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Directorate of Distance Education
UNIVERSITY OF JAMMU
JAMMU

Study Material
FOR
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

Class : B.Ed.
Papaer :-V

Unit I-V
Lesson No. 1–24
Course Co-ordinator

Dr. Darshana Sharma

All copyright privileges of the material is reserved by the
Directorate of Distance Education, University of Jammu,
Jammu–180006

CONTENTS
LESSON NO.

TOPIC

WRITER

PAGE NO.

1.

Meaning of Guidance, Need for Guidance
and Its Scope in India, Aims of Guidance

Dr. Prem Gupta

1

2.

Foundation of Guidance
(Philosophical, Psychological and Socio-cultural)

Dr. Prem Gupta

24

3.

History of Guidance Movement in India and U.K. Dr. Prem Gupta

34

4.

Types of Guidance (Education, Vocational
and Personal)

Dr. Prem Gupta

45

5.

Non-testing Techniques in Guidance :
Interview, Observation

Dr. Prem Gupta

57

6.

Non-testing Techniques in Guidance :
Dr. Prem Gupta
Case Study, Cumulative Record,Sociometric Techniques

70

7.

Role of Testing Techniques in Guidance

Dr. Prem Gupta

86

8.

Use of Psychological Tests, Appraisal of
Intelligence and Personality Tests, Aptitude Tests

Dr. Prem Gupta

96

9.

Purposes, Principles of Organisation of Guidance
Services at Elementary and Secondary Levels

Dr. T.S. Sodhi

112

10.

Individual Inventory Service & Placement Service Dr. T.S. Sodhi

124

11.

Follow-up Service

Dr. T.S. Sodhi

137

12.

Role of Head of the Institution, Teacher &
Counsellor

Dr. T.S. Sodhi

144

13.

Career Information : Meaning & Components of
Career Information

Dr. T.S. Sodhi

157

LESSON NO.

TOPIC

WRITER

PAGE NO.

14.

Sources of Career Information, Methods of
Dr. T.S. Sodhi
Collecting, Filing of and Evaluation of Information

165

15.

Sources of Career Information, Methods of
Dr. T.S. Sodhi
Collection, Classification, Filling up and Evaluation
of Information

175

16.

Data Gathering Techniques Job Analysis

Dr. Prem Gupta

185

17.

Data Gathering Techniques Survey Method

Mrs. Supreet Kour

203

18.

Occupational Information

Mrs. Supreet Kour

213

19.

Career Talks, Career Exhibitions and Class Talks

Mrs. Supreet Kour

229

20.

Career Resource Centre

Mrs. Supreet Kour

241

21.

Counselling

Dr. Kuljeet Kour

256

22.

Types of Counselling

Dr. Kuljeet Kour

270

23.

Counselling Interview

Dr. Kuljeet Kour

286

24.

Role of Counsellor

Dr. Kuljeet Kour

301

OUR CONTRIBUTORS
Dr. P. L. Gupta

Reader
ICDEOL, H. P. University,
Shimla

Dr. T. S. Sodhi

Ex-Prof. in Education
441-Urban Estate, Patiala

Dr. Supreet Kaur

Lecturer in Education
Deptt. of Correspondance Studies
Punjab University, Chandigarh

Dr. Kuljeet Kour

Lecturer in Education
Deptt. of Correspondance Studies
Punjab University, Chandigarh

LESSON NO. 15

UNIT-IV

SOURCES OF CAREER INFORMATION, METHODS OF COLLECTION,
CLASSIFICATION, FILLING UP AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION
15.0

STRUCTURE

15.1

Introduction

15.2

Objectives

15.3

Sources of Career Information

15.4

Methods of Collection of Information

15.5

Classification and Filing System of Career Information

15.6

Evaluation of Career Information

15.7

Let Us Sum Up

15.8

Unit End Exercises

15.9

Suggested Further Readings

15.1

INTRODUCTION

Dear pupil teachers, A counsellor may be trained in counselling technique, but without adequate educational and occupational information his services resemble a beautifully wrapped but empty box. Information is an indispensable tool, which enables the counsellor to bring about better adjustment between himself and his environment. For the scientific process of planning a career, we need detailed and accurate descriptions of different occupations. We need to know what jobs are available, what kind of work they involve, what are the routine duties involved and what qualifications are necessary. No career planning is possible without the educational planning and the choice of appropriate courses. For that we need to have detailed and accurate information regarding educational facilities available in different areas. In the present lesson, we are going to 175

discuss with you all these aspects regarding sources of career information & various methods for the collection of this information. We will also acquaint you with the classification, filing and evaluation of the said information in a very systematic way. 15.2

OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson the pupil teachers will be able to : List the various sources of career information.
Describe the various methods of collection information
Classify the Career information
Fill up and evaluate the career information

15.3

SOURCES OF CAREER INFORMATION

Career information is very important to the students. It is the duty of the career counsellor to provide updating information regarding career selection. The career information is needed to :
(i)

Make guidance informative : students need to know the jobs, work processes, where the training institutions are situated, the content of training, the avenues of employment after training, the average income,status of the work and future prospects etc.

(ii)

Enable the students to acquire the image of occupations and society’s evaluation there of and to cross check or interpret the suitability or validity of their own tentative decisions

(iii)

Help in the educational and vocational planning

(iv)

Help revise the old courses and develop the new ones

It is thus imperative that adequate up-to-date information is available to the guidance worker, to make the service informative, assurative, motivational, exploratory, evaluative and adjustive and thus helpful for the students. An important aspect of guidance work, therefore, is collection, classification, filing and dissemination of information. This information needs to be collected, processed and used with the same 176

degree of accuracy and care that are characteristics of any scientific investigation in the field of social sciences.
All teachers as well as parents need to be clear in their minds that with the technological changes and modernization process, the career information is also fast changing with the birth of new occupations and also diminishing of traditional and old occupations. Therefore, there is always a need that such information be kept up-to-date and fresh. Some of the sources of career information are as under :

1.

The Employment organization, which through the power of Compulsory Notification of Vacancies Act, collect Employment Information quarterly, which depicts the employment, trends at District, State and National levels.

2.

The prospectuses of different colleges, universities, technical and professional institutions

3.

The publications of employment organization being published in career pamphlets like fitter, turner, electricians etc.

4.

The publications like training facilities in different states being brought out by the employment departments in India

5.

The literature being produced by different departments and Ministries like Ministry of Health, Ministry of Defence etc. They publish different pamphlets and also prepare charts and posters like career in Nursing, Career in Army, Career in Navy etc.

6.

Advertisements of Union Public Service Commission. State Public Service Commission. Subordinate Service Commissions etc.

7.

Occupation Information Unit of the Ministry of Employment and Labour

8.

Studies and Surveys conducted by different organizations, census operations and vocational institutions.

15.4

METHODS OF COLLECTION OF INFORMATION

The needs and background of the students determine the kind and amount of information collected. It should normally cover occupations, which the students of a college 177

or university have been entering in the previous years and are likely to enter in future. It should also cover information about the new openings, which are rapidly coming up. The collection of information should be a continuous process. When requirements change, the information changes. The context may also alter or the query may be different in composition. The continuous flow of information will help review and revive the information and make it up-to-date. The old and obsolete information should be weeded out Career information may be collected through a variety of methods. One of the most popular methods is survey, which may take one of the following three forms (i)

Situations Vacant ad Survey

(ii)

Alumni Follow-up Survey

(iii)

Community Survey

A survey of the situations vacant advertisements is one of the cheapest and the easiest methods of collecting information. Such advertisements, which appear in newspapers over a period of six months of a year, are collected and information contained in them is analyzed and tabulated. This is a good method as it provides current information about jobs.

In an alumni follow- up survey, the students of a college or university are contacted personally or by mail and are requested to provide information in the form of answers to specific questions. Through this method, information can be obtained about occupations in which the old students of a particular college or university are engaged. In a community Survey, the employing agencies and the educational training and professional institutions existing in the community served by the institutions are contacted personally or through mail. The method provides the latest information about the requirement and trends but is more expensive than the first two methods. 15.5

CLASSIFICATION
INFORMATION

AND

FILING

SYSTEM

OF

CAREER

It is not enough to collect information and be contented. A mechanism needs to be developed to put the information collected in a usable form. It is obvious that this work has a technical aspect as it is usually associated with libraries. The procurement, study, storage, 178

referencing, indexing, display and dissemination are the five main stages which require a constant study of the techniques and ways if implementation. These aspects deserve the greatest consideration for effective use of the information collected. Information must be able to meet the original as well as supplementary queries of the students, and be so stored as to make it easily accessible. Out of date information should be removed to avoid the problem of storage as well as ensuring easy access. It is a good practice to review and scrutinize the information available at the beginning of every academic year, delete the irrelevant information, and add amendments, if any.

Some method of filing the information has to be followed to ensure its easy availability and effective use. The use of a particular method will depend upon the technical competence and time available for guidance work.

In order to facilitate the use of career information, it is essential that the career master use some type of filing system. The first thing for the career master is to remember that he should classify and file the material as soon as he receives it. This will not consume much of the time. However, it will become handy to be used appropriately. The Filing system selected should give a clear-cut classification of occupations. The method of filing to be adopted depends upon the use to which the information is to be put and the persons who will use it. Files may be used either exclusively by the career master or by both the career master and students.

In most of the schools, it may not be possible for the career master to develop a filing system for the use of pupils.
In order to avoid confusion, files should be carefully prepared and arranged systematically. Following are some of the important methods of classification and filing : (i)

National Classification of Occupations

Occupational information may be filed on the basis of the National Classification of Occupations (NCO). The classification in the NCO is by occupations. Occupations are classified under families. Families are ‘combined into groups and groups are assigned to divisions. There are eleven divisions consisting of 75 groups, which are divided into 331 families under which occupations are classified. The system is helpful when the occupational information material is plentiful.

179

It, however, requires a thorough knowledge of the system on the part of the career master as codes are used as a basis for classifying and filing of the material. In every Employment Exchange in India the employment cards of the employment seekers are arranged in accordance with this system. A book entitled National Classification of Occupations is available in the office of Employment Exchanges. All this information is of particular help to employment officers in : •

classifying applicants who call for employment assistance



classifying vacancies notified by employers



matching suitable applicants against demands



assessing the comparative skill and knowledge of workers within the same occupation



recording special qualifications against item 15 of index card (X.1);

• reporting statistical data concerning the employment market; and • classifying occupational literature.
(ii)

Alphabetical System :

In this system, files are arranged to the names of the occupations in alphabetical order. All material on anyone occupation is collected and filed together. When information is not much and classifications are few, the alphabetical system may be quite helpful. It has certain limitations also. Material on related occupations can be grouped together unless numerous cross-reference cards are used when a student wants information relating to several occupationson the basis of his qualifications. It will be difficult to pick out the requiredmaterial quickly.

(iii)

Filing on the Basis of School Subjects :

Occupations related to each school subject may be filed separately; for instance occupations related to literary subjects, scientific subjects, home science, fine arts, etc. of course, there may be further sub-classification under each, if necessary. This system may be very helpful for students who often go by their subjects. The career master should adapt one which his purpose best.

180

(iv)

Filing on the Basis of Industrial Classification of Occupations :

Like NCO is another type of classification is available in accordance with which information about career can be classified and filed.
The National Industrial Classification (NIC) (1970) was prepared by the Government of India so that the information regarding employment and unemployment in various sectors of economy be more specifically studied by its various fact-finding agencies, industry means that sector of economic activity in which the earner is, or was engaged. For example, textile industry or automobile industry. Code numbers have been devised for each industrial group on what is known as the digit system for use in Employment Exchange Records. This system is related to the international usage as recommended by the International Labour Office.

(v)

Reference Cards

In order to locate all the information in the files useful for a particular type of applicant, it is necessary to maintain reference cards. If a graduate seeks individual guidance, the counselling / liasion officer should be able to locate information about all the opportunities open to him. For this purpose, reference cards should be prepared according to educational levels and kept in a tray. Two cards should be prepared for each level-one for occupations and the other for training facilities.

The reference cards for graduate-occupations, for example, will contain an exhaustive list of all occupations open to a graduate. In the third column of the card, the family number of the occupations should be entered so that for details the relevant occupational information file and the family sheet can be referred to with ease. Similarly, a reference card for training should also be maintained according to the education -level. For example, the reference card for graduate- training should contain an exhaustive list of all the courses open to graduates. Here also, in the third column, the file number and page number should be entered.

(vi)

Group Techniques of Imparting Occupational Information

The following group techniques may be imparted for disseminating occupational information to the students.;
(a)

through Subject Teacher
181

(b)

Career Education

(c)

Career Talks

(d)

Career Conferences

(e)

Career groups

(f)

Work-sample projects

(g)

Through visits to places of work

(h)

Films and Film Strips

(i)

Dramatization

(j)

Career Exhibitions

(k)

Bulletin Board announcements and other devices

(1)

Display of Important News-cuttings

(m)

Special Card Catalogue

(n)

Through Library

(o)

Through Industrial Contacts.

15.6

EVALUATION OF CAREER INFORMATIONS

The career information provided in the school / institute or by Employment Exchanges may be evaluated in terms of its objectives to see whether these objectives have been realized or not. The career master should see whether he has made the students: a.

To acquaint the students with the ‘World of Work’ i.e different typesof entry occupations, trained manpower occupation, and occupations which require trainings after joining the job.

b. To help the students to narrow down their choices of occupations in the light of their interests and also the employment market information c.

To get knowledge about different jobs, the activities involved in them, the working conditions, working facilities etc.
182

d. To be able to understand the analysis of the job, tools to be used risk involved in the career, the insurance cover, the transport facilities available in the job etc.
e.

f.

To help the pupils to select the career which is most suitable to them in the light of their personality characteristics, social environments, and chances of employment

g.

To explore that with the type of technical and professional training, it will be possible to go in for Government Job, private employment or foreign job in the advanced countries or in developing nations.

h.

It helps the pupils not to go in for surplus occupations wherein a good deal of unemployment already exists, in order to avoid frustration.

i.
15.7

to know about different types of careers, training and skill formation activities involved in different educational, training and professional trainings in different institutions along with the procedure of admission, the expenditure involved, the duration of the training, theavailability of stipends, loans etc. for getting that training.

To explore the possibilities of self-employment, if job does not become very handy

LET US SUM UP

Dear learners, information is vital for the success of any guidance and counselling programme. It is needed to make guidance informative, assurative, motivational, exploratory, evaluative and adjustive and thus helpful to the students. Information may be collected through a variety of methods - situations vacant advertisement survey, alumni follow-up survey, community survey. The information collected may be filed in the alphabetical order, subject-wise, division of occupations, national classification of occupations etc. It should be evaluated in terms of its objectives. 15.8

UNIT END EXERCISES
Dear distance Learners, check your progress by attempting the following exercises:

1.

What is the importance of Career information and what are its sources ? 183

2.

How will you classify and file the career information ?

3.

How will you evaluate the career information / Write in brief.

15.9

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1

Aggarwal J.C. (1993) :

“Educational Vocational Guidance and
Counselling”, Doaba House, Nai Sarak Delhi.

2

Chauhan S.S. (1982) :

“Principles and Techniques of Guidance”. Vikas
Publishing House, Pvt. Ltd.

3

Crow L.D. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”, New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing house.

4

Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) :

“Guidance and Counselling”. Prakashan Kendra
Lucknow.

5

Kochhar S-K. (1984) :

“Educational and Vocational Guidance in
Secondary Schools” Revised and enlarged
Edition, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New-Delhi.

6

Suri S.P. & Sodhi T.S. (1997) :“Guidance and Counselling”. Bawa Publications Patiala.

184

LESSON NO. 1

UNIT-I

MEANING OF GUIDANCE, NEED FOR GUIDANCE AND ITS SCOPE IN
INDIA, AIMS OF GUIDANCE
1.0

STRUCTURE

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Objectives

1.3

Conceptual Framework of Guidance
1.3.1

Meaning and Nature of Guidance

1.4

Need for Guidance

1.5

Scope of Guidance in India

1.6

Aims of Guidance

1.7

Let Us Sum Up

1.8

Unit End Exercises

1.9

Suggested Further Readings

1.1

INTRODUCTION

Guidance is as old as civilisation. In the primitive society, elders in the family offered guidance to the young and to persons in distress. Even today, in India, guidance, whether in educational, vocational or personal matters, is sought from family elders. Guidance unorganised and informal - in all places and at all levels has been a vital aspect of the educational process. With the passage of time, revolutionary changes have taken place in the field of agriculture, industry, business and medicine etc. These changes in all walks of life coupled with extraordinary growth in our population has made the social structure very complex. Head of the family or leader of the community with a limited knowledge of the changed conditions is hardly competent in providing guidance and counselling to the youth 1

of today. Hence, there is a need for specialised guidance services. In this lesson, we will try to interact with you regarding the meaning and nature of guidance, its need and scope in India.
1.2

OBJECTIVES

After studying this lesson you will be able to :
Describe the meaning of guidance.
Understand its conceptual and operational form by defining the term guidance.
discuss the nature of guidance.
describe the need for guidance.
explain the scope of guidance in India.
Examine the Aims of Guidance
1.3

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF GUIDANCE

It is true that a very minor percentage of our total population is capable of handling its problems independently without the cooperation and guidance of others. We find that majority of the people do not have either confidence or insight to solve their problems. There have always been people in the past who need occasional help from older or more experienced associates in meeting with their problems of daily life in the society. Traditionally, in our Indian society, the leader of the family or the local community was supposed to provide the necessary guidance and advice whenever any member of the family or the community needed it. Needless to mention, too often informal advice given without a clear understanding of the problem involved was harmful and misleading to the individual. With the passage of time, revolutionary and evolutionary changes have taken place in all walks of life. The variety of jobs, high aspirations of the people and vocational specialisation have made the work of guidance very difficult. The head of the family or the leader of local community with the limited knowledge of changed conditions such as globalisation, liberalisation and consumerism is not capable of providing guidance to the youth of today.

2

In the last two decades, guidance movement has spread like a wild-fire through out the world and generated a great amount of enthusiasm and zeal among parents, teachers and social workers who have devoted time to explore its feasibility and the utility for general population including school going adolescents. All are convinced that proper provision of guidance services should be made for children at different age levels for the harmonious development of their personalities in the larger interest of the society and the individual.

1.3.1 Meaning and Nature of Guidance
What does guidance precisely mean ? Let us first see what it does not mean. Lester.D. Crow and Alice Crow (1962) in “An Introduction to Guidance”, have aptly stated that “Guidance is not giving directions. It is not the imposition of one person’s point of view upon another person. It is not making decisions for an individual, which he should make for himself. It is not carrying the burdens of another life”. If guidance is not all these, then what is it really?

To quote them again:
“Guidance is an assistance made available by personally qualified and adequately trained men or women to an individual of any age to help them manage their own life activities, develop their own points of view, make their own decisions, and carry out their own burden”.

Ordinary Meaning
Ordinary meaning of guidance is help, assistance, and suggestions for progress and showing the way. In that sense guidance is a life long process. Man needs guidance throughout his life. He needs it even from his infancy. When a child is born, the world for him is big, buzzing, blooming confusion and he knows nothing. He learns everything from the society. From the mother, he learns how to stand on his feet, from the father, he learns to walk and from the teacher, he learns to seek knowledge and education, all learning takes place through guidance. The society guides the individual to learn, to adjust oneself to the physical and social environment. To sum up we may say that guidance is a personal help rendered by the society to the individual so as to enable him to adjust to the physical and social environment and to solve the problems of life.

3

Specific Meaning
Guidance in India, is comparatively a new field within the larger and more inclusive field of education and is used as a technical term as a specific meaning. It covers the whole spectrum of education, which starts from the birth of the child and continues till his death. This is a wide meaning of the term, which includes all types of education such as formal, non-formal, informal and vocational etc., which aims to adjust the individual in his environment in an effective way. There are usually three connotations attached to the word guidance :

1.

Guidance as a Specialised Service whose primary concern is with the individual and to help them to solve their problems and take appropriate decisions in their choice-points;

2.

Guidance as a General Service and is considered to be synonymous with education and educational processes; and

3.

Guidance as a Sub-Process of education in which developmental needs of the learners are considered the basic points.

Now let us look at some selected definitions of the term guidance in a bid to understand its conceptual and operational form :
The term guidance represents the concept that is neither simple nor easily comprehensible due to the complexity of the human nature, the individual differences and personal-social problems associated with changing environmental conditions and cultural traditions.

Shirley Hamrin (1947) defined guidance as : “Helping John to see through himself in order that he may see himself through” , is a simple and practical but challenging concept of guidance.
According to Jones (1951) : “The focus of guidance is the individual not his problem, its purpose is to provide the growth of the individual in self-direction providing opportunity for self-realisation and self-direction is the key-note of guidance.” Downing (1964) points out towards a common problem in defining guidance that is one of keeping the definition short and sufficiently broad to be 4

informative. He has attempted it by giving definition of guidance in operational terms in two parts :
(i)

Guidance is an organised set of specialised services established as an integral part of the school environment designed to promote the development of the students and assist them toward a realisation of sound,wholesome adjustment and maximum accomplishments commensurate with their personalities.

(ii)

Guidance is a point of view that includes a positive attitude towards children and realisation that it is the supplement, strengthen and make more meaningful all other phases of a youngster’s education.

Ruth Strang (1937) explains that guidance is a process of helping every individual through his own efforts to discover and develop his potentialities for his personal happiness and social usefulness.

Mathewson (1962) : defines guidance as the systematic professional process of helping the individual through education and interpretative procedures to gain a better understanding of his own characteristics and potentialities and to relate himself more satisfactorily to social requirements and opportunities in accord with social and moral values.

Arthur, J. Jones (1963) : thinks that guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments and in solving problems. Traxler (1957) : considers guidance as a help which enables each individual to understand his abilities and interests, to develop them as well as possible and to relate the life-goals, and finally to reach a state of complete and mature self-guidance as a desirable member of the social order.

Recently. B.L. Shepherd stated that (1) the immediate objective in guidance is to help each pupil meet and solve his problems as they arise; and (2) the ultimate objective of all guidance is self-guidance.

According to the Secondary Education Commission (1964-66) : “ Guidance involves the difficult art of helping boys and girls to plan their own future wisely in the full light of all the factors that can be 5

mastered about themselves and about the world in which they are to live and work. “
If we analyse the above definitions of guidance, we will find the following elements in it:
1.

Guidance programme is organised; it has a structure, system and personnel.

2.

It is an integral part of the school system.

3.

It consists of specialised senices of testing, counselling, educational and vocational information, placement and follow-up scheme.

