Segregation is a form of separation in terms of race that includes the processes of inclusion and exclusion. Race was the main factor that caused conflicts among people in society in the realms of culture, education, and residential. Historians, sociologists, and other educators such as Macias, Kelley, Menchaca, Valencia, and Sugrue have researched the issue of segregation, how people use it to include and exclude others, as well as the consequences that followed. In the U.S society, Whites have fought to prevent interactions between them and Blacks throughout the centuries. One method of segregation that included inclusion and exclusion was through public housing — Whites reinforced means to drive Blacks out of their neighborhoods. In Thomas J. Sugrue's article, "Crabgrass-Roots Politics: Race, Rights, and the Reaction against Liberalism in the Urban North, 1940-1964," he addressed this issue of segregation in public housing for African-Americans. Whites in Detroit, Michigan were preventing the black population from "invading their enclaves." (65) The city of Detroit attracted many African-American migrants after World War II and those who sought upward mobility wanted better housing in primarily white sections of the city. Therefore racial tensions and segregation began as urban whites were "redefining urban geography and urban politics in starkly racial terms" in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. (66) Whites both excluded Blacks and included themselves within an area by moving to the suburbs, redlining, racially steering, and inputting zoning laws. (66) Whites did not want to live next to Blacks; they referred to Blacks as an inferior race, a threat, and a "colored problem," because Blacks were animals and thought the world was theirs. Whites used segregation to resolve this problem; sixty percent of them wanted racial exclusion to keep Blacks out, so the neighborhoods turned into a battlefield with the help of homeowners' associations. (70) Whites continued to work to include themselves as a group and at the same time exclude Blacks by stating that it was a violation of their rights to have Blacks in their neighborhood. Whites modeled themselves as victims and shut down Blacks to create neighborhoods that included only one race. The way Whites established themselves as a group was through their demands for the rights to own houses in racially homogenous neighborhoods. This was made possible with the help of the New Deal housing policy, Home Owner's Loan Corporation (HOLC), and the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). Whites separated themselves from Blacks stating that they had rights as citizens through bootstrapping as opposed to Blacks. They saw themselves as part of the neighborhood because they had worked and deserved the rights to associate among themselves. When Whites noticed that the government was assisting Blacks, they doubted the system so they also separated themselves from the government. They joined together to prevent interracial mixing in neighborhoods with Blacks. The needs of Whites to create an exclusive group for themselves and detach from Blacks were ways of segregation which mounted racial tensions between the two races. Segregation along with inclusion and exclusion not only affected Whites and Blacks in neighborhoods, but Whites and Mexican/Chicano/Latino students in educational institutions as well. Martha Menchaca and Richard R. Valencia explored this form of separation in their article, "Anglo-Saxon...
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