Scoliosis is a complex deformity or curvature of the spine and entire torso and has been recognized clinically for centuries (Asher, Marc A.). “For a few of the patients an underlying cause can be determined, including congenital changes, secondary changes related to neuropathic or myopathic conditions, or later in life from degenerative spondylosis. However, the cause of most scoliosis is not known and since about 1922 such patients have been diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis (Asher, Marc A.).” Based on the observation of three distinct periods of climax, scoliosis has been sub-divided into three groups; infantile, before the age of 3; juvenile, age 5 to 8; and adolescent, age 10 until the end of growth. This categorization is now extensively used. “Eighty percent or more of idiopathic scoliosis is of the adolescent variety. As it is often not possible to determine the age of onset, age at presentation/detection is more accurate (Canavese, Federico).” “The prevalence is very dependent on curve size cut-off point, decreasing from 4.5% for curves of 6 degrees or more to only 0.29% for curves of 21° or more. It is also very dependent on sex, being equal for curves of 6–10° but 5.4 girls to 1 boy for curves of 21° or more (Asher, Marc A.).” Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can probably best be considered as a complex genetic trait disorder. There is often a positive family history but the pattern of inherited susceptibility is not clear. Current information suggests that there is genetic heterogeneity. This indicates that multiple potential factors are acting either dependently or independently in its pathogenesis (Asher, Marc A.). Up to moderate deformities, recognized at a 40 degree curvature, bracing is the most common treatment. Brace treatment has been mainly simulated by directly applying external forces on the rib cage and on the lumbar spine. However, its efﬁciency in preventing the progression of scoliotic deformities...
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Canavese, Federico, and Andre Kaelin. “Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Indications and Efficacy of Nonoperative Treatment.” Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 45.1 (2011): Academic Search Complete. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.
“Minimally Invasive Scoliosis Surgery: An Innovative Technique In Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.” Scoliosis (17487161) 6.1 (2011): 16-25. Academic Search Complete. Web. 23 Sept. 2012.
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