4.

Its major aim is the promotion of student development.

5.

It helps children to develop and promote their ability to deal with their own problems.

6.

It provides for the identification and development of talents and potentialities.

7.

The intangible elements of guidance are recognised as a point of view or as an attitude.

Nature of Guidance
By now, you have understood that guidance is a helping service. It is by its very nature a self-oriented, problem solving and multifaceted activity. It presupposes two-fold understanding. The first is the understanding of one’s own abilities, aptitudes, interests, motives, behaviour-patterns, skills and achievements up-to-date and social, cultural, economic background. Secondly, it is the understanding of the real nature of one’s environment and of the educational and vocational opportunities offered by that environment, along with their differential requirements of abilities and attainments. Guidance may be described as a process of relating these two types of understanding so that they become imbued with a new meaning in the life of the individual. Mohein has very lucidly put the nature of guidance in these words :

“ Guidance seeks to create within the child the need and power to explore and understand himself in order to prepare a balance-sheet of his assets and liabilities so that he is able to plan out his future growth and activities in a manner that offers maximum likelihood of success and satisfaction. “

6

The following services constitute the usual pattern of activities within a guidance programme and are called ‘basic elements’
I.

Pupil Information or Appraisal Service

II.

Educational and Vocational Information Service

III.

Counselling Service

IV.

Placement Service, and

V.

Follow-up Service.
An effective guidance programme helps the youth to see clearly four things : (a) Where he has been,
(b) Where he is now,
(c) Where he is going, and
(d) What he has with which to get there.
A perusal of the different activities of guidance shows that two types of guidance, i.e. educational and vocational, find place in every list. This fact indicates the importance of educational and vocational guidance. In practice, the entire guidance is a unitary process. Educational guidance is dependent on vocational guidance. Crow and Crow have observed, “As now interpreted, guidance touches every aspect of an individual’s personality physical, mental, emotional and social. It is concerned with all of an individual’s attitudes and behaviour patterns. It seeks to help the individual to integrate all of his activities in terms of his basic potentialities and environmental opportunities”.

1.4 NEED FOR GUIDANCE
The need for guidance had existed at all times. Moreover, the need of guidance is universal. It is as old as man himself. It is based upon the fact that all human beings need help in one way or other way. “There is hardly any individual who does not 7

need help”. Jones has rightly said, “Every one needs assistance at sometime in his life. Some will need constantly and throughout their entire life, while others need it only at rare intervals at times of great crisis. There always have been and will continue to be people with an occasional need for the help of the older or more experienced associates in meeting problem situation.” But there is a greater need for guidance services now than ever before due to the rapid advancement in technology, emerging of new world order, social change, globalisation, liberalisation, the need for outstanding leadership, a shift in standards of morality and integrity, people’s high aspirations etc. all contribute to the need for guidance programme in the schools. We shall discuss the need for guidance in India under four heads:

1.

Educational Needs
Guidance is needed from educational point of view because of the following reasons:

i)

Increase in the range of individual differences among school going children

Before independence, boys and girls in our country came to school only from the more privileged section of the society. The admission in the schools was selective. But after independence due to realization of Constitutional Directive of providing free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. education for all and the drive for mass education, we find our schools are flooded with children from every section of society. The classes are over-crowded and there is a tremendous increase in the number of schools too. The result is that we find much wider range of individual differences in the abilities, aspirations and achievement of the pupils. Understanding of the differential needs and abilities of the children is essential for modifying the school programme for the best possible unfoldment of the student’s potentialities. This is possible only through the introduction of guidance services in our school programmes.

ii)

Guidance as an Instrument for the Qualitative Improvement of Education

There has been a rapid expansion of educational facilities to cater to the needs of increasing number of children in recent years. This has resulted to some extent in the fall of educational standards. Consequently, there is a great need of providing guidance services in the school for the qualitative improvement of education.

8

iii)

Knowledge Explosion or the increase in the types of courses offered in the schools.

The domain of knowledge is like the number of wishes. The increased knowledge is creeping into the course contents of our textbooks. It is not possible for every student to learn all that is available in the field of knowledge. Single track education for all is out-moded concept. At the secondary stage, the courses of studies have been diversified to include several optional groups. Therefore, a special type of service is badly needed in our schools which will assist the individual pupil in the choice of course suiting to his needs and abilities that will help the school authorities in the proper allocation of the diversified courses to the pupils of the school.

iv)

Expanding Educational Objectives

Everyone talks today about the all round development of the child through education. We want a type of education that can provide for the development of the whole child. It is now commonly accepted that education should also lead to the promotion of the emotional, social and civic life of the student. Problems of social adjustment and personality orientation require the services of a competent counsellor and availability of appropriate guidance services.

v)

Solution of Educational Problems

We are facing various types of educational problems in the schools such as universal and compulsory education, increased enrolment, high percentage of failures and dropout, wastage and stagnation etc. These problems require the need of proper guidance services in the school. Special guidance services are also required for the gifted, backward, handicapped and delinquent children.

vi)

Solving Discipline problems

Problem of discipline is becoming more and more acute in the educational institutions. Even at higher stage of education it has taken a serious turn. Student strikes and agitation have become a common scene of the day. Problems of discipline can be solved with the help of guidance programme.

9

vii)

Optimum Achievement of the Students

Most of the students secure third division in the examinations due to the fact that they have not developed the proper study habits and learning styles. The reason for the poor achievement in the schools is because students do not make use of educational facilities available in the school. Therefore, there is a great need to develop study habits among the students. Proper guidance services can help in this direction. 2. Vocational Needs

In our country natural resources are not being properly utilized because of lack of guidance services. The following are the vocational needs for introducing guidance programme in the schools:
i)

Vocationalisation of Education and Guidance

Improvement of vocational efficiency is one of the aims of education. Secondary Education Commission has emphasized the need of introduction of crafts in addition to the diversification of the courses at secondary stage so that a large number of students may take up agriculture, technical, commercial or other practical courses to enable them to go for vocational pursuits. All this calls for proper guidance services in the school.

ii)

Guidance as an Instrument of National Development

Guidance by helping, identifying and developing human potential which is the richest source of a nation can help to reduce the wastage of educational facilities and abilities, which is so prevalent in our country. Thus there is a need to establish a close link between education and the manpower needs of the country. The sound guidance programme can help to achieve this objective in a systematic way.

iii)

Expanding Complexity of the World of Work

There has been a tremendous increase in the variety of jobs due to the development of industrialization and mechanization in every aspect of life. Thus there is a problem of choice. It is highly important to acquaint the secondary school students with this variety of jobs and with their different requirements. This is possible only by providing organized guidance services in the school system of our country.

10

iv)

Increasing Need for Man-power Planning and Utilization

For the planned development of a nation like ours, conservation of human resources and manpower planning is very important. A careful balance has to be struck between the manpower needs and the various educational and training programmes. To meet the rapidly rising demands of various types of personnel for the various developmental projects, the younger generation of the country will have to be systematically guided into courses of training which will equip them for urgent national needs

v)

Occupational Awareness

A well-organized guidance programme is essential for creating occupational awareness among the pupils of the country. The students must be made aware of the various types of jobs available in the employment market so that they may be able to opt those courses during the secondary stage. There fore, assistance has to be given for making a right choice of the courses at the secondary stage.

vi)

Changes in the Conditions of Industry and Labour

Fast changes are taking place, today in the conditions of industry and labour. Specialization has become the word of the present age. Moreover, professions have multiplied in numbers that it has become difficult for a common man to make a right choice out of them. Hence it has become essential to get help of guidance services in the school. vii)

Changed Economic Pattern of the Country

Our country is in the era of economic planning. We require scientists,industrialists, Software Engineers, Bankers etc., to meet the growing demands of the progressive country. The craze for white-collared jobs must come to an end. If proper guidance programme is not introduced at the secondary stage in the choice of studies and various vocations, the nation will remain poor and our youth will continue to be frustrated and disgusted. 3. Personal/Psychological Needs

Today our youth is facing various types of personal problems at home and in the school. Psychologically no two individuals are alike. They differ in various aspects on account of the following three kinds of differences:

11



Different stages of development



Differences among persons



Differences in opportunities made available to various persons.

It shows that all persons can not be fit for the same profession. Hence guidance programme is needed in the school system. The following are the personal and psychological reasons for the need of guidance:

i)

Guidance is the Basic Need of Man

Psychologically, no person on this earth is totally independent. The individual needs help of one kind or the other from fellow beings to solve their problems to lead a happy life.
ii)

Educational and Social Aspirations

In the present age of competition the aspirations of the parents are very high. They want their wards to excel in all walks of life. They provide all types of facilities so that the children can be able to get good jobs. To meet the high aspirations of the parents, a well-organized guidance programme is needed to make them aware of the potentialities of their children so that they take up right decision at the right time.

iii)

From the Point of View of the Developmental Needs

The individual passes from different stages of development in the life such as infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. One needs different types of help to adjust with every stage. The adolescent period faces many types of developmental problems. At this stage the proper guidance is to be provided to the student to make right choice of his future.

iv)

Psychological Problems

Many students face emotional problems. These problems arise due to frustrations, conflicts and tensions and other stresses and strains. It is essential to provide guidance to the youth to solve their personal problems.

12

v)

Satisfactory Adjustment

Guidance is needed to help the pupils in making satisfactory psychological adjustment with the environment. Lack of adjustment adversely affects their physical and mental health.
vi)

Proper Development of Personality

The all round development of personality is the aim of education, a well organized guidance programme is essential for the total development of personality. 4.

Social Needs
Following points highlight the Social Needs of Guidance :–

i)

Complex Nature of Society

Industrialization is the slogan of the day. Our country is heading towards industrialization, urbanization and modernization. Changed conditions of living and a highly complex society with its demands have put the individual in constant social and emotional tension. As such, it is highly desirable that school should provide some special service that can look after the emotional and social needs of school going children. ii)

Changed Family Contexts

The joint family system is disappearing rapidly and homes are getting disintegrated. The changed family pattern has given rise to the various type of personal problems. The proper guidance programme in the school is required to solve the personal problems of the children.

iii)

Explosion of Population & Expansion in Human Resources

Our population has been increasing rapidly. This calls for intensive and extensive guidance in the technique of planning.
iv)

Political Change and Extension of Democracy

There is a revolution of democratization of political system throughout the world. The education has been made child-centered. The provision of professions and promotions has also been made equal for all human beings. Hence all people need the help of guidance service for the right choice of education and occupation.

13

v)

Change in the Concept of Education

The concept of education has been changed. The students of today need guidance at every step of education since the education is to be provided according to their interests, aptitudes and capabilities.

vi)

Proper utilization of Leisure Time

Universal leisure is the outcome of the technological advancement of modern world. Guidance is needed to assist the individual to make the right use of leisure time that is at his disposal.
vii)

Lack of Guidance at Home

In the past, home was an important agency of education that provided sufficient training in the family occupation and the children adopted the same profession. But now this is not possible due to specialization and different type of occupations available in the job market. There are varieties of jobs and all the people are free to choose the profession they like. Thus, there is a great need of occupational information services to be provided in the school.

From the above “discussion we can conclude that complex social, economic, political and educational system has made the guidance and counselling programme a necessity.
1.5 SCOPE OF GUIDANCE IN INDIA
The scope of guidance is all pervading. Its scope is very vast in the light of modernisation and industrialisation and is ever increasing. As the life is getting complex day by day, the problems for which expert help is needed are rapidly increasing. The scope of guidance is extending horizontally to much of the social context, to matters of prestige in occupations, to the broad field of social trends and economic development. Crow and Crow have rightly quoted, “ As now interpreted, guidance touches every aspect of an individual’s personality-physical, mental, emotional and social. It is concerned with all aspects of an individual’s attitudes and behaviour patterns. It seeks to help the individual to integrate all of his activities in terms of his basic potentialities and environmental opportunities.”

14

Kothari Commission has stressed the need of guidance services in the schools. Regarding scope of guidance. Commission was of the view. “ Guidance services have a much wider scope and function than merely that of assisting students in making educational and vocational choices. The aims of guidance are both adjustive and developmental: it helps the student in making the best possible adjustments to the situations in the educational institutions and in the home. Guidance, therefore, should be regarded as an integral part of education.”

The scope of guidance has been increasing with the advancement of science and technology, embracing all spheres of life and providing facilities for it. Therefore, it will be difficult to put a fence around it. While discussing the scope of guidance we may think of some specific or specialised areas of guidance. Even though the guidance programme is addressed to the whole individuals treated as an integral unit. It is possible to classify an individual’s problems broadly into educational, vocational and personal.

(1) Educational Guidance
It is a process concerned with bringing about a favourable setting for the individual’s education and includes the assistance in the choice of subjects, use of libraries, laboratories, workshops, development of effective study habits, evaluation techniques and adjustment of school life with other activities.

(2) Vocational Guidance
It is the assistance rendered in meeting the problems :
(i) relating to the choice of vocation (ii) preparing for it (iii) entering the job, and (iv) achieving adjustment to it.
It also aims-.at helping individuals in the following specific areas: (a) making individuals familiar with the world of work and with its diverse requirements and,
(b) to place at the disposal of the individual all possible aids in making correct appraisal of his strength and weaknesses in relation to the job requirements offered by his environment.
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(3)

Personal Guidance

Personal guidance deals with the problems of personal adjustment in different spheres of life. Mainly it works for the individuals adjustment to his social and emotional problems. Jones has put the following aims of personal guidance: (i)

to assist the individual gradually to develop his life goals that are socially desirable and individually satisfying.

(ii) to help him to plan his life so that these goals may be attained. (iii) to help him grow consistently in ability to adjust himself creatively to his developing life goals.
(iv) to assist the individual to grow consistently in ability to live with others so effectively that he may promote their development and his own worthy purposes.
(v) to help him grow in self-directive ability
Thus the goal of personal guidance is self-directive and self realisation.
This three-fold division of guidance illustrating its scope should not be taken to form watertight compartments, but it is more a matter of practical convenience for making the concept clearer. There is no real difference among the problems to which the different types of guidance services are addressed.

Mathewson while discussing the focus and scope of guidance programme has very aptly stated that the focus of guidance is improving the capability of the individuals to understand and deal with self-situational relations in the light of social and moral values. The scope of guidance operation in school is to deal with:



personal and social relations of the individual in school



relation of the individual to the school curriculum, and



relation of the individual to the educational and vocational requirements and opportunities.
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1.6

AIMS OF GUIDANCE

The aims of guidance are the same as those of education in a democratic society like ours. Just like education, guidance services are also based on the principle that the individual is of crucial importance in an educational institution.The aims of guidance lend emphasis and strength to the educational programme and make it more dynamic, Specifically the aims of guidance may be laid as follows from the individuals point of view :

1.

To help the individual, by his own efforts as far as possible to realise his potentialities and to make his maximum contribution to the society.

2.

To help the individual to meet and solve his own problems and make proper choice and adjustment.

3.

To help the individual to lay a permanent foundation for sound and mature adjustment.

4.

To help the individual to live a well-balanced life in all aspects- physical, mental, emotional and social.
From the point of view of the institution the aims of guidance can be stated as follows:

(i)

the guidance programme should encourage and stimulate teachers towards better teaching.

(ii) The programme should aim at providing assistance to teachers in their efforts to understand their students.
(iii) It should provide teachers with systematic technical assistance and in-service training activities.
(iv) It should contribute to the mutual adjustment of children and school. (v) It should provide for referral of students by teachers.
The Kothari Education Commission (1964-66) has given the following aims of guidance at the secondary school stage :
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(a)

to help the adolescent pupils to know and develop their abilities and interests.

(b)

To help pupils to understand their strengths and limitations and to do scholastic work at the level of their abilities.

(c)

To help pupils to make realistic educational and vocational choices.

(d)

To provide information of educational opportunities.

(e)

To help the pupils in personal and social adjustment.

(f)

To help the school to understand their student.

1.6.1 Aims of Educational Guidance
Crow and Crow have given the following aims of educational guidance at the high school level :
(i)

select the curriculum that best fits his abilities, interests and future needs.

(ii) Develop work and study habits that enable him to achieve satisfactory success in his studies.
(iii) Gain some experiences in learning areas outside the particular field of his special interests and talents.
(iv) Understand the purpose and the function of the school in relation to his needs. (v) Discover all that his school has to offer and plan a programme of studies accordingly.
(vi) Learn about the purpose and function of the school that he may wish to attend later.
(vii) Select try out courses in order to gain insight into learning areas that still lie ahead.
(viii) Participate in out-of-class activities in which he can develop potential leadership qualities(ix) Appraise his fitness for continued study in a college or other school or in a particular vocation.

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(x) Develop an attitude which will stimulate him to continue his education in a school selected for its worth to him in relation to his talents and training. 1.6.2 Aims of Vocational Guidance
According to Jones the specific aims of vocational guidance are the following : 1.

To assist the student to acquire such knowledge of the characteristics and functions, the duties and rewards of the group of occupation within which his choice will probably lie as he may need for intelligent choice.

2.

To enable students to find what general and specific abilities skills etc., are required for the group of occupations under consideration and what are the qualifications of age, preparation, sex, etc.. for entering them.

3.

To give opportunities for experiences in school and out of school, which will provide information about condition of work. It will assist the individual to discover his own abilities and help him in the development of his interests.

4.

To help the individual develop the point of view that all honest labour is worthy and that the most important bases for choice of an occupation are (a) the peculiar service that the individual can render to the society, (b) personal satisfaction in the occupation, and (c) aptitude for the work required.

5.

To assist the individual to acquire a technique of analysis of occupational information and to develop the habit of analysing such information before making a final choice.

6.

To assist him secure such information about himself, his abilities. –general and specific, his interests, and his powers, as he may need for choice.

7.

To assist economically handicapped children to pursue their occupational choices.

8.

To assist the students to secure knowledge of the facilities offered by various educational institutions for vocational training and the requirements for admission to them, the cost of attendance etc,

9.

To help the worker to adjust himself to occupation in which he is engaged; to assist 19

him to understand his relationship with workers in his own and related occupation and to society as a whole.
10.

To enable the students to secure reliable information about the danger of alluring shortcut to fortune through short training courses and selling propositions of such unscientific methods.

1.6.3 Aims of Personal Guidance
The nature and purpose of personal guidance will be clearly understood when we take into consideration the different stages of child education. Aims of Personal Guidance at Elementary Stage
Personal guidance at the elementary stage can be described keeping in view the basic needs of children. The childhood period is the period of growth and development. The basic foundations of physical, intellectual, emotional, social and other types of personality development are laid at this stage. The following are the aims of personal guidance at this stage:

1.

To help the children to form desirable attitudes towards his self, parents teachers, class fellows and others. Sympathy and affection should be used for achieving this end.

2.

To help the pupils to build a good physique. There should be a regular medical check-up.

3.

To help in making emotional adjustments.

4.

To help in the development of self discipline.

Aims of Personal Guidance at Secondary Stage
The nature of personal guidance at the secondary stage can be understood keeping in mind the basic needs and interests of secondary school students. This is the most critical stage of individual’s development. It is the stage of stress and strain, storm and strife, heightened emotionality and hyper-suggestibility, anxieties and worries, conflicts and frustrations. Purposes of personal guidance at this stage are:

20

(i)

To help the students to solve the problems concerning physical health.

(ii) To help the pupils to solve problems concerning sex, emotionality and mental health.
(iii) To help the adolescents in making family adjustments.
(iv) To help the school children in making social adjustment including adjustment with the school.
(v) To organise wholesome recreational activities in the school. (vi) To provide the opportunity for community service.
Aims of Personal Guidance at College and University Stage
Personal guidance at the college and university level is a continuation of the personal guidance at the secondary stage. But, its scope is widened with a view to develop in young adults a sense of social service, social responsibility, patriotism and tolerance. The students at this stage need personal guidance to enable them have a satisfactory personal and social adjustment in their new environment. The following are the aims of personal guidance at this stage :

(a)

To help the pupils in solving all types of emotional problems, sex problems and other personal problems.

(b)

To help the pupils in making adjustments with the new environment i.e. with the changing environment, college environment and environment of the society at large.

(c)

To help the students in developing healthy ideas and building a new philosophy of life.

(d)

To help the students in participating in social activities and community services.

(e)

To help the students in their ethical and moral development and inculcate right type of values.

(f)

To enable the pupils to have mutual respect and regard for people belonging to different faiths.
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(g)

To help young men and women to appreciate the importance of religious and moral values in life.

1.7

LET US SUM UP

Guidance is a systematic, continuous, professional process of assisting individual pupils with particular needs and problems in the areas of school progress, personal-social relations and educational-vocational orientation. The objectives of guidance are synonymous with the objectives of education. Even though the guidance programme is addressed to the whole individual, treated as an integral unit, it is possible to classify the individual’s problems broadly into educational, vocational and personal.

Educational guidance is concerned with helping the individual to plan wisely his educational programme and to put himself in position to carry forward successfully according to the aspirations of the society.

Vocational guidance is a kind of assistance, which is given to an individual not only in the selection of an occupation but also in preparation as well as for progress. There are ten aims of vocational guidance as given by Jones. But the main aim of vocational guidance is to assist the individual in choosing an occupation, preparing for it, entering upon and progressing in it.

Personal guidance is assistance offered to the individual to solve his emotional, social, ethical and moral problems. The purpose of personal guidance is to help the individual in his physical, emotional, moral and spiritual development as well as adjustment. The aims of personal guidance will be clearly understood when we take into consideration the different stages of child education such as : Elementary stage. Secondary stage and College or University stage. Personal guidance at the elementary stage takes into account the problems of health, feeling of security, social acceptance, discipline and leisure time activities. Personal guidance at the secondary stage is concerned with mostly the problem of personal and social adjustment. At the college level, it is continuation of the personal guidance at the secondary stage. But the scope is widened with a view to develop a sense of social service, social responsibility etc.

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1.8

UNIT END EXERCISES
Dear learners, please check you progress by attempting the following exercises:

1.

What is educational guidance ? Describe the aims of educational guidance.

2.

State the aims of vocational guidance at various stages of education.

3.

Differentiate the aims of educational and vocational guidance.

4.

Establish the relationship between the aims of educational, vocational and personal guidance.

1.9

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

Aggarwal J.C. (1993) :

“Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”,
Doaba House, Nai Sarak Delhi.

Chauhan S.S. (1982) :

“Principles and Techniques of Guidance”. Vikas Publishing House, Pvt. Ltd.

Crow L.D. and Crow (1962): “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”, New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing House.
Jayaswal Sita Ram (1993):

“Guidance and Counselling”. Prakashan Kendra,
Lucknow.

Kochhar S.K. (1984) :

“Educational and Vocational Guidance in Secondary
Schools” Revised and enlarged Edition, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New-Delhi.

Suri S.P. & Sodhi T.S. :

“Guidance and Counselling”, Bawa (1997) Publications,
Patiala.

23

LESSON NO. 2

UNIT-I

FOUNDATIONS OF GUIDANCE (PHILOSOPHICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL
AND SOCIO-CULTURAL)
2.0 STRUCTURE
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Objectives
2.3 Foundations of Guidance
2.3.1 Philosophical
2.3.2 Psychological
2.3.3 Socio-cultural
2.4 Let Us Sum Up
2.5 Unit End Exercises
2.6 Suggested Further Readings
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Dear learners, like all other disciplines guidance and counselling is also based on pre-supposed situations, ethics, morals, and values. If we put all these together, formulate the foundations / bases of guidance and counselling. These different aspects have different roots. Some have more close relationship with philosophy as it aims at the full development of the individual so as to be significantly useful members of the society, some of them are more closely related to the discipline of psychology as there are individual differences in abilities, personality patterns, aptitudes and interests. Still some more of them are related with social ethics, because one has to keep in view the fast coming up changes in the society. Society is dynamic. Modern science & technology has given various vocations to the individual. The problem lies in the selection of the right type of courses which suit the interests of the individuals. In the present lesson, we 24

are going to discuss these bases of guidance & counselling such as philosophical, psychological and socio-cultural in detail.
2.2

OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson you will be able to :
describe the Philosophical Foundations of Guidance
discuss the nature of Psychological Foundations of Guidance. Examine the Socio-Cultural Foundations of Guidance

2.3

FOUNDATIONS OF GUIDANCE

The basic nature of guidance can be analysed from philosophical, psychological, sociological and cultural perspectives. These are known as the foundations of guidance. The detailed description of each has been discussed as below : 2.3.1

Philosophical Bases of Guidance

Philosophy is the mother of all sciences and education or guidance is no exception to it. Philosophically, the aim of guidance is self-realisation and self-direction. Respect and dignity for each individual has been enshrined in our Constitution under ‘Fundamental Rights’. Therefore, it is mandatory for the state to provide each individual the freedom of choice and equal opportunity. Freedom involves awareness of the alternatives, to choose from, which education must provide for, which students learn by operating in a truly democratic atmosphere. This is possible through guidance since all guidance programmes are based on the assumption of freedom of choice. Guidance is intended to enable an individual to help him to understand himself. Some of the important bases are described below :

(i)

Democratic Values as the Basis of Guidance

The roots of guidance and counselling lay in democratic principles of equity, equality and individual differences, which are the fundamental principles of democratic way of life. democracy is the way of life of the people rather than a system of politics. It recognizes the individual differences, which are based on psychological basis rather than caste, creed, race and relationship. Thus, the philosophy of democracy is the basis of the philosophy of 25

guidance and counselling. In a democratic society there are many and varied types of occupations for which suitable manpower is to be cultivated for healthy development of society and optimum utilization of economic resources. However, while doing so it is to be ensured that an individual goes in for such an occupation which is appropriate to one’s personality, needs, attitudes, interests and aptitudes. Therefore, the techniques of guidance are to be used to achieve these aims. In this way, both democracy and guidance have the same philosophical basis. In a simple way, guidance provides choices for the individual success and development. Therefore, it is clear that the basis of democracy is the respect and regard of individuality, which is the same for guidance. (ii)

Everyone is Responsible

Fundamentally, guidance is based on the principle of pragmatic philosophy that every person is reformative and his behaviour can be modified in a systematic way. Every body is capable of bringing changes in his behaviour and guidance and education can provide avenues for it. For this purpose, guidance helps the individuals to get better knowledge of themselves and become wiser to make their own decisions in life. (iii)

Use of Scientific Methods for Study of the Individual

The principle of guidance is that it is possible to bring reform in every individual after studying his behaviour in a scientific way and finding out reasons of his problems. In this process, information about the individual and his environment is scientifically collected. It is on the basis of it that he is rendered assistance to become wiser to decide his own line of action.

(iv)

Individual’s Study is Basic

Every individual is unique in himself. So, fundamentally, it is essential that he should be studied in a systematic way, in order to take him on the path of optimum development. This is why that guidance worker tries to peep into the internal abilities and shortcomings of individual by the use of testing and non-testing techniques. (v)

Guidance a Recognized Source of Education

All guidance can be termed as education in the broader sense, but not all education is guidance in any sense. Many areas of education i.e. administration, supervision, 26

management, curriculum etc. lay outside the sphere of guidance. Education is thought to be total action, which prepares one for spending and enjoying democratic way of life. However, guidance contributes in such areas of education, which prepares him to face his problems of life in a successful way in administrative set up.

(vi)

Right Man for the Right Job

The thought underlying this dictum is, all men can not do all jobs with the same efficiency and effectiveness. However, there are no reasons, except, those who are insane and not educable, who can not do any job. If right man is placed in the right job, it not only increases his efficiency, but gives pleasure to his family members, neighbours and society. It is through the process of education with efficient vocational and counselling service, that this target can be achieved.

It can be said that, democratic set up and values, the thought that every one is reformable, scientific methods of studying individuals, personality of the individual, the ideas that guidance can not be thrust upon individuals, guidance is a professional work and - putting right man for the right job are some philosophical thoughts which lay the foundation stone of the process of guidance and counselling services.

2.3.2

Psychological Bases of Guidance

Psychologically, guidance is an interactive process in which an experienced, trained and mature person to make his social, vocational and educational adjustment in an easy and effective way, provides assistance to immature individual. Guidance is based on the assumption of individual differences. Researches have established the fact that no two individuals are alike. They differ from one another in body and mind, in taste and temperament. Thus, there is a need for an analysis of individual potentialities for the purpose of education. Guidance is to help us to apply new psychological insights into the nature of the individual. Youth of today is subjected to much greater emotional strain in the home and in the community than the youth of a generation ago. The number of problem children is increasing in our schools at rapid speed. Therefore, guidance helps not only for solving problem of maladjusted children but also for the normal children so that they may lead a better family life, become good citizens of the society and may be in a position to make maximum adjustment with themselves and with the society at large.

27

In brief following points highlight psychological basis of guidance : (i)

Individual Differences

No two individuals are alike. Individuals differ in physical, intellectual, social, and emotional characteristics. To provide for the maximum development of individuality, guidance is essentially required, particularly for exceptional children viz. gifted, backward, delinquent, problem, and handicapped children.

(ii)

Psychological Problems

Many students face emotional problems. These problems arise due to frustration, conflicts and tensions and other stresses and strains. It is essential to provide guidance to the youth to save them from stresses and strains of a developing society. (iii)

Satisfactory Adjustment

Guidance helps the individuals in making satisfactory psychological adjustment. Lack of adjustment adversely affects physical and mental health. (iv)

Right Use of Leisure time
An empty mind is a devil’s workshop is a well-known saying. Effective guidance is imperative for helping the individuals in making the best use of leisure time.

(v)

Proper Development of Personality

Total development of personality is an important aim of education. Personality is the sum total of physical, intellectual, emotional and social traits which is expressed in terms of behaviour, gestures, attitudes, values, beliefs and temperaments. A well organized guidance programme is essential for the total / all round development of personality. (vi)

Differences in the Speed of Growth

Different individuals have different patterns of development of intellectual, emotional, physical, and social nature. In this, one’s developmental pattern guides his role in dealing with different problems of life. It is also a fact that there are differences in the intellectual development of different students which mostly become visible in the achievements of their 28

studies and other intellectual work such as co-curricular activities. It becomes pertinent that the new teacher should arrange his activities in accordance with the intellectual needs of the children. For this purpose, guidance becomes quite handy to him in arranging his activities and other programme of academics.

(vii)

Clarification of Self-Concept

Every body forms his own self-concept, which guides his behaviour in all aspects of life. in fact all the problems of guidance are ultimately the problems of clarification of self-concept. Some have self-concept higher than their actual possession of the traits of their personalities, they face the problems of adjustment. In the same way, many others have lower self-concept than their personality built up, they also suffer from hardship in the process of adjustment. Both these types of students suffer from inferiority complex, which mars their behaviour. It becomes quite difficult to work on the problems against one’s selfconcept, even when it might be more profitable for them. It, thus, becomes essential to study the self-concept of the individual in order to help him to adjust to his day-to-day problems. In the light of it, it will be easy to provide him with guidance services and to lower or raise his self-concept as the case might be and to make him wiser to take his decisions in the light of it, which are in accordance with his abilities, points of view, and values. In this way, clarification of self-concept becomes one of the fundamental functions of guidance, which it does with the knowledge of psychology. (viii)

Testing and Non-Testing Techniques

A thorough study of the individual is fundamental for any guidance programme. At times, it is done with the help of non-testing techniques i.e. observation, cumulative record, interview etc., wherein counsellor is to depend upon his psychological background. Thus, guidance is to help us to apply new psychological insights into the nature of the individual. 2.3.3

Socio-Cultural Foundations of Guidance

There are very strong socio-cultural aspects and bases of guidance and counselling programme. The progress of any society is based on the fact that it becomes essential that every individual should be able to work in accordance with his capacities, possibilities and potentialities. However, explosion of population and revolution in the area of knowledge, technology, and science have created such a situation for many people that they have not 29

been able to cope with the changes brought in the social set up and are involved in many types of problematic situations. All this reflects not only upon their individual adjustment but on their family life also. In order to help such individuals, guidance, and counselling becomes quite handy. The social aspect of the guidance programme is so strong that one can never think of it without its social bases as individual is ultimately to be guided for his social adjustments. The fact remains that, it can not be dealt with in details for want of space and time In the perspective of sociology, guidance is considered as a social process under which individuals help one another for the extension of opportunities of the welfare of the society. Increased industrialisation, consumerism, explosion of knowledge, population explosion, technological advancement, liberalisation, globalisation etc. have changed the entire social pattern. People’s aspirations have shoot up. The explosion of rising expectations has given rise to unprecedented problems of adjustments, which are of a very delicate nature. These problems must be solved satisfactorily to avoid maladjustment and to equip the individual properly and adequately. All these factors necessitate the need for expert guidance to help the person to make his adjustment adequate. However, some of the pertinent social bases of guidance are enlisted below :

(a)

Complex Nature of Society

Drastic changes have taken place in our entire social, economic and political system. The process of consumption, production, distribution and exchange has become very complex. We have problems and it has become very difficult for the individual to achieve satisfactory results without the help of guidance.

(b)

Conservation of Human Energy

Life is precious. Human energy is to be saved and used for the betterment of society. If people will be left to themselves, the human energy will be wasted. Guidance is based upon the principle of conservation of energy. Lives are to be spent purposefully and this can be done with the help of guidance. Guidance can conserve this precious human energy.

(c)

Explosion of Population

The explosion of population is not only a national problem, but a global problem too. In 1951 our population was 36.2 crores which has now increased to more than 102 30

crores in 2001. This has created the problem of schools, national mobility, international mobility, urbanization, language along with mixture of customs and traditions. The national mobility has also created the problem of providing education in different languages as ours is a multilingual country. It poses the problem of adjustment for students whose parents migrate to other states.

(d) Increasing Trend towards Crime and Delinquency
In no country of the World, there is total absence of crime and delinquency. However, in some countries, it is contained to a limit and the social fibre is not affected by it. However, in many other countries it crosses limits and creates huge problem for the society. In such a situation, there is an intense need for counselling programme. Thus, there is a strong social base for guidance and counselling programmes in the schools. (e) Problem of Drug Addiction

Due to so many factors like population explosion, mis use of treasury funds by the political leaders for non-productive purposes, corruption, favouritism, maltreatment with the education system etc. youth of today are feeling rather frustrated and is going towards wrong direction and many of them adopt the path of drug-addiction which is on the increase in our society. It is high time that our country should pay proper attention towards them and save the society from going it to dogs. One of the methods to deal with such problems is to establish a strong guidance service in schools, with trained professionals.

(f) Problem of National Integration
Ours is a multi-religious, multi-racial and multi-lingual society which highlights a strong background to educate our youth that it needs to remain united in an effective way. There is an urgent need that a strong guidance and counselling programme be established in our social set up so that our youth may not be mislead. It will establish a strong base for national integration, which is deep rooted in our social set-up. Thus, from the above discussion on the bases of guidance, it is clear that guidance aims at preparing an individual for future life. It helps him to acquire essential abilities and capacities for the tasks to be accomplished in future. It is not to decide something for him, but to make him wiser to make his own decisions and follow his own path. Hence, we can 31

conclude that complex social, economic, political and educational structure has made guidance and counselling a necessity.
2.4

LET US SUM UP

Dear Learners, in the present lesson we have discussed with you the philosophical, psychological and socio-cultural bases of guidance. You have come to know that guidance and counselling are very effectively linked with the democratic way of life, wherein every individual is to be so developed that he is in a position to convert his potentialities into capacities and thus to become a partner in the development of social set-up. In order to play its role in making him wiser to do all this, guidance and counselling needs to have its roots in the philosophy, the psychology and sociocultural set up of the people. The above stated essentials have made it clear that guidance and counselling is thus to be helpful in solving problems relating to various relevant areas.

2.5

UNIT END EXERCISES

Dear learners, please check your progress by attempting the following exercises: 1.

Describe the Philosophical bases of Guidance Programme.

2.

Discuss the Psychological bases of Guidance Programme

3.

Elaborate the Socio-cultural bases of Guidance programme.

2.6

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

Aggarwal J.C. (1993) :

“Educational Vocational Guidance
and Counselling”, Doaba House,
Nai Sarak Delhi.

Chauhan S.S. (1982) :

“Principle and Techniques of Guidance”.
Vikas Publishing House, Pvt. Ltd.

Crow L.D. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”, New Delhi:
Eurasia Publishing house.
32

Jayaswal Sita Ram (1993) :

“Guidance and Counselling”.
Prakashan Kendra Lucknow.

Kochhar S.K. (1984) :

“Educational and Vocational Guidance in
Secondary Schools” Revised and enlarged
Edition, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.,
New-Delhi.

Suri S.P. & Sodhi T.S. (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”, Bawa Publications, Patiala.

33

LESSON NO. 3

UNIT-I

HISTORY OF GUIDANCE MOVEMENT IN INDIA AND U.K.
3.0 STRUCTURE
3.1. Introduction
3.2 Objectives
3.3. History of Guidance Movement in India
3.4. History of Guidance Movement in U.K.
3.5. Let Us Sum Up
3.6. Unit End Exercises
3.7. Suggested Further Readings
3.1. INTRODUCTION
Guidance is as old as human civilization. In the primitive society, guidance was offered to the young by elders in the family and to persons in distress by the family priest. Guidance - unorganized and informal- has at all places and at all levels been a vital aspect of the educational process. Programmes of organized guidance were undertaken in America towards the close of the nineteenth century. From America , the movement spread to other countries including Australia, Britain, Canada, Sri Lanka, France, Germany, India, Japan, Norway and Switzerland. The remarkable progress made during the present century by people in the west in the fields of education, science, arts and industry is, to a large extent, the result of proper organization and utilization of their guidance services. In the present lesson, we will trace the history of guidance services in India and U.K. in detail. 3.2 OBJECTIVES

After studying this lesson you will be able to :
describe the history of guidance movement in India
34

discuss the history of guidance services in U.K.
3.3

HISTORY OF GUIDANCE MOVEMENT IN INDIA

As far as India is concerned, the techniques of guidance - informal and incidental - can be traced far back to ancient times. The Panchtantra and Jataka tales are well known for their moral stories, parables and question-answer techniques in learning. Even before the time of Socrates, these were used in India. The teacher-taught relationship was that of Guru-Shishya - the word Guru meaning ‘the one who guides’ Guidance, as an organized professional activity, is more than half a century old in our country. While in America the guidance movement started as an attempt to fulfill the practical needs of employers and teachers, in India it began as an academic discipline. Calcutta University has the privilege of introducing the guidance movement in this country. It set up the first Psychological laboratory in India in the year 1915. In 1936, a separate section of research in Applied Psychology was opened under the direction of Dr. G.S. Bose, the then Head of the Department. This was done with a view to adopting psychological tests prepared in America to suit the Indian conditions and to evolving procedures to satisfy the vocational needs of Indian students. In 1941 Batliboi Vocational Guidance bureau was established in Bombay with the efforts of a retired accountant practicing in Calcutta and Mukerjee, psychologist from Calcutta University. Next came Patna University, which established a Department of Psychological Services and Research in 1945. In 1947, the Trustees of the Parsi Panchayat Funds and Properties established the Parsi Panchayat Vocational Guidance Bureau. Dr. H.P.Mehta, its first Director, published the journal of Vocational and Educational Guidance for the first time. The first State Government to take interest was the Uttar Pradesh Government, which officially recognized the guidance movement by setting up a Bureau of Psychology at Allahabad on the recommendation of Acharya Narcndra Deo Committee. In 1950, the Bombay Government set up the Vocational Guidance Bureau in Bombay which was renamed as Institute of Vocational Guidance in 1957. In 1952, the Vocational Guidance Association of Bombay was formed to coordinate the efforts of various individuals and agencies in the field of guidance in Bombay.

The first attempt to coordinate the work of persons and agencies working in the field of guidance all over the country was made in March 1953. Dr. W.L, Bamette, an 35

American Fullbright Professor, held a workshop of guidance workers in the country at the Central Institute of Education, Delhi. A second seminar was held in November 1954, again at the Central Institute of Education. Delhi. It was decided to form of All India Educational and Vocational Guidance Association and to affiliate it to the International Association for Vocational Guidance.

Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) and Guidance programme An important factor, which influenced the development of guidance movement in India, was the appointment of the Secondary Education Commission in 1952. As a result of the recommendations of this Commission, the old education system, which was unilateral in character, was replaced by a scheme of seven diversified courses. The students were supposed to choose the courses at the delta stage (VIII Class). Therefore, there was a need of guidance at this stage. The Commission recommended the introduction of guidance services in these words:

“ Educational and Vocational guidance is not to be regarded as a mechanical process whereby the advisers and teachers sort out boys and girls as a grading machine sorts out apples ! it is not a question of just deciding that one boy should stay in the farm, another work in an aeroplane factory, a third become a teacher and the fourth take to the management of garage. Guidance involves the difficult art of helping boys and girls to plan their own future wisely in the full light of all the factors that can be mustered about themselves and about the world in which they are to live and work Naturally, therefore, it is not the work of a few specialists, but rather a service in which the entire school staff must cooperate under the guidance of some person with special knowledge and skill in this particular field. Guidance, in this sense, is not confined to the vocational field only. It covers the -whole gamut of youth problems and should be provided in an appropriate form at all stages of education through the cooperative endeavour of understanding parents, headmasters, principals and guidance officers.”

Following is the summary of the recommendations of the Commission : •

Educational Guidance should receive much greater attention on the part of the educational authorities.
36



In order to broaden the pupil’s understanding of the scope, nature and significance of various occupations of industries, films should be prepared to show the nature of the work in various industries and this should be supplemented by actual visits.



The services of trained Guidance Officers and Career Masters should be made available gradually and in an increasing measure to all educational institutions.



The Centre should take up the responsibility of opening in different regions centres of training and Guidance officers and Career Masters to which each State may send a number of teachers or other suitable persons for training.

For the implementation of these recommendations, the Commission provided guidelines, both for the centre and the states, and the result was the creation of an infrastructure of guidance programme in the multipurpose schools. The nationwide guidance and counselling programme during the first decade following the publication of the Report of the Secondary Education Commission was the result of this progressive National Policy on Secondary Education.

Establishment of Central Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance A definite shape to the guidance movement was given when the Ministry of Education, Govt. of India, set up the Central Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance in 1954. The following were the specific functions of the Bureau: (i)

Production and distribution of tools and aids serviceable for guidance work in schools.

(ii)

Technical assistance in setting up educational and vocational guidance bureaus in the State

(iii)

Training guidance personnel, particularly psychologists and counsellors

(iv)

Coordinating guidance activities throughout the country

(v)

Preparation of manuals dealing with educational and vocational guidance careers and occupations

(vi)

Co-ordinating with the Occupational Information Unit of the Directorate 37

General of Resettlement and Employment in the preparation of occupational information material and its distribution in schools Since the establishment, the Central Bureau had been -rendering a valuable and useful service in the field of guidance. It offered assistance to the State Governments to establish their own State Bureaus and to provide guidance services in their secondary schools- With the setting up of the All India Educational and Vocational Guidance Association in 1956, the guidance movement assumed an all India character.

Soon private agencies and universities started evincing interest in the field and the Journal of Educational and Vocational Guidance was started by a private agency in 1954. This was later taken over by the All India Educational and Vocational Guidance Association. Some universities also began to offer courses in guidance as optional papers for master’s degree in education and psychology.

The guidance movement received a further fillip during the Third Plan period. Financial assistance and technical advice were given to the States by the Govt of India under a Centrally sponsored scheme of the Ministry of Education. The scheme provided for :

(i)

The establishment of State Bureaus of Guidance in the States where they did not already exist;

(ii)

The strengthening of the existing State Bureaus ;

(iii)

The establishment of guidance services with a full time counsellor in 170 multipurpose schools; and

(iv)

The establishment of an occupational information service in 2500 schools. The financial assistance offered being meagre, the scheme had little impact on the development of guidance services.

Vocational Guidance Services in Employment Exchanges
The Ministry of Labour, which dealt with the employment of people at lower level was further strengthened with the passing of compulsory Notification of Vacancies Act 1960, which made the Government organisations to fill in their vacancies through the 38

Employment Exchanges by an executive order. However, made it compulsory for organized sector employing more than 25 persons to notify their vacancies through Employment Exchanges. On the pattern of U.K., it started providing Vocational Guidance facilities to the registrants to facilitate their employment, to help them to go in for different types of training programmes and to go in for self employment.

Education Commission 1964-66
The Education Commission (1964-66) considered that the
“Guidance services have a much wider scope and function than merely that of assisting students in making educational and vocational choices. The aims of guidance are both adjustive and developmental: it helps the student in making the best possible adjustments to the situations in the educational institutions and in the home and at the same time facilitates the development of all aspects of his personality. Guidance, therefore, should be regarded as an integral part of education and not a special psychological or social service, -which is peripheral to educational purpose. It is meant for all students, not just for those who deviate from the norm in one direction or the other. It is also a continuous process aimed at assisting the individual to make decisions and adjustments from time to time.”

The Commission emphasised that educational and vocational guidance could play a significant and useful role in the qualitative improvement of educational standards at all levels and suggested a new policy on education from the primary to the university stages. It scrapped the recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission as a result of which the multipurpose system gave place to the traditional system of a unitary type. The scheme bid farewell to the objective of vocationally oriented education envisaged in the previous system.

After having made a strong case for guidance as contributory to a student’s all round development, the Commission recommended that it was not counsellors but teachers who would have to take the responsibility for guidance for the next twenty years. The Commission had thrown cold water on the hopes and aspirations of guidance workers. The Draft National Policy on Education of the Ministry of Education, Government of India (1979) is silent on the guidance and counselling service and the words ‘Guidance’ and “Counselling’ are nowhere mentioned in the National Policy note. 39

The Present Position
At present two major establishments are developing guidance programmes for school-going children in our country - Government Organisations and Private agencies. The Government agencies include the Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education, the National Council for Educational Research and Training, State Bureaus of Guidance and the Guidance units of the National Employment Service. Private agencies include Vocational Guidance Society at Calcutta, Gujarat Research Society at Bombay, Y.M.C.A. of Calcutta, the Rotary Club of Bombay, the Lions Club. and the Junior Chamber of Baroda. In addition, a number of voluntary organizations are also providing guidance facilities of different types. According to the information collected by the Department of Psychology and Foundations of Education in 1976, out of 30,328 secondary schools in the country, 8,732 (29 per cent) have a programme of guidance. Only 37 schools in the country have full time counsellors. 258 schools have part-time counselors and the rest of the schools have career masters. As the impact of guidance is not immediately perceptible, effective guidance service is rare in the schools. Bureaus are functioning in all the States except Jammu & Kashmir, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tamil Nadu. Among the Union Territories, only Chandigarh and Delhi have guidance bureaus.

However, after the inclusion of education in the Concurrent List of our Constitution with the efforts of the Central Government, the 10+2+3 system of education has been adopted by the All States of India. This system has its deep roots in the guidance programme and will be difficult to function without it. However, it secures that the State Governments have not very seriously implemented the +2 i.e. vocational education. In accordance with the modified National Policy of Education 1992. it is predicted that their pattern will have to be taken seriously. In nutshell, it can be said that there is no escape from the serious implementation of Educational and Vocational Programme.

3.4

HISTORY OF GUIDANCE MOVEMENT IN U.K.

The beauty of the educational programme of U.K. is that it has grown out of her own needs, culture, trade lines, and compulsions. U.K.. has so well organized her education system that no nation in the world can compete with her. No text, 40

they take a lot of time to change and change only when they are fully convinced of the merits of the change, yet they have made guidance programme as one of the important constituent of the education process, it may be difficult to say when it started , yet it can be definitely said that it developed her own policy to adopt it rather than transplanting from other nations. Even they take some help to clarify their concepts on some educational problem from some other culture; they fully absorb it into their process.

School Guidance Programme
In U.K., there is a strong guidance and counselling programme. The cumulative record of all the students are prepared and kept up-to-date right from the day the child enters the school and all types of records are maintained in it. The Elementary education is well planned. There are three types of the schools i.e Grammar Schools, Vocational Schools, and Modern Schools. The class teacher watches all the students at Elementary level keenly. All types of guidance is provided to all of them. Now, a different type of secondary education in the shape of comprehensive system has been adopted and all the three types of schools are combined in the same pattern. The services of the school counsellor are provided in almost all the schools. The supporting staff also assists them. Students are provided educational, vocational, and psychological guidance at school level for the selection of the subjects after the end of the secondary education, those who want to go in some professional, technical, or mechanical types of work are guided to go in for such trainings and only a very good few are allowed to go in for university education. In this way, there is good type of guidance and counselling programme organized in their schools. Career Guidance

The part time teachers are appointed in the schools. Local Education Authorities (LEAs) and The Ministry of Labour share responsibility of providing career guidance. LEA is responsible to organize the schooling programme and also organizes the guidance programme. In some schools, there are full time guidance counsellors. In U.K., there is a very good tradition that when the students pass out school education, their cumulative record is handed over to the Employment Exchange for his placement in some job. The Youth Employment Officers keep in touch with schools and places of employment and cooperate with teachers and others concerned in the transition from school to work. 41

Child Guidance Clinics
Child guidance centres or clinics for the treatment of children with emotional or behaviour problems are provided by many local education authorities, as well as by homes, hospitals or voluntary organisations. Clinics provided by LEAs are part of the School Health Services and generally co-operate closely with the National Health Services. The services of Psychologists are taken for investigation of children with emotional or psychological disturbances and they give talks and advice to the parents and teachers on the management of children and their behavioural problems.

School Welfare Officers
LEA usually employs a school welfare Superintendent. He acts as leader of a team of local education welfare officers or school attendance officers of a team. They look after their areas in the district and make a liaison between the schools and the children homes. The annual house-to-house census undertaken by the officers ensures that no child of compulsory school age is over-looked.

Children Care Committees
A unique system of child-care has been developed in London where the Inner London Education Authorities employ trained social workers as organizers of voluntary care committees. These consist of voluntary workers and are attached to both primary and secondary schools or groups or such schools.

Concluding Remarks
The guidance programme in U.K.. is unique and she developed her own system of guidance programme although it has also been influenced by the Guidance Programme of U.S.A. It places more emphasis in educational guidance programme and most of the vocational training is provided in the form of further education outside the schooling process of academic type. In the school, such interests are developed through the organization of co-curricular activities, which are quite well organized. Historically, it has grown out of their own needs and is of different pattern.

3.5 LET US SUM UP
Dear learners, Guidance programme is an essential part of democratic pattern of 42

society. As such, this is an essential part of educational process in India and U.K. The guidance programme has taken its birth in U.S.A., where it is well established. In our country, in spite of the fact that a good many posts of counsellors,have been created in different places in Educational Departments at district level in some schools. Establishment of State Bureaus of Educational and Vocational Guidance, a good many Vocational Guidance Units in Employment Exchanges and University Employment and Information Bureaus in Universities, the organization of guidance services have not got their roots in Indian situation. The policy planners and political leaders have not taken it seriously.

In U.K. the guidance programme is well organized both in schools and in Youth Employment Services. However, it is not as well organized as in U.S.A. It has grown out of the needs of the educational system ofU.K.Needless to say that it is providing a good service for channelizing the students in different channels in academic as well as in vocational streams.

3.6

UNIT END EXERCISES
Dear learners, please check you progress by attempting the following exercises:

1.

Describe the History of Development of Guidance Movement in India in your own words. Bring out its important features.

2.

Discuss the History of Development of Guidance Programme in U.K. Write its important features.

3.7

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

Aggarwal J.C. (1993) :

“Educational Vocational Guidance and
Counselling”, Doaba House,
Nai Sarak Delhi.

Crow L.D. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”, New Delhi;
Eurasia Publishing house.
Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) :

“Guidance and Counselling”. Prakashan
Kendra Lucknow.
43

Kochhar S.K. (1984) :

“Educational and Vocational Guidance in
Secondary Schools” Revised and enlarged
Edition, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.,
New-Delhi.

Suri S.P. & Sodhi T.S. (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”, Bawa Publications Patiala.

44

LESSON NO. 4

UNIT-II

TYPES OF GUIDANCE (EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL AND PERSONAL)
4.0 STRUCTURE
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Objectives
4.3 Types of Guidance
4.3.1Educational Guidance
4.3.2Vocational Guidance
4.3.3Personal Guidance
4.4 Let Us Sum Up
4.5 Unit End Exercises
4.6 Suggested Further Readings
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Dear students , in the previous lessons you have studied the conceptual framework of Guidance , its meaning, need, scope and history of guidance movement in India and U.K. There are mainly three types of Guidance i.e. Educational guidance which is concerned with helping the individual to plan wisely his educational programme ; vocational guidance is a long continuing process, organized assistance for choosing appropriate occupation in life and personal Guidance which deals with all aspects of life. In the present Lesson we will be discussing, with you these three types of guidance in detail. 4.2

OBJECTIVES :
After reading this lesson you should be able to :
Explain the nature of student’s problems, which need educational guidance 45

Describe nature and scope of vocational guidance
Describe nature of personal guidance
Discuss the various types of behavioural problems of students at school stage Explain the place of counselling in personal guidance
4.3

Types of Guidance:

Guidance is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments and in solving problems. Guidance functions in all sorts of problem situations, may be in educational, vocational, or personal. Thus, there are different types of guidance programmes depending upon the nature of a problem. It is an interesting phenomenon that educationists and guidance workers have been describing types of guidance in diversified ways. Many of them do not agree on the number and types of guidance.

W.M.Prestor described six types of guidance
(a)

Educational Guidance

(b)

Vocational Guidance

(c )

Guidance is Social and Civic activities

(d)

Guidance in Health and Physical activities

(e)

Guidance in worthy use of leisure time

(f)

Guidance in character building.

Paterson has grouped them into five types:
(1)

Educational Guidance

(2)

Vocational Guidance

(3)

Personal guidance

(4)

Health Guidance

(5)

Economic Guidance
46

If we examine the classification of all the psychologists a common thread passes through mainly three types of guidance, these are,
(i)

Educational Guidance

(ii)

Vocational Guidance

(iii)

Personal Guidance

4.3.1

Educational Guidance

According to Arthur J.Jones. “Educational Guidance is concerned with assistance given to pupils in their choices and adjustment with relation to schools, curriculum, courses, and school life.”
It means that educational guidance is mainly concerned with such problems of education as are faced by students engaged in the study of different subjects for their vocational preparation. There are various problems of educational guidance, which have been discussed by Brewer in his book “Educational guidance”. Brewer is of the view that educational guidance is concerned strictly with the pupil’s success in his educational career. Keeping this in view, he stated a number of problems pertaining to educational guidance. In educational guidance, one of the main problems is to help the individual to make desirable progress in his educational career. Educational career is obviously “the path of learning, which has to be followed by a pupil”.

Educational Guidance: Nature and Concept
There is a definite type of situation, which must come up for any guidance activity. If such a situation does not exist then the activity can be termed anything like education, vocational education, or assistance but cannot be called guidance in any sense of scientific terminology. For any guidance activity, it is essential that there must be two sets of different characteristics. Different types of individual and a number of choices open to make any combination suitable to them.

For the first time the term, educational guidance was noticed in the Reader’s guidance in 1912. In the field of educational guidance it will be possible to do so if firstly there are number of individuals and each individual has different personality characteristics i.e. intelligence, attitudes , aptitudes interest, personality patterns, physical 47

make-up etc. Out of all these characteristics, the individual who comes up must be unique personality, which would fundamentally be quite different from other human personalities. Secondly there should be different types of educational activities i.e. school subjects, streams and combinations. The individual who is to be unique embodiment is to decide about his choices in education. He is to decide it for himself with the help or guidance of some other persons, may be a teacher, counsellor, parents, headmaster or a guidance worker who is to assist him in deciding things for himself. Until such a situation of the different sets of things arisen of the outcome will be a guidance activity.

Educational guidance thus may be said to be the process of assisting an individual pupil to determine and understand his own abilities, aptitudes’, interests, opportunities, needs, problems and limitations and to make a proper study successfully and adjust himself to his environment, so that he can serve the society properly and enjoy a happy life. This type of guidance will have to be related as a functional part of the school programme and is definitely related to the school curriculum.

In order to explain educational guidance activities, Ruth Strong says that it must include the following:
1.

Helping a student to adjust his academic load to his ability

2.

Substituting a more suitable course for one in which the student has failed, instead of requiring him to repeat the subject

3.

Adopting methods of teaching to the individual in a class

4.

Scheduling opportunities for counselling students as an intrinsic part of their curriculum

5.

Placing the responsibility for learning with the students

6.

Re-organizing student’s real interest and providing opportunities for each student’s participation in the student activities, which unless carried to access seem to have a benefit effect on scholarship.

One of the speciality of educational guidance is that it is almost always influenced by the vocational guidance. In the way, there are diversified courses of studies, which 48

prepare individuals for different type of occupation, so are the differences among individuals as regards their abilities or capacities so that there are different persons suitable for different courses of studies. That is why that mostly educational guidance is dominated by vocational guidance. At times, the occupation or profession of the individual is decided by the points and educational guidance cannot have any other role to play but the role of assisting the process of vocational guidance. It may not always be true.

Kothari Commission is of the view that “One of the main functions of guidance at Secondary level is to aid in the identification and development of the abilities and interests of adolescent pupil. It helps these pupils to understand their own strength and limitation and to do scholastic work at the level of their ability, to gain information about educational and vocational choices and plans”based on the consideration of all relevant factors; and to find solution to their problem of personal and social adjustment in the school and at home.” Guidance and Education

The aims and objectives of guidance are so close to each other and people confuse them at times. Even guidance scholars the Jones have said, “Whatever in the learning process the teacher assists the child to learn, guidance is present.....choices in methods (of learning) are often, if not always possible. The efficient teacher is continually trying to help the pupil to find the method that is best suited to him. Such assistance is guidance...Teaching conceived of as assistance the pupil to learn is all essential guidance.” Similarly, Wrinkle and Gilchrist has said, “Without good teaching guidance is incomplete. Teaching and guidance are inseparable.” Education, in one sense, means aiming at proper development of the child so that he becomes a good citizen and enjoys happiness in life. It is hoped that it will be through education that people will acquire sound health, grow capacity to face difficulties realistically, develop power to solve problems in life, have the best functioning of their intelligence, and also establish good relationship with other people of the society. According to Proctor, Guidance is a process “assistance given to individual, of making necessary adjustment to their environment and in distributing themselves to suitable vocation recreational health and social civic opportunities.” In brief, the purpose of guidance seems to be self-realization and personality development. It also helps people to make necessary adjustment to this environment.

49

It needs to be kept in mind that instruction is not guidance and must be carefully distinguished from it. At times, guidance does make use of instruction, but it is not selfinstruction. We should be able to conceive that even when the aims and objectives of guidance are the same, which are that of education, the method used by these two, differs largely. That is why Jone once said that all assistance in learning is guidance and at an other place said that “all guidance is education but some aspects of education are not guidance, their objectives are the same in the development of individual but the methods used in education are by no means the same as used in guidance”. Agreeing with Jones, Myers has said, “Adopting teaching methods to individual needs is not educational guidance. It is just good teaching.”

4.3.2

Vocational Guidance

It was for the first time that the term “Guidance” came into prominence along with adjective Vocational. All have not universally described the term. In the same way, different scholars have visualized them in different modes. Some have considered it as “getting a job for the child” while others visualized it as “keeping the individual happy at his work,” while still others considered it as “fitting the occupation to the individual”. The National Vocational Guidance‘Association of USA’ in 1924 defined it : “The process of assisting the individual` to choose an occupation, prepare for it, enter upon it and make a progress in it.” In accordance with this definition, the vocational guidance counselor or the vocational guidance officer is to do everything for the pupil. This is all against the spirit of guidance service as in this process the pupil is to be assisted to decide for himself and some one else is not to decide for him. Keeping all this in view the Association revised the definition in 1937 and said, “Vocational Guidance is the process of assisting the individual to choose an occupation, prepare for it, enters upon it and progress in it.” It is concerned primarily with helping individual to make decisions and choices involved in planning a future and building career decisions and choices necessarily in affecting satisfactory vocational adjustment. As is essential with every form of guidance there are two sets of different traits in the process of vocational guidance? One set is embodied in the individuals who possess different levels of intelligence, physical characteristics, aptitudes, attitudes, interests, personality traits, and academic attainments. On the other hand, there are different vocations requiring different types of theoretical and practical qualifications 50

and a good number of vocations with different requirements and opportunities. Briefly speaking it is the job of the vocational guidance worker to assist an individual who possesses certain kinds of assets and liabilities in his behaviour to select one vocation from the large number of available vocations. The vocation thus selected should be the one. “which is regarded to be the most suitable and appropriate for the pupil”. Keeping in view his intelligence, interests, attitudes, aptitudes etc., and the vocational guidance worker should help the individual to prepare himself for it. enter into it. and last of all to prepare in it.

Vocational Guidance and Vocational Education
Both these terms, no doubt, very closely interlinked with each other do not mean exactly the same thing. Vocational Education means the actual preparation, through education and training, for the future occupation, which has already been selected. However, Vocational Guidance consists of the assistance given in choosing the vocation and in making of the plan for the preparation or training for the vocation. Some of the guidance scholars are of the view that vocational guidance is a part of the vocational education, in the same way in which all educational guidance is a part of education. That is why even Myers has said, “ Vocational guidance is an integral part of an organized educational programme and not as something apart from education that is being wished upon the schools by a group of enthusiasts because there is no other agency to handle it”

Place of Occupational Information in Guidance
The aim of vocational guidance is to serve the individual and society. For the individual the objectives are to prevent unfortunate consequences arising from maladjustment an occupation and to contribute to his total well-being and happiness. Maladjustment-may lead to undesirable consequences to various kinds ranging from mild job dissatisfaction to serious mental and physical illness. From a more positive point of view, vocational guidance is a means of promoting the general well-being of the individual. Specifically, through information service a guidance worker may help his client to select a suitable vocational goal, informing him about the training he will need to reach that goal. Certain basic objectives can be laid down for the information service in vocational guidance programme of a school. These objectives are as follows : 51

1.

to convey to pupils the importance of an occupational choice and the necessity of a sensible and realistic approach

2.

to develop a broad and realistic view of opportunities in life and problems at all levels of training

3.

to create an awareness of the need and an active desire for accurate and valid occupational, educational and personal social information

4.

to help a pupil in proper self-appraisal and development of his interests and personality

5.

to provide occupational orientation and an understanding of the world of work and related activities

6.

to assist in the mastery of the techniques of obtaining and interpreting information for progressive self-directedness

7.

to provide assistance in narrowing down choices progressively to specific activities which are appropriate to aptitudes

Under the new pattern of education (10 + 2 + 3), the information service is very essential for helping the students make successful curricular and vocational choices at the end of the period of general education at class X level. They are to be provided with information about the various vocational possibilities through career conferences, occupational information exhibitions, and career corner in schools.

4.3.3

Personal Guidance

Personal guidance is meant to provide assistance to all problems, which do not come within the purview of educational and vocational guidance. This type of guidance starts from early childhood and continues throughout the life of an individual. Personal social guidance has become relevant under existing problem conditions. These days individuals are facing emotional problems, mental ill- health, attitudes towards social evils, changing values towards social system and superstition. Such problems necessitate the importance of personal guidance. “Personal guidance is more important in modern India as new Indians may still talk proudly of their spiritual heritage and sucker their lips at our 52

materialism and too rapid tempo of life. Yet the same champions of Indian timelessness are in a hurry, a terrible hurry, to develop and catch. They are hankering after the material progress of the west and determined that in India and in Asia it will be shared more broadly among men.

In this way, we notice that the term personal guidance is rather comprehensive and it permits to the whole life of the individual. It may include guidance pertaining to social and civic activities. It may provide for recreational guidance, social and moral guidance, health guidance, community service guidance etc. another important point in regard to personal guidance is that we consider the term personal as one side of the coin whose other side is social. Individuals are the units of society and society is made of individuals. In all social activities, the person or persons are involved with their individual differences and uniqueness of their personalities. Thus, the personal type of guidance is devoted to the needs and interests of the individual in society.

Personal guidance may be defined as the assistance offered to the individual to solve his emotional, social, ethical, and moral as well as health problems. Thus, in the nature of personal guidance we find a concern for individual and social problems, which are not generally dealt with under educational and vocational guidance.

The purpose of personal guidance is to help the individual in his physical, emotional, social, moral, and spiritual development and adjustment. As regards physical development; play activities of the children have to be properly organized likewise for emotional development; children have to be provided with opportunities for self-expression. In matters of social development; children have to plan to get along with others. Behavioural Problems of Students

Most human problems arise from life situations and significantly affect the development of individuals. From the psycho-analytic point of view, problems of adjustment are explained to be the result of the nature of the psycho-sexual development of the individual. According to this view complexes arise when the libido is blocked or fixated at any particular stage. Such fixation in unfavourable circumstances may precipitate personality problems and lead to problems of adjustment. According to the accepted meaning of the term a person is said to be adjusted when he is in harmony 53

with a reasonably adequate environment, he is relatively happy, efficient and has a proper degree of social feeling. By maladjustment, we mean the degree of disharmony between the individual and the environment. There are various reasons of behaviour problems among the students. There may be hereditary, environmental factors which include home environment, defective discipline, unwanted home atmosphere, school environment etc. other factors are physical abnormalities, adolescent period, poverty of parents and lack of suitable recreational facilities.

The following are the symptoms of behaviour problems at school stage : 1.

the student is attracted towards anti-social elements

2.

he fails in the examination

3.

he shows frequent nervousness

4.

he does not show interest in studies

5.

the student make false excuses in the school

6.

the student remains absent in the school

7.

he is shy by nature

8.

he is cut off from the group

9.

the pupil may project emotional disturbances through nail-biting, head scratching, thumb-sucking etc.

10.

he remains absent’

The following are the some common behavioural problems at school stage which needs personal guidance :
(a) Truancy
(b) Stealing
(c) Cheating
(d) Bullying
(e) Lying
54

How to control Behaviour Problems ?
There are two methods to control behaviour problems (a) Prevention and (b) Punishment
School can do a lot to prevent behaviour problems by providing the following facilities in the school:
(i)

Atmosphere : atmosphere of the school should be free from emotional tensions

(ii) Facilities for co-curricular activities
(iii) Teachers behaviour
(iv) Curriculum
(v) Developing good reading habits
4.4

LET US SUM UP

Dear Learners, we have studied in this lesson the various types of guidance. The educationists and psychologists have classified guidance according to different purposes. Mainly there are three types of guidance. These are Educational Guidance, which is concerned with the educational problems such as teaching-learning process. Second is vocational which is concerned with the problems of selection, training and choice of vocations in the life of the individuals where as Personal guidance is related with the behavioral problems of the individuals. The teacher plays an important role in understanding and the solution of the problems’ in the areas of educational, vocational and personal guidance. 4.5

UNIT-END EXERCISES

Dear Pupil teachers, please check your progress by attempting the following questions:
1.

Describe the nature of Educational guidance.

2.

Explain the place of occupational information in guidance.

3.

Discuss the various types of behavioral problems among the students at school stage.
55

4.6

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1.

Aggarwal, J.C. (1993) :

“Educational Vocational Guidance and
Counselling” . Doaba House New Delhi

2.

Bernard, Harold W
& Daniel, W( 19690:

“Principles of Guidance : A brief Text “
Allied Publishers New Delhi

3.

Chauhan S.S (1982) :

“Principles and Techniques of Guidance “.
Vikas Publishing House, Delhi.

4.

Kochhar. S.K. (1993) :

“Educational and Vocational Guidance in
Secondary Schools “ , Sterling Publishers New
Delhi

5.

Pandey, K..P (1987) :

“The Bases of Educational and Vocational
Guidance “, Abhilash Prakshan.

6.

Sodhi, T.S and
Suri. S.P. (2006) :

“ Guidance and Counselling “ , Bawa
Publications, Patiala

7.

Strang Rath (I960):

“Educational Guidance : Its Principles
and Practices”, Mc Millan Company , New York.

56

LESSON NO. 5

UNIT-II

NON-TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE : INTERVIEW,
OBSERVATION
5.0

STRUCTURE

5.1

Introduction

5.2

Objectives

5.3

Non-Testing Techniques in Guidance & Counselling
5.3.1 Interview
5.3.2 Observation

5.4

Let Us Sum Up

5.5

Unit End Exercises

5.6

Suggested Further Readings

5.1 INTRODUCTION
The aim of guidance is to help the individual. It can be done by understanding him. We can not understand a person unless, we know him. Therefore, the first thing guidance workers must do is to get to know the individual. If he has reliable, accurate, significant, and comprehensive information regarding the individual, he can understand him better and guide him effectively. The better the exploration of the individual, the more effective the guidance, and complete exploration of the individual may be achieved by various testing and non-testing devices. In this lesson, we will discuss only two non-testing techniques i.e interview and observation in detail.

5.2 OBJECTIVES
After going through this lesson, the students will be able to : 57

1

Understand the need of studying and appraising an individual.

2

Describe the non-testing techniques in guidance and counselling

3

Describe interview as non-testing technique.

4

Discuss Observation as non-testing technique in guidance programme.

5.3

NON-TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

The centre of all guidance and counselling is the individual. Therefore, in any guidance programme, we study and appraise the individual. While emphasizing the importance of studying and appraising the individual Reavis and Judd write, “ To attempt to guide the development of the pupil without an intimate knowledge of his background and the sum total of experience is to attempt the impossible.”

Jones emphasises,”Assistance in making choices should be based on as through an understanding as is possible of the individuals, his basic needs and the real circumstances surrounding the decisions.”

Thus, an important purpose of appraisal service is to gather information about student that will aid them in understanding himself or herself and make meaningful decisions about their future career.

Techniques for studying and appraising individuals
In studying and appraising the individual, data and information pertaining to all aspects of life are required. A number of techniques are used for this purpose. These techniques are developed by psychologists. They can be classified into (i) Testing Techniques and (ii) Non-Testing Techniques

Non-Testing Techniques
These techniques are also known as non-standardized techniques. Non-testing techniques for studying and appraising an individual are :
(i) Interview (ii) Observation (iii) Case Study (iv) Cumulative Record (v) Socio-metric Techniques (vi) Questionnaire (vii) Rating Scales 58

(viii) Anecdotal Record (ix) Autobiography
We will discuss first two non-testing techniques in detail
5.3.1

Interview

Interview is one of the most important techniques used to collect data in guidance and counselling. It is called “conversation with a purpose.” It is face to face relationship between the interviewer and the interviewee. Various types of interviews are used to understand the individual. These are :

(i)

Diagnostic Interview : Here the purpose is to secure information about the individual

(ii)

Administrative Interview : A student misbehaves and principal calls him and warns him. Here the purpose is to self explanation, to warn, to punish or to modify behaviour

(iii)

Employment Interview : Here the purpose is to determine the fitness of candidate for a particular job.

(iv)

Admission Interview : Here the purpose is to determine the fitness of a candidate for a particular course.

(v)

Informative Interview : Here the purpose is to impart information to the interviewee

(vi)

Research Interview : Here the purpose is to discover facts and figures for the purpose of research.

(vii)

Counselling Interview : Here the purpose is to help the individual (counsellee) to solve the problems.

Here in this lesson we are concerned with the Counselling Interview : Functions of Counselling Interview
o

To have a face to face contact with the interviewee and to assist him

o

To collect information from the interviewee

o

To impart information to the interviewee
59

o

To motivate the interviewee and enable him to take interest in himself

o

To help the interviewee in solving educational, vocational and psychological problems and making adjustments

The counselling interview is a face-to face situation involving two persons, in which counsellor helps the counsellee in gaining insight into his problems and assists him in solving the same.
Ruth Strang describes the interview as the heart of counselling process in which other techniques are contributory. In the words of Erickson, “ A counselling interview is a person-to-person relationship in which one individual with problems and needs turns to another person for assistance.” The essential feature of the interview is a dynamic face-toface relationship in which the counsellee is helped to develop insights that lead to selfrealization. It is a type of person-to-person relationship and communication to explore the problem of the client.

Before the interview takes place, it is essential that interviewer must be clear in mind about the person who is to be interviewed, his background, his environment and his merits and weaknesses. He should be clear in his mind about the technique and purpose of the interview. He should select the proper place and atmosphere for the interview and arrange its secrecy. The interviewee needs to be properly motivated. It is essential that interviewee should have come voluntarily of his own and without any compulsion. Steps in Counselling Interview

In order to make the interview meaningful and effective, the following steps are followed :
1.

Preparation and establishment of rapport

2.

Unfolding the problem

3.

Joint working on the Problem

4.

Closing of the Interview

5.

Evaluation and

6.

Follow up
60

1.

Preparation and the Establishment of the Rapport

It includes:
(i)

Schedule of Interview programme : Schedule of interview should be prepared in advance. The date and time of interview of each pupil in the class should be notified.

(ii)

Physical Setting : An essential preparation for an effective interview is the proper physical setting and environment. It should be conducted in a private room free from noise, distraction or disturbance. A properly lighted room with suitable temperature condition and a comfortable seat for the counsellee must be ensured.

(iii)

Organised Material : Material required for the interview should be organized and planned. Even the opening sentence must be thought of

(iv)

Pre-Interview Conversation : Pre-interview conversation is essential where the interviewee is bashful or reserved. Appropriate topics for discussion for preinterview are hobbies or school events.

(v)

Establishing Rapport : Rapport should be established. Rapport is characterized by mutual respect, cooperation, friendliness, sincerity and mutual confidence.

2.

Unfolding the Problem
Unfolding the problem means to arrive at the problem. Methods of unfolding the problems are :
(i) Observation : Two things should be observed.
(a)

Physical reaction of the client - it may be in the form of bodily tension, excitement or blushing

(b)

Observation of clues for understanding the problem

(ii) Listening : Interviewer should ask important, suitable and limited questions. Questions should be well worded.
(iii) Talking : Problem can also be unfolded with the help of talking or mutual conversation between the counsellor and the counsellee
61

3.

Joint working on the Problem

Here the counsellee is taken into confidence, pros and cons are explained to him and the situation is arrived at through joint efforts. The counsellor should increase rapport with the help of the following techniques :

(i)

Sympathy : Show sympathy to the client or interviewee

(ii) Assurance : Give assurance to the counsellee that the problem will be solved.
(iii) Humour : Make use of humour in order to remove the tension to illustrate his point of view.
(iv) Personal References : Give personal references to the” client to illustrate the point of view
(v) Non-Personal References : Give non-personal references about other persons who had similar problems
(vi) Reference to Consellee’s words : Sometime start new topic for discussion by referring to the statement made by the counsellee.
(vii) Threat : Sometime try to show to the interviewee the grave consequences that may result if he follows a wrong course of action.
(viii) Approval : Temporary approval of the action of the counsellee should be given in order to encourage the feelings.
4.

Closing the Interview

Interview should not be closed abruptly. See that the client is satisfied and summarise the whole issue in a few sentences. Fix time if there is need for another interview. Interviewer should see that he has recorded all the necessary facts so that he can prepare a report.

5.

Evaluation

Interview may be evaluated under the following four headings and the points of merits given above be kept in view:
62

(i)

Regarding the setting of the interview

(ii) Regarding the interviewer
(iii) Regarding the Interviewee
(iv) Regarding the outcome of the interview
6.

Follow Up

The follow up should be made to find out if the problem of the counsellee has been solved and if he is moving in the right direction. It is also essential for the improvement of the interview process on the basis of the results shown by it. This should be a continuous process.

Subject Matter covered during the Interview
The following subject matter should be covered during the interview: •

The problem or reason for coming for interview



Previous work history



Educational history



Hobbies, vocational and background



Interests



Family situation and background



Social Activities



Physical conditions



Self-evaluation of appearance, abilities and personality

Advantages of Interview
The following are the advantages of the interview :


It is the most flexible and dynamic way of understanding the individual as a whole
63



It is natural like conversation



It can be used for variety of purposes



It helps the counsellee to understand himself and solve his problems



It can be practiced on illiterate persons



Interview is relatively easy to conduct.

Limitations of Interview
The following are the limitations of the Counselling Interview; •

It is subjective



It is time consuming



It needs experts which are generally not available



It is placed in an artificial situation



Depression may take place during the interview and may spoil our results



Sometimes it is difficult to interpret the results of the interview

To conclude we can say that interview is essential in counselling process.Although it has some limitations, it must be supplemented by other techniques. 5.3.2 Observation
Observation is one of the important techniques of collecting information about the individual. In guidance and counselling, observation is the most commonly employed of all individual techniques. Rousseuu wrote, “Watch nature long and observe your pupil carefully before you say a word to him.”

Behaviour is a reflection of personality. It must be observed very carefully, intelligently and scientifically as observation of behaviour has been recognized as basic to other techniques. For reliable and dependable observation, however, observation must be organized or planned, directed, specific, systematic, scientific, objective, reliable, qualitative, and quantitative.

64

Two important types of observation are :
(i)

Natural Observation: In natural observation, we observe the specific behavioural characteristics of children or adults in natural setting. Subjects do not become conscious of the fact that someone is observing their behaviour. The teacher can observe the behaviour of the students on the playground or in any other social situation when students may not become conscious of his presence. In child clinic, one way screen is used to observe the behaviour of deviant children, the observer can observe the behaviour of children but they can not see the observer.

(ii)

Participant Observation : It is that type of observation in which the observer becomes the part of the group which he wants to observe. He establishes perfect rapport with the group of children or adolescents so that they may not become conscious of his presence and may not hide their actual behaviour.

Requisites of Good Observation
Observation should have four characteristics :
(i)

Proper Planning : Specific activities or units of behaviour i.e. single or group to be observed must be clearly defined. The time of each observation period, number of observations and interval between periods should be decided. The instruments to be used for recording should be decided. Proper tools for recording observation should be obtained and used.

(ii)

Proper Execution : an expert execution demands cultivated skills and resourcefulness on the part of the investigators. The proper physical position for observing involves focusing attention on the units of behaviour specific activities, observing discreetly the length area, number of periods and intervals decided upon, and proper handling of the recording instrument used for observation.

(iii)

Recording of Observation : It can be done in either of the two methods (a)

The first method is to record the observation simultaneously. It avoids time gap, but makes the students conscious and are also difficult at times. 65

(b)

(iv)

Facts may be recorded soon after the observation is over. It may not be accurate due to time gap while it has the merit of not distracting the mind of the student. As it is difficult to record the minute details so check lists, or rating scales or score cards, blank form of tallying frequencies are generally used.

Interpretation : Results should be interpreted cautiously and judiciously after taking into account various limitations of planning, sampling or procedure.

Merits of Systematic Observation
Observational studies are particularly very important and yield significant results on developmental characteristics of children. It has the following advantages:
1.

Being a record of actual behaviour of the child, it is more reliable, valid, objective and scientific.

2.

It is economical as it needs no laboratory and costly apparatus

3.

It is flexible and can be used in gathering data in many situations.

4.

It can be applied to observe the behaviour of children of all ages. Of course, the younger the child, the easier it is to observe him. This method has been found very useful with shy children.

5.

It can be applied to observe the behaviour of individuals as well as of a group.

6.

This method can be used with little training and almost all teachers can use it for understanding the behaviour of problem children, backward children, delinquent children, gifted children and other types of children.

7.

It is not restricted to a test situation but it is applied to the naturally occurring situations of life.
Hence, the method of observation has wide applications for studying individuals in normal non-testing situations. No doubt, observation is a scientific technique of collecting data whose results can be verified and relied upon to locate 66

behavioural problems of different types but it suffers from the following limitations:
Limitations of Observation
1.

It is very difficult to get trained observers. Untrained observers may gather superfluous and irrelevant data.

2.

It is subjective. Observer may become lenient i.e., he may give concessions and allowances at one time and may be strict at another time.

3.

Sometimes artificiality comes in the behaviour e.g. crocodile tears or behaviour of hippocrats.

4.

Sometimes we have to wait for long time for the occurrence of events. For example, for observing the behaviour of an angry child, we have to wait when he will become angry.

5.

Some personal problems and experiences can not be observed i.e. sex experiences.

6.

With the help of observation, we can observe the external behaviour of the individual. Internal behaviour of the individual can not be studied.

7.

Record may not be written with hundred per cent accuracy as the observation is recorded after the actions of the observer. There is some time lag.

8.

Observation is subject to two kinds of errors, sampling error and observer’s error. The first error occurs because of inadequacies of selecting situation to be observed. The observer’s error may be due to the knowledge and background of the situation to be observed.

Sometimes the observer is not familiar with the total situation and hence he may commit error.
5.4

LET US SUM UP

Dear learners, in the present lesson we have studied how the individual is studied and appraised. For appraising the individual which is the centre of any guidance and counselling programme, we have non-testing devices. We havemade 67

you acquainted with interview and observation non-testing techniques. As you have come to know that interview is the core of counselling process. The technique of interview is an essential part of guidance and counselling. This technique is helpful in encouraging thinking and self-understanding the client. As regards limitations, it is stated that the interview is time consuming and the data are mostly subjective and unreliable. However, a skilled interviewer can overcome these limitations.

5.5

UNIT END EXERCISES
Dear Distance Learners, check your progress by attempting the following questions:

1.

Describe the interview technique. Discuss its procedure, advantages and limitations.

2.

How observation technique is useful in appraising the individual ? Discuss in detail by giving its advantages and limitations.

5.6

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1.

Aggarwal J.C. (1993) :

2.

Crow L.D. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”, New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing
house.

3.

Harold W. Bernard & Daniel : Thomas Y Crowell Company. New York, 1969 W. Fullmer, Principles of Guidance

4.

Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) :

“Guidance and Counselling”. Prakashan
Kendra Lucknow.

5.

Jones J.A. :

Principles of Guidance . Bombay, Tata McGraw

6.

Kochhar S.K.. :

Guidance and Counselling in Colleges and
Universities, Sterling Publishers Private Ltd.
New Delhi, 1981

“Educational Vocational Guidance and
Counselling”, Doaba House, Nai Sarak Delhi.

68

7.

Miller, F.W. :

Guidance & Principles of Guidance,
New York, McGraw Hill.

8.

Nair.

Psychological Bases of Vocational Guidance,
Meenakshi Prakashan, 1972

9.

Pandey K.P. :

Educational and Vocational Guidance in India ,
Vishwa Vidyalaya Prakashan Chowk,
Varanasi - 2000

10.

Super, D.E. Schmdt. :

Appraising Vocational Fitness by Means of
Psychological Testing. Harper & Rows,
New York, 1962

11.

Suri S.P. & Sodhi T.S. (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”, Bawa Publications Patiala.

12.

Taxler A.E.:

Techniques of Guidance, New York, McGraw Hill.

69

LESSON NO. 6

UNIT-II

NON-TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE : CASE STUDY,
CUMULATIVE RECORD, SOCIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES
6.0 STRUCTURE
6.1

Introduction

6.2

Objectives

6.3

Non-Testing Techniques in Guidance
6.3.1

Case Study

6.3.2

Cumulative Records

6.3.3

Socio-metric Techniques

6.4

Let Us Sum Up

6.5

Unit End Exercises

6.6

Suggested Further Readings

6.1

INTRODUCTION

Dear Pupil teachers, in the previous lesson we have acquainted you with the concept of non-testing devices used in the guidance and counselling process. We have discussed two non-testing techniques i.e. interview and observation in detail. In the present lesson we will take up three more non-testing devices. These are : Case Study, Cumulative Record and Socio-metric techniques.

6.2

OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson you will be able to :
1

describe the Case Study as Non-Testing Device

2

discuss the Cumulative Record and its importance in Guidance programme. 70

3

Explain the Socio-metric technique used in Guidance programme.

6.3

NON-TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE

6.3.1

Case Study
The case study is an old method, which has been re-discovered and adapted to the complex process of modern counselling. Case study means systematic, complete and intensive study of the pupil - his family background, his physical, social, emotional and intellectual environment. In the words of Ruth Strang “The case study or history is a synthesis and interpretation of information about a person and his relationship to his environment collected by means of many techniques. The case study method was originally used in medicine to examine the patient, his previous development, his health and physical state from the beginning and many other factors in the past, besides making a case study of the patient’s present conditions and symptoms. Freud used case study method to assist his subjects to solve his personality problems. A case study contains interpretations, recommendations and reports in follow up work.

The method is specifically followed in learning difficulties, emotional disturbances, delinquency and other behaviour problems. This technique has been borrowed from medical science in social sciences. The psychologist or the teacher as the case may be collect detailed information on the problem of a maladjusted or deviant case and analyses and interprets the data to find out the causes of the problem. The complete information of past history and present condition is collected. The developmental history is reconstructed from the memories of the case (individual), his family and friends. The preparation of a case study is not the work of a single individual but the combined venture of social worker, teacher, parents, medical man and psychologist. In preparing a case study the information is collected from the following sources :

(1)

Preliminary Information : Name, age, sex, parent’s age, education, occupation, income, number of children, social status etc.
71

(2)

Past History : Condition of mother during pregnancy, any incident, child’s development after birth, physical, mental, emotional, social- illness, relation between parents and other members of the family, achievement of the child, parents death, birth order etc.

(3)

Present Condition : The information may be collected under the following heads: (i)

Physical: Results of medical examination of any diseases.

(ii)

Medical: I.Q., special abilities, general intelligence

(iii)

Social : House environment, friends and their types, social environment in school, home and neighbourhood.

(iv)

Emotional: Anxiety, fear, temperament, attitude etc.

(v)

Interest: Personal, social, vocational and special aptitude.

(vi)

School Achievement : Position in school, failure, special achievement etc.

We have given above a tentative list of various sources from which information may be collected to prepare a case study. The sources of information can vary in individual cases depending upon the type of behaviour problems of the case. Briefly, we can summarize that case study method helps to understand the root causes of maladjustment and is a very valuable method in suggesting remedial measures for the rehabilitation of maladjusted cases. Steps involved in Case Study

The following steps are followed in case study :
1.

Location of the case

2.

Formulation of hypotheses

3.

Collection of data from pupils, parents, friends, teachers, headmaster and community at large.

4.

Analysis of data i.e. identification of causal factors as a basis for remedial treatment

5.

Removing the causes i.e. application of remedial or adjustment measures 72

6.

Follow up of the case to determine the effectiveness of remedial or adjustmental measure applied.

Types of Cases
(i)

Problem children

(ii)

Delinquent children

(iii)

Backward Children or slow learner

(iv)

Maladjusted children

(v)

Gifted Children

(vi)

Children with exceptional talent in a particular skill,

(vii)

Children with educational difficulty

(viii)

Children with vocational difficulty

Characteristics of a Good Case Study
The following are the characteristics of a good case study : (i)

Completeness of data

(ii)

Continuity of data

(iii)

Validity of data

(iv)

Confidential recording of data

(v)

Scientific synthesis and analysis of data

Advantages of Case Study
The following are the uses of case study :
o

Bases for diagnosis and treatment : case study clarifies diagnostic relationships, removes points of discussion, thinking without reasoning and faulty information and helps in knowing the differences in practical and organic difficulties.

o

Useful research technique : Case study is a very useful research technique of 73

assessing the personality of an individual. It supplies data about an individual and his general and specific characteristics are also known.
o

Suitable Adjustments : Case study is used as a method for specifically giving assistance to students for making adequate adjustments.

o

For Social Workers : Case studies are specially prepared and used for training social workers.

Limitations of Case Study
The following are the limitations of Case Study


It is a subjective ‘.technique. A person who prepares case history may project his own problems, plans, ideas, attitudes, values and the like into the report



It is very time-consuming technique



It is difficult to prepare case history. Parents and teachers etc. may not cooperate



We need experts and trained persons preparing case history. Experts are generally not available



It is very difficult to interpret the results objectively

In spite of these limitations case study is an important and useful technique for collection of data in guidance programme.
6.3.2 Cumulative Record
The cumulative record is a device for recording information about the student, which is collected from different sources over a period of time. These informations are essential to the guidance and counselling of the students. The cumulative records serve as a well arranged store-house of all the information regarding the students. Since it contains all information about the student’s past and present, the cumulative record helps the counsellor in understanding the needs and aspirations, problems, and frustrations of the students through the analysis of the data provided by the cumulative record. Ruth Strang has suggested the following uses of cumulative records for the guidance programme 74

(i)

Holding conferences with parents about the student’s progress

(ii)

Adapting instruction in the classroom, students needs, abilities and interests.

(iii)

Helping students to make important choices or decisions such as : (a)

Choice of courses

(b)

Change of courses

(c)

Choice of vocational field

(d)

Decision to leave school

(e)

Helping students in solving their problems of adjustment in the school, home or society

(f)

Supplying information to the youth employment service regarding student’s suitability for certain type of jobs.

Contents of Cumulative Record
Generally, cumulative records have sections for the following information (i)

Personal Data : name. address and other related information

(ii)

Family data

(iii)

Health data

(iv)

School History and Achievement

(v)

Mental and achievement test data

(vi)

Special activities and co-curricular activities

(vii)

Interests and talents

(viii)

Educational plans

(ix)

Vocational plans, and

(x)

Records of counselling
75

Hahn and Maclean have very aptly listed five principles of preparing cumulative records:
(a)

It should demand a minimum of clerical time

(b)

It should be designed to suit the institutional needs

(c)

It should contain only those items used frequently enough to justify their inclusion

(d)

Summarizing forms should be supplemented by other records valuable to counsellors

(e)

These records in schools and colleges should be built and maintained within reasonable limits for students

A few points of caution for filling the Record
At the time of entering the information counsellors should remember the following points:
(i)

Information which presents a child in an unfavourable situation and is likely to prejudice other persons against him such as isolated instances of bad behaviour of one, teacher’s poor opinion of the child, should, as a rule, not be entered on the record card. If any confidential material has to be maintained, it should be kept in a separate file.

(ii)

While filling in information about a particular child they should be careful to use that their judgement about the child is not distorted due to the halo effect.

(iii)

No doubtful information should be entered on the cumulative record card. It is better to leave certain entries blank if objective and reliable information is not available, than to fill them in with unreliable data.

(iv)

During the first year after cards are introduced, the task of recording will be easier if it is done for small groups of pupils at different settings rather than the entire lot at one setting. However, once the system of maintaining cards has been established, it would be advisable to have certain factual information such as identifying data, home backgrounds, school marks, etc. recorded for all pupils within the first few days after the school reopens.

76

Use and interpretation of Records
The cumulative record should be used as a unified account of the child’s personality. The different items of information are not to be read and interpreted in isolation. Taking together, they should aid in understanding and interpreting any particular aspect of the child’s behaviour and personality make-up. While dealing with an individual case, gaps in information have to be filled through further questionnaires, observations, interviews, testing and home visits, if necessary, the main aim should always be to understand the pupil and promote his development.

Problems in the Maintenance and Use of Cumulative Records
The following problems are encountered while maintaining the cumulative records:
(i)

Who should maintain the record ? : Subject teacher or Class teacher

(ii)

Where to keep Cumulative Record Cards ?

(iii)

When to fill up Cumulative Record Cards ?

(iv)

How to check the maintenance of the Cumulative Records ?

(v)

What should be the design of records ?

(vi)

Problem of new admissions and migrations

(vii)

Problem of teachers in discharging the function : Teachers should be helped in discharging their function by the following ways :
(a)

Providing training

(b)

Providing model forms

(c)

Providing adequate time

(d)

Providing provisions of safe custody

(e)

Adequate inspection
77

The Secondary Education Commission feels that with training and certain amount of practice and with an occasional check-up by the Head of the institution and by the Inspectors, the teachers will be able to discharge their duties to the satisfaction of all. It should be noted that in his responsibility, the average Indian teacher does not yield to any teacher in any other country, what he needs is clear direction, encouragement, and sympathy.

6.3.3

Socio-metric Techniques

In order to understand the status of the individual, it is important to note that his peers inhibit one of the most significant parts of the world and their thinking may influence his functioning. To study an individual, therefore, it becomes necessary to see him the way his fellow pupils see him. One of the major techniques for such study is the sociometry. Sociometric technique was devised by Moreno and adapted by Jenning for study of students in class-room situation.

Meaning of Sociometry
According to John W.Best : Sociometry is a technique/or describing the social relationships among individuals in a group. In an indirect way it attempts to describe attractions or repulsions between individuals by asking them to indicate whom they would choose or reject in various situations. Children in a school classroom may be asked to name in order of preference (usually two or three) the child, children that they would invite to a party, eat lunch with, sit next to, work on a class project with, or have as a close friend. Although some researchers object to the method, it is also common to ask the children to name the children, again in order of preference, that they would least like to invite to a party, eat lunch with, sit next to , and so forth.

Andrew and Willcy were of the view that A Sociogram is a graphic drawing using certain symbols and marks to indicate the pattern of social acceptance and rejection among members of a social group.

Bronfenbrenner remarked that Sociometry is the method for discovering, describing and evaluating social status, structure and development through measuring the extent of acceptance or rejection between individuals in groups. 78

In the light of above definitions, we can say that sociometry is the measurement of interpersonal relationships prevailing among the members of a group. Sociometric devices, such as the sociogram, attempt to discover the patterns of choice and rejection among the individuals is making up the group.

Procedure of Preparing Sociometry
In sociometric method, each pupil in the group is asked to write his first, second and sometimes his third choices about various significant types of social setting. He has to select name from the group itself. For example he may be asked questions like the following:

1.

Who would you like to be the president of your dramatic club ?

2.

Whom would you like to sit next to you in the class, in the bus or while going for a picnic ?

3.

With whom would you like to work in the science laboratory ?

4.

With whom do you enjoy most in social gathering ?

All these questions are positive questions and hence show social acceptance. Negative questions may also be given to show social rejection. Negative questions may be who are the people you dislike most ?

How to Administer Sociometric Test ?
The following procedure may be adopted for administration of the test: (i)

Build a relationship with the class, which will enhance the usefulness of the test.

(ii)

Decide what information you want and how you will use it,

(iii)

Phrase the question carefully so that it is clear.

(iv)

Distribute a list of names of all students in the class. Such a list will remind the students of any who are absent on that day.

(v)

Distribute cards on which choices are to be indicated. The following might serve for that purpose :79

Your Name:..........................
Your First Choice : ........................
Your Second Choice:..........................
Your Third Choice:............................
(vi)

Set the stage for best results.

During the administration explain the purpose of the test to minimize jealousies and fears; tell the group that the findings will not be revealed to the other children. Finally, be sure to give the children sufficient time to make their choices, but not so much time that they will reveal their choices to each other.

How to tabulate the Data
Data may be tabulated as under as shown in Table
(a)

Let the members of the group be numbered from A to J

(b)

Write “choosers” in the vertical column and ‘choosen’ in the horizontal column.

(c)

In the cells, check marks may be shown.

(d)

Let ‘F’ stand for First, ‘S’ for Second and ‘T’ for third choices respectively.

(e)

Add the number of each choice.

How to interpret Sociogram ?
The following procedure may be adopted to interpret the sociogram : (i)

One student may be concentrated upon at a time.

(ii)

A detailed study of the choices made and received should be made.

(iii)

The “stars’ and the ‘isolates’ may be looked for. A ‘star’ is a member of the group who receives most of the choices. An ‘isolate’ is one who is not choosen by anybody.

(iv)

After identifying the ‘stars’ and isolates’, efforts should be made to discover the causes for such selections. An individual may be isolated for several reasons :

(a)

He may be of shy nature
80

(b) He may not try to make friendship with others
(c)

He may be a new member of the group

(d) He may belong to a lower or upper socio-economic level
TABLE
Question : Whom would you like to be the President of your Dramatic Club ?

(v)

Discover individuals who select each other. This reciprocal choice may be due to the following factors ;

(a)

Common interests

(b)

Close relations

(c)

Neighbours

Discover Triangles
A triangle shows three persons selecting one another. It shows evidence of sharp divisions or cliques in the group/

81

SOCIOGRAM
The above sociogram shows the pattern of choices of 10 students- Every student was asked to choose the two students with whom he would like to study and whether he would give first or second place.

Advantages of Sociometry
The following are the advantages of Sociometry :
(i)

Sociometry helps in discovering the patterns of choice and rejection among the individuals making up the group

(ii)

It facilitates the appraisal of the school adjustment of the individuals within the group, the classroom management of these individuals, and screening of them for individual counselling or other remedial work in the area of social skills. 82

(iii)

It helps in identifying :
(a)

Leaders

(b)

Isolates

(c)

Mutual Choices

(d)

Cliques

(e)

Rejections

(iv)

It helps us to have an idea of group at a glance

(v)

It helps us to form appropriate groups of students for carrying out various activities and projects

(vi)

It helps us to understand the characteristics of an individual who is liked or disliked by the group. It also assists us in knowing the qualities of leadership as being appreciated by a particular group.

6.4

LET US SUM UP

Dear Learners, we have discussed with you three non-testing devices such as Case Study, Cumulative Record and Sociometry.
Case Study is an intensive investigation of a social unit. The social unit may be an individual, a family, a school, a group of delinquents, drop outs or any other teenage gang. The researcher examines the individual in depth. He gathers pertinent data about the present, past experiences and environmental forces that contribute to the behaviour of the individual.

Cumulative record card is one document which contains the history of the child from the day he enters the school i.e. may be pre-primary or primary class, till he leaves the school finally. It is a document in which useful and reliable information is recorded cumulatively about a particular pupil, at one place. It is very useful document in the hands of counselors who can help the child in the selection of particular subject, course or vocation.

83

Sociometric technique is a means of presenting simply and graphically the entire structure of relations existing at a given instance among members of a given group. The major lines of communication or the pattern of attraction or rejection in its full scope, are made readily comprehensive at a glance. The data furnished by the sociometric method are extremely useful in the guidance programme. It helps in the identification of‘isolates’, ‘star’, “cliques’ etc. 6.5

UNIT END EXERCISES
Dear learners, check your progress by attempting the following questions 1.

Describe the Case Study method.

2.

What do you understand by cumulative record ? Describe its advantages.

3.

What is Sociometric Technique ? Describe its importance and procedure of administration.

6.6

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1.

Aggarwal J.C. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”, Doaba House, Nai Sarak Delhi.

2.

Crow L.D. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”, New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing house.

3.

Harold W. Bernard & Daniel W. Fullmer . Principles of Guidance, Thomas Y Crowell Company, New York, 1969

4.

Kochhar S.K. : Guidance and Counselling in Colleges and Universities, Sterling Publishers Private Ltd. New Delhi, 1981

5.

Jones J.A.: Principles of Guidance . Bombay, Tata McGraw

6.

Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) : “Guidance and Counselling”. Prakashan Kendra Lucknow.

7

John W. Best (1992): “Research in Education”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi
84

8.

Pandey K..P. : Educational and Vocational Guidance in India . Vishwa Vidyalaya Prakashan Chowk, Varanasi - 2000

9.

Suri S.P. & Sodhi T.S. (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”, Bawa Publications Patiala.

85

LESSON NO. 7

UNIT-II

ROLE OF TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE
7.0 STRUCTURE
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Objectives
7.3 Role of Testing Techniques in Guidance
7.4 Let Us Sum Up
7.5 Unit End Exercises
7.6 Suggested Further Readings
7.1

INTRODUCTION

The aim of guidance is to help the individual. It can be done by understanding him. We can not understand a person unless, we know him. Therefore, the first thing guidance workers must do is to get to know the individual. If he has reliable, accurate, significant, and comprehensive information regarding the individual, he can understand him better and guide him effectively. The better the exploration of the individual, the more effective the guidance, and complete exploration of the individual may be achieved by various testing and non-testing devices. In this lesson we will discuss the use of tests in guidance programme.

7.2

OBJECTIVES

After studying this lesson you will be able to :
1

Describe the Testing Techniques in Guidance

2

Discuss the Role of Testing Techniques in Guidance
86

7.3 ROLE OF TESTING TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE
Testing
There are several methods or techniques used in the guidance programme for collecting information about the person from the various sources. These methods or techniques may be broadly classified under four heads.

1.

Psychological Test Techniques

2.

Observational Techniques

3.

Self-Report Techniques

4.

Miscellaneous Techniques

Test Techniques
Psychological tests are administered to the individuals as one of the means of collecting information. A test consists of a set of standardized stimuli, which evoke such responses in the testee as reveal some well-defined characteristics possessed by him. The information we get from the tests can be used mainly for obtaining a better understanding of an individual and his needs.

The testing service has specific purposes and aims which it wants to achieve by using standardized tests. A few of the main purposes are enumerated below:1.

To determine the individual pupil’s achievement level and progress

2.

To obtain data for diagnostic purposes

3.

To know his aptitudes

4.

To provide for the identification

5.

To improve instruction

6.

To determine his existing self-concept, attitudes and personality pattern

7.

To ascertain social adjustment

8.

To identify under-achievers and over-achievers
87

Types of Tests used in Guidance
The psychological characteristics that an individual possesses may be divided into five broad categories, each one of which is measurable by a test or a set of tests. We have thus to use these five types of test.

(1)

Tests of Intelligence

(2)

Test of abilities

(3)

Tests of interests

(4)

Tests of personality, and

(5)

Tests of achievement

Characteristics of a good Test:
Any test, whatever its type and measure , can be selected as a guidance tool only when it is known to possess three characteristics:
(a)

Validity (b) Reliability (c) Practically or Usability.

A test must be valid. The validity of a test lies in the fact that it measures what it intends to measure. Reliability speaks about the consistency and accuracy of the measurement. In other words, a reliable test should consistently measure what it measuresA good test is one that can be easily administered and scored and is neither very costly nor very time-consuming.

Uses of the Test-Techniques
The data obtained by this technique may be used for the following : (i)

Educational guidance–an understanding of their assets and limitation will help students in planning their school programmes.

(ii)

Vocational planning-knowledge of their abilities and weakness will enable students to make better occupational choices.

(iii)

Conferences with parents- the objective factual evidence provided by tests can be used by counsellors in interviews with parents to help them
88

understand and accept their offspring abilities, achievements and interest. Tests are recommended in a guidance programme because they have the following advantages in comparison to the other techniques :(i)

They are handy and economical methods of collecting information.

(ii)

They are less time-consuming.

(iii)

They are objective.

(iv)

They provide significant means of comparing individuals.

Issues in Test Administration
Having discussed the purposes and the utilities of tests in guidance programme , we should now think of few important points surroundings the test administration. Hopson points out towards five basic questions on the introduction of school testing programme : these are why, when , where , how, and which questions of the testing programme. (i)

Why are tests to be used at all ?

(ii)

When should they be given ?

(iii)

Where should they be given ?

(iv)

How are the results to be used .?

(v)

Which tests are to be used. ?

Now we have discussed the first and fifth questions. We have to think now about when, where and how questions of the testing programme.
The testing should take place to four basic approaches. Hopson has given four approaches to answer this question as follows :
(a)

Saturation Testing

In this approach the counsellor administers to one or a group of students a battery of tests selected to cover everything that is likely to be of importance for counselling. The assumption is that most abilities and interests are of some importance, and the best way to consider them is to test them all at once and transmit the information to the students. 89

Disadvantages
In appropriate and unnecessary testing no characterization, difficulty of arousing client motivation
Advantages
Economy of time and administration
(b)

Individualized Batten testing

In this each student takes-all his tests in a group, but these may not necessary be same tests as those being taken by others in the group.
Disadvantages
Testing is still separated from counselling, with the consequent lack of client participation and motivation.
Advantages
It is tailored to the individual’s needs, characteristics and expressed goals. (c) Preliminary Screening Battery
Another approach is of preliminary screening battery. It is programme of sequential measurement which could mean in practice that a short test would firstly, be given to all. For some students this might provide enough information to make whatever decision it is that needs to be made (selection, classification etc.)

Disadvantages
The same as for all group testing
Advantages
Economical use of time and materials, and individually tailored (d) Precision Testing
Tests are given with in the counselling process , to encourage client participation and to further develop rapport. As discussion of a pupil’s problem, make it clear that 90

certain specific data should be considered. Thus a test may be given, scored interpreted, and discussed during the course of one interview.
Further tests may than be planned or not, depending upon the needs defined by further interviewing.
Disadvantages
This is the most time consuming.
Advantages
Client participation and motivation is maximum. Then comes the question of where should be test be given ? This question has been partly covered by the last question. However, the physical conditions accompanying testing are of vital importance. The place where a test is to be administered should meet the following requirements. (a)

Have adequate lighting.

(b)

Be fairly quiet and free from disturbance.

(c)

Have adequate space for the students who are to be tested.

The question of how the results are to be used depends upon the original purposes of the testing programme ; mainly whether the result are to be used for institutional decision making. At the time of interpreting the individual test scores the counsellor is specially essential.

How to use Test Results with Students ?
Testing programme aims at developing students understanding about themselves and to assist them in their educational and vocational planning and adjustment. Therefore, students should be given an opportunity to know about their own strengths always being ready to interpret the test results to them. Test results should not be taken in isolation, but counsellor should consider these data in relation to other information obtained about students from different sources while counselling the students. It is through integration and would do well to remember that the results may be influenced by many factors such as :(i)

The physical and emotional condition of the pupil at the time of taking the test 91

(ii)

The cultural experience of the pupil, which may be too limited or different from that demanded by test items

(iv)

Errors in administering or scoring the test

(v)

The validity, reliability, and norms of the test

The methods and materials of interpretation have to be decided, as well as the rationale of the counselling procedure, if the test has been used for individual decisionmaking. Some training in psycho matrix and test interpretations in organization of all the available data about a student, the counsellor gains real insight into the problems of the students. In some cases, he may find that in the light of all the other information he has about a counsellee the test scores of that individual give a misleading picture, where as in other cases they may give very valuable insights.

Role of Testing Techniques in Guidance and Counselling
Cronbach gives the following four purposes of psychological tests : 1.

Prediction : Various types of tests are given to individuals to obtain solid basis upon which decisions can be made. Decisions involve predictions of how well individuals will do at a later time. It is assumed that predictions based on quantitative data are more accurate and reliable and provide a balance against wishful thinking.

2.

Selection : Tests are also used in selection of candidates for admission, jobs or some training.

3.

Classification : Tests are also used for the purpose of classification of students. Classification means to divide students into classes or groups on the basis of some criteria. For example, classifying students on thebasis of aptitude, interest and mental abilities.

4.

Evaluation : Tests are used to assess and evaluate programmes, methods, treatment and the like.

Uses, Need and Importance of Standardized Tests in Educational and Vocational Guidance
(i) Accurate and Reliable : Standardized tests are used because they are objective, 92

accurate and reliable. These tests measure what they are supposed to measure and measurement by them is correct to the utmost extent. The counsellors may use tests to secure accurate and reliable information about student’s abilities, interests, adjustment problems in order to give proper guidance to the individual. By understanding each student’s strength and weaknesses, the counsellor can provide better assistance to the individual.

(ii)
Time — saving Device : Tests are time-saving devices. Much more information about the ability, achievement, interests etc. can be gathered in a relatively short time by means of tests than is possible by means of other methods like interview, observation, autobiographies etc. thus, standardized tests are economical in terms of time and energy.

(iii) Same Interpretation : Since test results are usually expressed in percentiles or standard scores, they are interpreted in the same way by all workers. Thus. they have the same meaning and significance for all.

(iv) More Information : The information gained from tests tell about more traits of the individual than any other method would do. Thus, they measure those aspects of the behaviour which otherwise could not be measured. In subjective observation we may overlook many problem- cases particularly the shy children. Tests would discover such cases also.

(v) Improved basis for Prediction : Counsellor may take use of test results for future performance. Tests can provide an improved basis for prediction regarding the likelihood of success in those activities in which prospective performance can be measured. (vi) Decisions for planning: Guidance workers (Counsellors) may use tests to help students arrive at decisions basic to plan their educational and vocational future. (vii) Diagnosing Problems : Guidance Counsellors use tests to diagnose problems of students. For instance, problems of academic deficiency, social adjustment, growth and development may be identified and plans for their betterment may be mutually discussed and determined.

(viii) Evaluation : Counsellors use tests to help them evaluate the outcomes of guidance and counselling.
93

Limitations of Testing
In spite of the above advantages, tests are shadowed with the following limitations :(i)

Indifference, in attention, low commitment and generally low motivation of the individuals tend to invalidate the test results

(ii)

Relative narrowness of the traits measured by the tests

(iii)

Low validity and reliability for some pupils.

(iv)

The unavailability of local norms

(v)

Heavy weighing of vertical ability in many tests

(vi)

Undue influence of socio-cultural conditions or environment conditions upon test results

(vii)

Failure to follow the directions of the tester

7.4

LET US SUM UP

Dear learners, there are two types of techniques for collecting information about the individual. These are testing and non-testing devices or we may call them as standardized and non-standardized tests. It should be kept in view that the techniques and tests are merely means of collecting information and no guidance worker should neglect the human factor that is the individual under study. Techniques and tests merely provide the data and information. Interpretation of the data and information needs insight

7.5

UNIT END EXERCISES

Dear learners, attempt the following questions :
1.

Make a comprehensive list of Testing and Non-Testing techniques for studying and appraising an Individual.

2.

What are the purposes of testing techniques ?

3.

State the need and importance of standardized tests in guidance. 94

7.6

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1.

Aggarwal J.C. (1993) : “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”, Doaba House, Nai Sarak Delhi.

2.

Crow L.D. and Crow (1962) : “An Introduction to Guidance Principles and Practices”, New Delhi: Eurasia Publishing house.

3.

Harold W. Bernard & Daniel W. Fullmer . Principles of Guidance, Thomas Y Crowell Company, New York, 1969

4.

Jones J.A. : Principles of Guidance , Bombay, Tata McGraw

5.

Jayaswal Sita Ram ((1993) : “Guidance and Counselling”. Prakashan Kendra Lucknow.

6.

John W. Best (1992): “Research in Education”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi

7.

Suri S.P. & Sodhi T.S. (1997) : “Guidance and Counselling”. Bawa Publications Patiala.

8.

Kochhar S.K. : Guidance and Counselling in Colleges and Universities, Sterling Publishers Private Ltd. New Delhi, 1981

9.

Pandey K.P. : Educational and Vocational Guidance in India , Vishwa Vidyalaya Prakashan Chowk, Varanasi - 2000

95

LESSON NO. 8

UNIT-II

USE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APPRAISAL OF INTELLIGENCE AND
PERSONALITY TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS
8.0

STRUCTURE

8.1 Introduction
8.2

Objectives

8.3 Use of Psychological Tests
8.4 Appraisal of Intelligence and Personality Tests
8.5 Aptitude Tests
8.6 Let Us Sum Up
8.7 Unit End Exercises
8.8 Suggested Further Readings
8.1 . INTRODUCTION
Dear Distance Learners, the main function of tests is to collect reliable data about the individual for making decisions about his educational, vocational or personal plan in his life. Guidance workers use various psychological tests for getting the information about the individual. In the present lesson we are going to discuss the use of psychological tests in guidance and counselling. Mainly we will also acquaint you with regard to appraisal of Intelligence and Personality tests. In the coming pages we will share the ideas of aptitude testing in guidance programme.

8.2 OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson you will be able to :
1

Describe the meaning and purposes of psychological tests.
96

2

Discuss the Intelligence tests used in any guidance programme

3

Describe the Personality tests used in guidance and counselling

4

Explain the aptitude testing in guidance and counselling.

8.3

USE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
A psychological test has been defined in varied ways.

According to Anastasi, it “is essentially an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behaviour.”
Freeman writes, “A psychological test is a standardized instrument designed to measure objectively one or more aspects of a total personality by means of samples of verbal or non-verbal response, or by means of other behaviour.” Psychologists are of the opinion that a psychological test is a pattern of stimuli selected and organized to elicit responses which will reveal certain psychological characteristics in the person who makes them

The observation in a psychological test are made upon a small but carefully chosen sample of an individual’s behaviour. In this respect, the psychologist proceeds in much the same way as the chemist who tests the supply of water by using one or more samples of it. For example, the psychologist who wishes to test the extent of a student’s mechanical comprehension, examines his performance with a representative set of problems. The diagnostic or predictive value of a psychological test depends upon the degree to which it serves as an indicator of a relatively broad and significant area of behaviour. It is obvious that a psychological test is the quantitative measurement of the various aspects of behaviour of the individual for making generalized statements about the total performance and behaviour.

A good psychological test must possess the following essential characteristics :– (i)

Validity

(ii)

Reliability

(iii)

Objectivity
97

(iv)

Standardization

(v)

Norms

(vi)

Simplicity

(vii)

Economy

(viii)

Interesting

Counsellor’s Use of Psychological Tests
The counsellor may use the tests to :
1.

secure accurate and reliable information about each student’s abilities, interests and adjustment problems in order to give him guidance and counselling

2.

make use of test results for further performance through improved basis for prediction regarding the likelihood of success in activities for which prospective performance can be measured;

3.

help students arrive at decisions basic to plan their educational and vocational future;

4.

diagnose student’s problems like social adjustment, growth and development or academic deficiencies and determining plans for their amelioration; and

5.

help them evaluate the outcome of guidance and counselling and plan further remedial programme.
The usefulness of psychological tests depends upon their proper implementation, which implies proper selection, careful administration, objective scoring and sensible interpretation.

8.4

APPRAISAL OF INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY TESTS

Intelligence and its meaning
It is acknowledged by all teachers that one of the most important single variables, which affect the schooling, is the quality of behaviour called intelligence. Intelligence, the dictionary says, is: “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge”. Psychologists according 98

to their own concept of the term intelligence have evolved a number of definitions. Being dissatisfied by the number of definitions and their interpretation, Boring defined “Intelligence is what intelligence tests test.”

All the definitions have been systematized by Vernon and Freeman under three categories such as biological, psychological and operational. D.WeschIer has given comprehensive definition. According to him “ Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal with his environment effectively.”

E.L.Thorndike has classified intelligence into three categories as (i)

Concrete Intelligence

(ii)

Abstract Intelligence

(iii)

Social Intelligence

There are different theories, which have discussed the nature of Intelligence. These are –

Faculty Theory



Two-factor theory by Spearman



Multi-factor theory by Thorndike



Group Factor Structure of Intelligence by Thurstone



Structure of Intellect (SOI) by Guilford.



Burt and Vernon’s Hierarchy Theory etc.

Intelligence Tests
Earlier attempts to measure intelligence concerned the measurement of the side of the head, facial feature, and beauty of the face. People with bigger heads, broader foreheads and with sharp feature were considered more intelligent.

Scientific measurement began in 1905 when Simon and Binet two French persons published their first test of measuring intelligence. They prepared questions for each age group from 3 to 15 year and also gave the concept of 99

mental age. By 1911, the tests prepared by them began to be used all over the world.
The Simon-Binet scale was first modified by the authors and in 1911, they produced a good test of intelligence. Goddard revised the scale and produced an English Version. In 1916 Tel-man of Stanford University (America) produced American Version, called the Standford Binet Test.

In 1960, came the Stanford-Binet revised scale. After 1960, intelligence testing became a world phenomenon and a large number of intelligence tests were prepared. At present, there are tests of different types and for different age levels. There are two types of Intelligence tests

(i)

Individual Tests
Individual Tests may be verbal, Non-Verbal, Performance-based and Mixed.

(ii)

Group Tests
Group-tests may be verbal. Non-verbal, performance-based and mixed

These tests may be power and speed tests.
Examples of Intelligence Tests
Verbal Individual Tests
(a)

Standard Binet 1960 Scale

(b)

Standard Hindustani Revision

(c)

Allahabad Intelligence tests(11+)

Non-Verbal Individual Tests
(a)

Meril-Palmer Scale

(b)

Gessal Development Schedule

Performance Tests
(i)

Pinter Paterson Performance Scale
100

(ii)

Good enough Draw a Man test

(iii)

Form Board tests

(iv)

Heavy picture completion test

(v)

Koh’s Block Design Test

(vi)

Alexander’s Pass Along test

Verbal Group Tests
(i)

Pinter Paterson Performance scale

(ii)

Army Alpha tests

(iii)

Army General Classification tests

(iv)

Ottis Mental Ability Test

(v)

Hundel Mental Ability Test

(vi)

Tandon/Jalota General Ability test

Non-Verbal Group Tests
(a)
(b)
(c)

Army Beta Test
Reven’s Progressive Matrices
Cartels Culture Free Test

Mixed Test
Weschler (WAIS) scale consists of 11 sub-tests which are grouped into two scales. The Verbal scale has 6 sub-scale. The second scale called performace scale consists 5 tests.
Test Battery
C.M.Bhatia’s Battery of performance tests. It consists of 5 tests: - Kobs Block Design Test
- Alexander Pass along Test
101

- Pattern Drawing Test
- Immediate Memory Test, and
- Picture construction Test.
Uses of Intelligence Tests for Guidance and Counselling
In the words of Prof. V.R Taneja “ Measurement of Intelligence tells us differences among-individuals and those differences have practical importance in life, as they are predictors of success in school, college and occupation. Test results are used for educational and vocational guidance. Students can select the courses/subjects and the institutions in the light of their I.Q. They can choose the different stream of education like medicine . engineering, law, teaching etc. depending upon their I.Q like wise vocational choices can also be done on the basis of test results”. To be specific following are the uses of Intelligence tests:

(i)

Allocation of students for different courses can be done on the basis of I.Q of students

(ii)

Selection of students for admission to schools in different classes

(iii)

Classification of students as bright, superior, average, dull etc. can be done on the basis of intelligence tests

(iv)

Award of scholarships, honours . medals etc.

(v)

Promotion of students to higher classes

(vi)

Prediction of academic success

(vii)

Understanding the causes of backwardness, delinquency and problematic behaviour

(viii)

For selection in Army, Police, Civil Services etc.

(ix)

For purpose of educational and vocational guidance

(x)

Used in Research

(xi)

For finding underachievers , slow learners etc.
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Appraisal of Personality Tests
Personality is the sum of biological innate and acquired dispositions. It is a composite of mental abilities, interests, thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Being a dynamic organization, it refers to the characteristic behaviour patterns, emotions, motives, thoughts and attitudes with which an individual consistently reacts to the environment. Allport writes, “Personality is a dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine the unique adjustment to his environment.”

Purpose of Personality Testing
In our daily lives, we are constantly assessing peoples personalities in an informal way. Personality testing
1.

helps the students in proper educational and vocational choice

2.

helps the individuals in resolving emotional conflicts

3.

helps the teacher and the counsellor

4.

helps the employer in proper selection of the personnel

5.

helps the clinical psychologist to chose best therapy for his patients.

Techniques of Testing personality
The following techniques are used for testing personality :
1. The Interview : An interview is a conversation during which an interviewer seeks to elicit information about another person and to evaluate him in general terms. Both type of interviews i.e structured and unstructured are used in personality testing. The structured interview has certain advantages : (a) it ensures that essential topics will be covered and thus lessens the probability that an unskillful interviewer will ignore many important areas of inquiry. (b) It is easier to compare interviews when all interviewers have covered the same topics.

2.

Observation : observation is one of the finest and easiest techniques of testing 103

personality. Direct observation as a technique of personality testing is useful in many ways:
(i)

(ii)

3.

The observer sees the person’s behaviour at first hand and does not have to rely on the person’s own description.
If several careful observers provide unbiased , factual account’s of a person’s behaviour over a period of time, the composite picture of the individual’s personality can be quite accurate.

Self-ratings and Personality Inventories

An individual has written account of the past behaviour, feelings and wishes can be a good source of information about his personality. Self-ratings can be done through personality inventories and paper & pencil tests both of which serve as excellent basis for later interviews.

Some important Personality Inventories
The following are the some personality inventories which are used for the appraisal of the individual:
(i)

The ascendance-submission reaction study by W.Allport and Floyd H.Allport

(ii)

Bemreuter personality inventory by Bemreuter and Hindi version by D.U.Mirchandant

(iii)

Bell’s Adjustment Inventory

(iv)

Boyd’s Personality Questionnaire

(v)

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by Starke R. Hathaway and J. Chamley Mckinley

(vi)

Comrey Personality Scales

(vii)

California Psychological Inventory

(viii)

Self-Analysis Form by R-B.Cattell

(ix)

Self-disclosure Inventory for Adolescents by Verindra Sinha
104

(x)

H.J.Eysenk’s Maudsley Personality Inventory by S. Jalota and S. D. Kapoor

(xi)

Dimensions of temperament by Robert L. Thomdike

(xii)

Cattels Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire

(xiii)

Study of values by Gordon W. Allport

(xiv)

Security -Insecurity Inventory by G.Tiwari and H.M. Singh

(xv)

D.I. Inventory by Pratibha Deo and S.K.Bhalla

(xvi)

Dutt Personality Inventory by N.K.Dutt

(xvii)

Aligarh Adjustment Inventory by A.J.Qadri

(xviii) Adjustment Inventory by H.S.Asthana
(xix)

Vyaktitva Parakh Prashnavali (Hindi) by M.S.L. Saxena

(xx)

Kundu’s Neurotic Personality Inventory by Rama Nath Kundu

4.

Checklists

In a checklist the subject has to check items which are applicable to him Given below are some Checklists :
(i)

Student’s Problem Checklist

(ii)

Money Problem Checklist

5.

Rating Scales

Rating is a sample of the ‘reputation’ of the subject in the eyes of the raters counsellors, teachers, parents or others. A rater can record judgements of another person or of himself upon the traits defined by the scale by a device. It is less descriptive and more subjective, usually being based on a scale of 0-5 or very poor to excellent. It covers a much wider range of more natural behaviour than any practicable battery of personality tests. It has a great advantage of being applicable without taking up the time of the subjects, even without their knowing anything about it. A number of rating techniques are available :

105

(i)

Ranking and Paired Comparisons

(ii)

Numerical Ratings

(iii)

Man-to-man Scales

(iv)

Graphic Rating Scales
Few examples of Rating Scales used frequently are mentioned as below: (a)

Personality Rating Scale by G.P.Sherry and K.L.Pannar

(b)

Social Maturity Scale by P.H.Ravat

(c)

Primary School Pupils Personality Traits Rating Scale by M.T.Ranji, P.Das Gupta and N.P.Rastogi

(d)

Sharma Manifest Anxiety Scale by Sagar Sharma

(e)

Anxiety Scale by S.D.Kapoor

(f)

Self-Concept Scale for Children by H.M.Singh and S.Singh

(g)

Personality Word List by Pratibha Deo

6. Projective Techniques
Projective techniques enable a subject to project his internal feelings- attitudes, needs, values, or wishes to an external object. They aim at getting at the core rather than the circumference of the personality structure, are concerned with complex mental processes, and portray the complete personality.

The following are some of the major projective techniques :
1.

Free word association

2.

Word Connection

3.

Completion Test

4.

Rozenweig picture-frustration study

5.

Drawing Painting and Sculpture
106

6.

Play

7.

Rorschach Ink-blot test

8.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

9.

The Children Apperception Test (CAT)

7.

Situational or Behavioural Tests

This is a test in which the behaviour of the individual is evaluated in action by judges or by his peers or he is confronted with the situations related to his own life, in response to which he gives expression to his feelings for other persons. The subject reveals some of his personality traits through his preference for or against certain contacts with others and through his spontaneous methods of dealing with life-situations that confront him.

8.

Anecdotal Records

This is also a promising approach to the investigation of pupil personality. Anecdotal record is a description of the student’s conduct and personality in terms of frequent, brief, concrete observations of the student made and recorded by the teacher, counsellor or administrator. If these observations are summarized chronologically, a fair account of the personality of the student can be built up.It gives a dynamic picture of the student in diverse situations and thus is a good device for the assessment of personality. 9.

Autobiography

It is a personal and comprehensive document of an individual, which can prove useful in obtaining information about his personality dynamics. This device can be used more for gaining understanding of a student’s ‘inner world’ than for ascertaining the facts regarding the ‘outer world. A proper interpretation of autobiography, thus, will give an insight into the personality of the individual.

10.

The Daily Diary

The daily diary kept by students can also serve as a good device for a measure of personality. The diary being very personal can contain the record of such events, thoughts and feelings as are of great importance to the student. If properly kept and made available 107

to the counsellor and used by him in confidence, the diary can serve as a useful medium of throwing light upon many aspects of the personality of the individual. Difficulties in Personality Testing

The difficulties encountered in personality testing are the subject’s reluctance to disclose sensitive information. An individuals personality reflects his characteristic behaviour traits and the way he consistently reacts to his environment. In assessing personality we are not interested in a person’s best behaviour but want to find out his typical behaviour in ordinary situations. We occasionally alter our behaviour patterns in times of illness, personal misfortune or family troubles. But most of us also want to appear at our best before others. A person who is being questioned about his personality may be reluctant to disclose information that will show in an unfavourable light. Any measurement of personality, therefore, must take into account the possibility that the person being assessed may not be displaying his characteristic way of behaving.

8.5

Aptitude Tests

It is usually asserted that next to intelligence, aptitudes are related to professional and vocational success of an individual. They can fairly predict success in the course of study or career. By testing aptitude, we are able to know to a great extent whether an individual will become a good leader, a good musician or a good teacher. If the authorities of various schools and colleges wish to reduce the number of probable failures among those who enter the schools, they should make the selection on the basis of some aptitude tests along with other measures or tests.

Defining Aptitude
Aptitude has been defined as a measure of the probability of the success of an individual, with training, in a certain type of situation - a job, in school, or in such activities as playing the violin or learning a language. (Jones)

According to Traxler “ Aptitude is a present condition which is indicative of an individual’s potentialities for the future.”
In the words of Bingham “ Aptitude is a condition or set of characteristics regarded as symptomatic of an individual’s ability to acquire with training some usually specified 108

knowledge, skill or set of responses, such as the ability to speak language, to produce music”.
Characteristics of an Aptitude
Super thinks an aptitude in terms of four characteristics :
1.

Specificity

2.

Unitary composition

3.

Facilitation of learning activity or type of activity

4.

Constancy

Assumptions regarding Concept of Aptitude
Bingham states that the concept of aptitude rests upon three assumptions : 1.

An individuals potentialities are not equally strong

2.

Individuals differ from one another in their potentialities

3.

Many of these differences are stable

Nature of Aptitudes
1.

An aptitude is a unique combination of abilities and personality characteristics, which predisposes a person to do one kind of work better than another and increases his chances of success at it

2.

An aptitude, therefore, is not a unitary trait of human personality. For example, aptitude for science involves basic intellectual qualities like logical reasoning, abstract reasoning, arithmetical reasoning, certain temperamental qualities like interest in experimentation and initiative for invention, personality characteristics like persistence and hard work.

3.

An aptitude is largely acquired, though in many cases it has an innate basis.

The measurement of aptitudes for specific vocational pursuits becomes a complicated process, as there are thousands of occupations.
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Specific Areas of Aptitude Tests
Among the tests available, the following category of tests is oftenly used: 1.

Art Aptitude Test

2.

Clerical Aptitude Test

3.

Manual Aptitude Test

4.

Mechanical Aptitude Test

5.

Medical Aptitude Test

6.

Musical Aptitude Test

7.

Scholarly Aptitude Test

8.

Scientific Aptitude Test

9.

Teachers Aptitude Test

Use of Aptitude Tests in Guidance
(i)

These are used for purpose of guidance in selecting subjects for studying, for use to help the students to select the profession or occupation of his choice.

(ii)

Employers can use it for making selection of his employees.

(iii)

Different aptitude tests can be used in admitting candidates for different professional trainings such as Law, Medicine, Engineering etc.

8.6

LET US SUM UP

Dear Learners, in this lesson we have discussed with you that the job of counsellor is to use the various types of psychological tests to secure accurate and reliable information about students. These tests are intelligence, achievement, personality, aptitude, attitude, and interest etc. The usefulness of psychological tests depends upon their proper use. Only those tests should be selected for use, which are valid, reliable, accurate, practical, and standardized. They should be not very lengthy, time consuming and costly. The administration of psychological tests requires careful planning and preparation. Instructions should be thoroughly studied. Test material should be adequate and in fit 110

condition. Procedure should be rehearsed. For Scoring, the manual of the test should be followed and interpreted accordingly
8.7

UNIT END EXERCISES
Dear Learners, check the progress by attempting the following questions:

1.

What is a Psychological test ? Discuss the need for psychological tests in Guidance and Counselling ?

2.

Discuss the Intelligence testing and its uses in Guidance and counseling ?

3.

Describe the appraisal of Personality Testing in Guidance.

4.

Describe Aptitude Tests used in Guidance.

8.8

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1

Aggarwal, J.C. (1993) : “ Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling” Doaba House New Delhi

2

Bernard, Harold W & Daniel, W( 19690: “.Principles Guidance : A brief Text”. Allied Publishers New Delhi

3

Chauhan S.S (1982) : “ Principles and Techniques of Guidance “, Vikas Publishing House, Delhi.

4

Jayaswal SitaRam(1993) : “ Guidance and Counselling” , Prakashan Kendra Lucknow.

5

Kochhar, S.K. (1993) : “ Educational and Vocational Guidance in Secondary Schools” . Sterling Publishers New Delhi

6

Pandey, K-P (1987) : “The Bases of Educational and Vocational Guidance”, Abhilash Prakshan.

7

Sodhi, T.S and Sun, S.P. (2006) : “Guidance and Counselling” , Bawa Publications, Patiala

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LESSON NO.9

UNIT-III

PURPOSES, PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION OF GUIDANCE
SERVICES AT ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY LEVELS
9.0.

STRUCTURE

9.1.

Introduction

9.2

Objectives

9.3.

Purposes of Organisation of Guidance Services

9.4.

Organisation and Administration of Guidance Services
9.4.1Organization of Guidance Services at Elementary Level
9.4.2Organization of Guidance Services at Secondary Level

9.5.

Let Us Sum Up

9.6.

Self Evaluation Questions

9.7.

Unit End Exercises

9.8.

Suggested Further Readings

9.1. INTRODUCTION
Dear Students, the main function of guidance services at various level to carry out certain functions in a simplified way i.e to determine the needs of the students more accurately, to put proper persons at the proper place.It helps in the maximum utilization of resources. It provides needed Information and proper guidance to the students. 9.2. OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, the student will be able to do the following : 1

To explain the importance of organisation of guidance services.

2

To explain the specific organisation of guidance services.
112

3
4

To clearly explain the organisation of guidance services of secondary level.

5
9.3

To classify the organisation of guidance services at primary level of education.

To distinguish between the organisation of guidance services at primary and secondary levels.

PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMMES IN SCHOOLS

The main purpose of Guidance Programmes is carrying out certain functions in a simplified way i.e. to determine the needs of the students more accurately, to define individual responsibilities with a fair degree of accuracy and to make the staff more readily accept the responsibilities. It helps to put proper persons at the proper place, in the proper manner and at the proper time. It provides promise for success and motivation. It helps in the maximum utilization of resources. It provides needed information and proper guidance. It co-ordinates all activities suitably. It helps to make use of the expert services. It opens the door to attain the objects of one’s life.

Indian Education Commission (1964-66) has laid down, “Guidance services has a much wider scope and function than merely that of assisting students in making educational and vocational choices. The aims of guidance are most adjustive and developmental. It helps the students in making the best possible adjustment to the situation in the educational institutions and at the same time it facilitates the adjustment of all aspects of personality. Guidance, therefore, should be required as an integral part of education and not special psychological and social services which are peripheral to educational purposes. It is meant for all the students and not just for those who deviate from the norms in one direction or the other. It is also a continuous process aimed at assisting the individual to make decisions from time to time.”

Jones observes, “Guidance is not something that can be separated from the general life of the school, nor is it something that can be located only in some particular part of the school. It cannot be tucked away in the office of the counsellor or in the employment bureau. It is a party to every school activity; some form of guidance is the duty and the responsibility of every teacher in the system. It is then, a function that is shared by all and should be so administered.”

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9.3.1

SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF ORGANISING GUIDANCE SERVICES IN
SCHOOLS
(i)

Co-ordinating guidance work

(ii)

Consolidation of individual efforts by all the staff

(iii) Economic use of time and it provides equal opportunities for all (iv) Better understanding of pupil traits and location of his problem (v) Better understanding of pupil needs and interest
(vi) Healthy class room relations
(vii) Better utilisation of community resources for testing etc. (viii) Better staff unity
(ix) Adequate and up-to-date information regarding occupational and educational requirements and opportunities should be secured.
(x) It should be directed towards improved pupil self-knowledge and self-direction as ultimately he is to make his own decisions.
9.4. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF GUIDANCE SERVICES
A guidance scheme cannot be launched on the same pattern in a small school as in a large school. Some fundamental principles to work as basis are 5 P’s i.e. (a) Personnel, (b) Programme Planning, (c) Proper Budgeting, (d) Physical i.e. Physical Facilities, (e) Public Support : It includes the support of parents, public leaders, governing bodies, philanthropists and service clubs such as Lions Club, Rotary Club, Junior Chambers etc.

(a) Personnel : Guidance worker must be properly qualified and trained provided with such facilities that his knowledge is kept fresh and up-to-date. (b) Programme Planning : It is to be a co-operative show of organization, so while planning all those who are associated should be involved in it. It is better to form a committee of the Principal as President, Counsellor as Secretary and all teachers as members, so as to plan it on firm footings.

114

(c) Proper Budgeting : It can only be organised on firm footing when proper budget provision is made both in form of time and money. However, a special care needs to be taken that funds provided for guidance services must not be diverted to other channels.

(d) Physical Facilities : It needs proper privacy and a place to keep the record of the students like cumulative record, so that it is assessable to the teachers, but not to the students. An occupational information room will be the dire necessity. It should have facilities to sit and read.

(e) Public Support : All local public and private organizations need to be involved in it.
9.4.1. ORGANIZATION OF GUIDANCE SERVICES AT ELEMENTARY
LEVEL
(a) The age of elementary class students is the most impressive period during the schooling of the child. However, at this period of time the child is so immature that any type of systematic guidance is difficult to be provided to him. Even when it is a fact that much of the guidance need not be provided to the students at this stage it is also a bare fact that the qualities of the students can best be located when he is studying at this level of schooling and encouraged to be further developed so that his original interest crystalise at latest stage. All these informations are further strengthened during the further years of schooling, What teacher needs to do is to keep a proper record of it, to encourage the student to strengthen his intrinsic interests and aptitudes and also to provide them guidance if they are not adjusting with the class as well as the school. However, keeping proper record of such students in the procedural record and cumulative record proves to be of great help during the further schooling programme used also providing some training guidance to him. It is thus essential that all the elementary school teachers should during their training, be acquainted with guidance programme so that they are in a position to keep proper record and help other experts if need be. It is also here that the proper foundation of the guidance programme will be laid down.

(b) Two Types of Approaches Preventive and Developmental Approach : (i) Preventive Approach of Guidance : The elementary teacher is to look after and involve many preventive and protective services such as classroom guidance, group 115

counselling, consultation etc. It becomes the duty of the teacher to provide guidance, schooling by emphasizing activities counselling service, co-ordination of activities, others and curricular development. The teacher is to observe the child minutely and help him to adjust with the classroom environment with other students with the teaching material etc. The cumulative record is to be maintained in a systematic way. This information is to be collected from the students, their parents and other teachers. In case the teacher is in a position to locate any alignment with the behaviour of the student, he can discuss it with parents as both the school and the house can help to smoothen the growth for the proper development of the child. If need be the help of the doctor as specialist can also be arranged.

The teacher of primary level can have some sessions with these students who have one type or the other problem and examine the causes and remedies to help him to adjust in a better way. If need he can discuss the problem with the school counsellor and seek his help.

(ii) Developmental Approach of Guidance : The guidance worker is to see that children’s experience and exchange socialization skill and positive self-concept. This includes offering pre-social classroom guidance lesson in group. In order to provide such facilities in the Elementary Schools in USA, Myrick has recommended a projective, developmental comprehensive approach to guidance programme. It includes large classroom meetings and the equal number of small group meetings. The activities force on structured team up activities, such as understanding on self, discuss large classroom, making, problem solving, establishing healthy boy-girl relationships and learning time, get along with teacher and how to make friends.

In order to achieve these goals the counsellor will organize service with teachers/ administrators and parents. The counsellor addresses mothers on matters of common concern and teach new ways of handling old problem by getting many people committed to work in cooperative manner.

In this way, the guidance programme will help the problem children by identifying them and providing them individual guidance.
In order to be able to provide effective guidance programme the assessment of their needs is done. This type of assessment is generally done with the cooperation of fellow 116

teachers, community and students. It has been worked out that this need assessment is concentrated in four main areas i.e. school, family relation, relationship with others and the self. Young children often respond best to the counselling strategies build around a technique that requires active participation. Play therapy and bibliography are two strategic inversions that help counsellor’s establishment rapport with young children and facilities their selfunderstanding. Play therapy is a specialized way of working with children that requires skill based training. It is covered more frequently in the counsellor’s education programme. In order to enhance self-esteem, counsellor needs to focus on helping children to improve upon the critical areas of school i.e. academic competencies, self-concept, communication skill, coping ability and control.

Counsellor can also enhance self-esteem by having children look at themselves through the eyes of this special person. In this treatment modality children pretend to be artist, drawing special people in their lives who love them. After drawings are complete children pretend to be special persons on whom they have drawn, thus seeing themselves through loving eyes. Through the drawings children improve their self-concept, selfconfidence and social and academic possibilities. Needless to say that we will have to make our Elementary Teacher Training Programme (ETT) more guidance oriented and increase the guidance content in it along with some practical training to be imparted. For the time being, a counsellor can be appointed to coordinate this working in a cluster of schools. If the practice of providing guidance services is established at elementary school level, it will help in the establishment of such services at secondary level. 9.4.2. ORGANIZATIONS OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMME AT SECONDARY

LEVEL
When the guidance services are to be recognised in secondary schools, it becomes essential that all the members of the staff properly understand that it is team work and it can only be organized if all of them actively participate in it. First of all the senior officers of the school administration need to be provided with complete knowledge of this service and their interests cultivated in it. They need to be made acquainted with these services established in developed nations, researches carried 117

out its uses in human resources development, its uses in the progress of development, new developments in this field and expenditure made by such nations in it, need to be further made clear to them.

I.

ORGANIZATION OF FACULTY

(i) Faculty Guidance Committees : At the time of organizing guidance service in school first of all a permanent faculty committee be organized with Headmaster as the President, counsellor as the Secretary and all those teacher who have had some training as its member. This committee should frame the policy fix its targets, acquaint all the staff members, parents and students with the benefits of its services, to get the expert advise for the organization of guidance services and to act upon it and to evaluate guidance service and to bring requisite changes in it. It will be better if the council is made the incharge of the programme and it should involve all the teachers in it. In order to give proper representation on the committee.

(ii) Headmaster of the School : The Headmaster should have full faith in the guidance services and his philosophy of education be clear about its relationship with guidance. He must call the meeting of the guidance committee maintain its record and have democratic discussion. He should introduce cumulative records and train class teachers about mode of filing proper information in it and maintain it. He should work as Public Relations Officer and maintain good relations with students, teachers, social workers, employment officers, district level officers and Principals of colleges etc. All this will not only help him to cultivate his real interest in it, but make him, the leader of the team for providing guidance facilities to the students.

(iii) Counsellors and Career Master : The work of counsellor can be done by a teacher who has undergone at least one years special training of counsellor. He is to perform all the services including counselling, administrating of psychological list, research and to suggest changes in the light of research finding. The career master is capable of performing only a few of these services even when he understands all these services. As a rule when the guidance services are established in a high school at first a career makers is appointed in it.

(iv) Teacher : The counsellors in high school environments are to concentrate on the following four tasks :
118

(a) Organising and making available to students comprehensive information systems necessary for educational and vocational planning and decision-making. (b) Organising and presenting classroom curricula that focus development of adolescents.

(c)

Helping students to assess the personal characteristics.

(d) Providing remedial interventions for students needing special help. Even when guidance services are not established in a school, the teacher does provide certain aspects of guidance services. It has been well said that all guidance is education, but all education is not guidance. Teacher is a friend guide and leader of the students. While teaching his own subject, the teacher can provide occupational information to them. He needs to be well acquainted with the different types of information, which affects his studies such as intelligence level, social interaction level, health and economic problems etc. While teaching his own subject, the teacher should provide occupational information to the students by correlating it with his subjects as and when these are an occasion for it. He is supposed to provide full co-operation to the counsellors about the students.

(v) School Psychologist : The school counsellor is to be busy with so many multipurpose activities, so at times in each school, or in a group of schools a psychologist is appointed who conducts the needed psychological test and interpret them. The work being of highly technical native only a qualified person is appointed on it. He is always to be of great help to the counsellors.

(vi) Health Department of School : As a rule every large school should have a full time doctor, a dentist, a psycholinguist and nurse. However, till this stage is not ripe the Government must ensure that doctors appointed in hospital visit the schools and provide needed medical aid to the students.

(vii) Librarian : The librarian can be helpful to the extent that he collects the books, journal and pamphlets on guidance, occupational information and provide necessary help to students for their use.

(viii) Co-operation of Parents : The social conditions in our country are such that parents needs to be enlightened that children should be allowed to make their 119

own decisions about their problems. It is better to prepare a checklist of the needed information such as what parents expect of their wards, the numbers of his brothers and sisters and his relationship with the types of educational facilities available at home. The parents should be encouraged to express their views in a free and frank manner. They should be dealt with psychologically.

(ix) Co-operation of Other Organizations : In order to establish guidance services on firm footing it is essential to get the cooperation of guidance clinics, employment exchange, teachers parent associations, organizations of industrialists, doctors, students unions, religious and labour organizations etc.

(a) Student Welfare Services : Organizations like Teacher Parent Associations, Lion’s club, Rotary clubs etc. organize different types of services for the students such as medical aid, economic help etc. There can be of immense help to the school and associated to solve their problems of many students.

(b) Accommodations : In every school a guidance corner with extensive information about occupations, shortage occupations, surplus occupations, training facilities, professional loans, etc. is a must to be established.

In the same way this cummulative record will have to be maintained in good conditions as these are to be used for quite a longer time. In actual practice a good many types of entries such as school achievements, achievements in co-curricular activities and important developments etc. can be made in it time and again so it will have to be suitably placed under the supervision of the counsellor for which proper accommodation is to be provided along with other requisite material such as cummulative recording material, filing cabinet etc.

In this way, if the guidance is to be established on firm failings, which is becoming a necessity i.e. separate room with the above facilities will have to be made for the guidance workers to shoulder his responsibilities.

9.5. LET US SUM UP
Our schools generally and specifically when GATs have been made applicable 120

in 2005, need proper guidance services as they will now be able to compete with human resources of the advanced nation only when they will properly cultivated and groomed in this educational treatment. For all this it becomes absolutely necessary to provide them the facilities guidance services right from the primary education level.

At primary level, it must be provided in a systematic way. The children at this stage demonstrate their personal interest while playing, sharing their toys, dealing with their equals and also developing relations with others. It is very important from the point of view of preparing ground for effective guidance at later stages, also for which cummulated record be prepared. Both the preventive and development approaches be used to provide them their facilities.

At secondary level the students should be given different types of tests of need by and their cummulative records be so prepared that it becomes every for the students to clarify their concepts for going in for some type of training in different types or to go in for further academic. In fact at this age the students be provided the good deal of experience, so that their knowledge about the world of work becomes quite clear for them. At the same time, their concepts about themselves become quite clear by bringing their merits and weaknesses. In the Indian situation it becomes quite clear that parents will have to be involved in a bigger way in it, So that they respect the preferences and also personality built up of their wards and do not impose their own values upon them.

9.6. SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS
1.

All guidance is education but all education is not guidance.

(Yes/No)

2.

In order to provide guidance to the students specific guidance services will have to be adopted.
(Yes/No)

3.

Every teacher is competent to provide all types of guidance to the students. (Yes/No)

4.

A poor country like India can better do without guidance programme. (Yes/No)
121

5.

In elementary school the children are so young that no guidance can be provided to them.
(Yes/No)

6.

The real stage to start with the building up of the guidance resources is elementary education.
(Yes/No)

7.

Cummulative records must be started to be build up right from the day the student enter the school.
(Yes/No)

8.

Both the preventive and developmental type of approaches be used to provide guidance to the students.
(Yes/No)

9.

Guidance of secondary education can never be disposed with in the times of GATs.
(Yes/No)

10. Both educational and vocational guidance are essential at secondary stage of education.
(Yes/No)
Key : 1. Yes, 2. Yes, 3. No, 4. No, 5. No, 6. Yes, 7, Yes, 8. Yes, 9. No. 10. Yes. 9.7. UNIT END EXERCISES
1.

Describe the significance of organising education guidance at primary stage of education. Explain it by giving examples.

2.

Bring out the importance of organising guidance services at secondary level. Describe the importance of cummulative records in it.

9.8. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS
1. Browen, J.M.

:

Education as Guidance, McMillon Company,
New York, 1971.

2. Jones, Arther

:

Principles of Guidance, McGraw Hill Book
Company Inc., New York, 1963.

3. Myers, George E.

:

Principles and Techniques of Vocational
Guidance, McGraw Hill Book Company Inc.,
New York, 1941.
122

4. Strang, Ruth

:

Educational Guidance : Its Principles and
Practices, The McMillon Company,
New York, 1960.

5. Sinha, S.N.

:

Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour,
Asia Publishing House, Japan, 1973

6. Suri, S.P. & Sodhi, T.S. :

Guidance and Counselling,
Bawa Publications, Patiala, 2005.

123

LESSON NO.10

UNIT-III

INDIVIDUAL INVENTORY SERVICE & PLACEMENT SERVICE
10.0 STRUCTURE
10.1.Introduction
10.2 Objectives
10.3.Different Services of Guidance
10.3.1.

Individual Inventory Service

10.3.2.

Administration of Individual Inventory Service

10.3.3.

Administration of Placement Service

10.4.Let Us Sum up
10.5.Self Evalution Questions
10.6.Unit End Exercises
10.7.Suggested Further Readings
10.1 INTRODUCTION
Dear Learners, in the previous lesson we have acquainted you with the main functioning of guidance services at various school level. In the present lesson we will come to know the need, importance and evaluation of Individual Inventory Service.

10.2. OBJECTIVES
After going through the lesson, the student will be able to : 1

Know different types of guidance services.

2

Explain about the need, importance and evaluation of individual inventory service.
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3

Make others clear, about the need and expansion of placement services.

10.3. DIFFERENT SERVICES OF GUIDANCE
Generally, terms such as ‘guidance’ or ‘guidance process’ is used for ‘guidance services’. Some guidance scholars like Smith have put two of the terms i.e. guidance and services together.
“The guidance process consists of a group of services to individuals to assist them in securing the knowledge and skill needed in making adequate choice, plans and interpretations essential to satisfactory adjustment in a variety of areas. These services are designed to result with efficiency in areas which require that the individual make adjustment in order that he may be an effective member of the society”.

Needless to say that guidance services will have to be analysed in the light of the obligation that the guidance programme assumes for each pupil. Hatch and Dressel have summed them up into the following eight types :

(i)

To collect all the significant information of an individual which will be of assistance in furthering his adjustment.

(ii)

To interpret that information to the individual and members of his family, whenever such information is needed, in order to reach a more objective solutions to the problems.

(iii) To furnish to the individual such information that is not given in the conventional education system and which will make his next steps more realistic and meaningful.
(iv) To interpret the information to the individual and the family so that maximum of benefit from the information may be expected.
(v) To assist the individual in a complete analysis of all factors which will be helpful to him, in his adjustment to his environment.
(vi) To alter the environment of the individual, whenever possible, so as to enhance the speed of adjustment.
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(vii) To follow-up the individual after he leaves the school in order to evaluate his adjustment and to obtain information which may be used to alter and improve the school environment.
In this lesson we will discuss only two of these services :
(i)

The Individual Inventory Service

(ii)

The Placement Service

10.3.1. INDIVIDUAL INVENTORY SERVICE
This service emphasizes the collection of information that will identify each pupil as a unique individual. Three types of criteria to be used for the collection of such information: (a) Objectivity : This is to use the techniques, ways and means of collecting information that will result in the accurate inventory of the individual in an objective way. (b) Behaviour : The information is collected about the individual from many sources. It must concentrate upon the behaviour pattern. A good quantity of information must be available before the accuracy of the pattern takes on such significance. (c) Identification : The main aim of collecting such an information is to establish the uniqueness of the individual as he is aware of the dissimilarities. It is of no use collecting the information which is common with all the pupils.

I.

COLLECTION OF INDIVIDUAL INVENTORY INFORMATION

(i) Personal Identification : Name, date of birth, place of birth, sex, residence, evidence for verification of date of birth.
(ii) Home and Community : Name of the parents and guardians, their occupation, rating in home environments, birth place of the parents, language, marital status of the parents, siblings i.e. names, age, education.

(iii) Scholarship : School marks by years and subjects, special report on achievements, rank in class, honours won.
(iv) Test Scores : Achievement in test scores, results of interest inventory, aptitude test, personality rating etc.
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(v) School Attendance : Systematic record of attendance, year-wise attendance and absentees.
(vi) Health : Maintenance of height and weight by semiconneal measurements. Hearings, vision, condition of teeth, physical disabilities, vaccination record, recommendation by school doctors on these different aspect.

(vii) Employment : Part-time job or summer job (with dates, earning duties) employer’s report, work experience etc.
(viii) Activity Record : Athletics, clubs, date, station, student day (officer and activities), non-school clubs and activities, hobbies and leisure time activities to be collected from the students and school.

(ix) Anecdotal Records : It is usually collected on special forms pertaining to different aspects of important incidents. Separate form be used to report the incidence of behaviour indicating success and problem experience.

(x) Interview Notes : Separate report of each interview be prepared i.e. date, reason, interests and plan discussed, nature of the problem discussed etc. (xi) Follow-up Record : It should contain periodic reports of employment, education, satisfaction and problems.

II.

RECORD KEEPING
It is of two types :

(i) Administrative Record : It is of two types. The administrative record is maintained by the clerk and is preserved for many years. The age of keeping this type of record is fixed up. Many of these are of permanent nature. However some are temporary.

(ii) Guidance Record : ‘Cumulative Record’ This is the record for each pupil of the kind of information that will make it possible to identify him as unique individual. It has the following advantages from the point of view of effectiveness for its recording and maintenance. It also includes various types of information mentioned under administrative record above.

127

III.

ADVANTAGES OF CUMULATIVE RECORD
It should be maintained on a specific type of foulder and kept at a safe place.

(i) Uniqueness of Information : In order to make the information that tends to identity the characteristics of the pupils upto-date, the outdated material which is of no use i.e. old tests, parent notes, outdated anecdotes, old health reported of little use be removed.

(ii) Continuing Record : It should contain continuous folding of pupils experience at all grade levels. It is of great value when it is introduced at the time the pupil enters the school and is maintained for the span of time in which he is enroled. If record is maintained for different levels i.e. elementary, secondary and higher secondary then it causes a definite break in its continuation and also adds the cost of maintaining it. It travels with this student. In case of the change of schools, it goes with the students.

(iii) Simplicity : The record is simple, objective, easy to complete and organized logically for its completion.
(iv) Systematically Maintain : As it is to be used for a period of 12 years so it should be maintained in a heavy card-board of the standard file drawer. It is easily maintained in such a file which is adaptable to variations of information at various grade levels.

IV.

EVALUATION OF INVENTORY SERVICE
Generally survey method is used to evaluate it by isolating these elements : 1.

Maintaining complete and up-to-date files.

2.

Obtaining wide use of the data by the staff.

3.

Sharing information in the files with students, parents, employers and other schools.

The first element can be evaluated by inspecting some of the cumulative records. It can be done by the committee by random sampling method. All this information should be so shared with the staff for the improvement of the service. 128

10.3.2

ADMINISTRATION OF INFORMATION SERVICE

It is essential for the individual to understand the environments in which he is to live, work and progress. The factors which add to the complexity of the society continue to increase due to industrial specializations, technological innovations, inventions, increased population, economic demand, social attitudes etc. The individual needs to be kept abreast to adjust with the frustrations of the nature of occupations, education and social aspects in particular. If adjustment is to be made satisfactory, every individual must be aided to understand the ever-changing requirements of his present and future environments. Due to such factors this service is to be a major part of the programme of guidance services. Generally three identifiable but closely correlated phases of information, agreed to by the guidance workers are : (a) Occupational Information (b) Educational Information, (c) Personal Information.

The service does not deal only with the interpretation of the information but is concerned with sources, methods of filing and useful techniques of interpreting the information of these three major kinds. The information like World of work, training opportunities and technique of getting alongwith others is of general value for all the pupils. The information is mostly meant for groups and is exploratory rather than highly definitive. Thus the information services make use of the major part of the group activities of the guidance programme.

I.

ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS OF THE INFORMATION SERVICES
It pertains to three major inter-related categories :
(i) Relating to Collection and Preparation of Information
(ii) Relating to Housing the Information
(iii) Relating to Presenting the Information

(1) Collection and Preparation of Information : It concentrates upon the selection of material. It may be collected from brouchers, books, outlines, charts, film strips and films. One brochure may be primarily devoted to discussion of given information and also contain training facilities related to it. It may be prepared as under, for all the three categories.

129

(i) Occupational : Occupational abstracts, briefs, guides or monographs, books describing one or more occupation in details, wall charts, film strips, films and periodicals and news papers.
(ii) Educational : College and University catalogues, directories of institutes of higher education, summaries of scholarships and loans, directories of private schools, directories of technical schools, films, wall charts, booklets with study habit suggestions.

(iii) Personal and Social : Booklets designed to help students to understand themselves and other work book with reading guides, films, wall charts, brouchers with suggestions for good grooming and variety of material on personal hygiene. The following additional information of the following types be prepared : (a)

Parent hand-book.

(b) Junior and senior high school hand-book.
(c)

Charts emphasizing local information.

(d) Film strips or slides of local industry, educational opportunities and social life. (e)

Supplement readings on local opportunities.

(2) Responsibility for Collection of Information : It must be remembered for all types of activities that even when it is a fact that guidance is a specialized service to be handled by the experts, the fact remains that it cannot be carried out by him alone. He needs the assistance and the co-operation of all the other members of the staff. In the same way he needs the help of the teachers, Counsellor, co-ordinator and librarian in the execution of the responsibility.

(3) Evaluation of Information Services : The following elements are essential for evaluating the information service :
(i)

Making available all the information they need.

(ii)

Supplementary printing material with first hand contact with people in occupations be considered.

(iii) Supplying educational, social and occupational information. 130

(iv) Placing the responsibility for the success of this service on the total staff. (v) Using only accurate, unbiased and timely information. The extent to which this element is present should be measured by application of the standards for occupational literature to be developed to contain information of the following aspects :

(a) History of the occupation, (b) Importance of the occupation and its relationship to society, (c) Dates, (d) No. of workers engaged in the occupation, (e) Qualification, (f) Preparation, (g) Methods of entering, (h) Time required to obtain skill, (i) Advancement, (j) Related occupations, (k) Earning, (I) Conditions of work, (m) Organisations, (n) Typical place of employment, (o) Advantages and disadvantages, (p) Supplementary information.

In addition it should contain :
(a) It should have the sponsoring authority and the competency of the staff who gathered the information.
(b) Date and year of preparation.
(c)

Must indicate the method used to gather the information i.e. number of organisations visited, library work, kinds of organisations visited and number of persons interviewed.

(d) It should be validated and procedure of validation given. (e)

It should have been tried on some consumers.

In evaluating the available occupational material in the school it would be worthwhile to use the complete report from which it is quoted.
10.3.3. THE ADMINISTRATION OF PLACEMENT SERVICE
The assistance provided to a student to obtain employment or additional training if that part of the guidance programme which is known as placement service. Many guides like to include the changing of the classroom environment in the service of placement while there are many who like to include only the job placement as placement.

131

I.

SOME ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS

In Indian institutions the organized programme can be of two types i.e. centralized and decentralized service or combination of the two services. (a) Decentralised Service : In the decentralized form of the service every effort is made to ensure a placement service for every youngster, but little effort is made to undertake uniform approach to perform or relate the service to one and other. Every teacher has a group of students for whom he undertakes the service and staff members also develop relations with given group of employers or representatives of training institutions. Its disadvantage is the duplication of efforts and dissipation of responsibility, which make it virtually impossible for an employer or institution to obtain prospective adjustment from several student categories.

(b) Centralised Service : Because of the following merits, it has the advantage to be adopted when required. A centralized placement officer is appointed. (i)

The prospective employer has one contact.

(ii)

The placement record can be put at one place.

(iii) Educational placement transcripts may be prepared from the same records by some person responsible for job placement.
(iv) The staff members with personal placement contacts may be used in a referral capacity from the central office.
(v)

One set of forms may be used throughout the community.

(vi) The Central Placement Director may maintain constant contact with all employers and the registrars of training institutions.
(vii) It is easier to develop an effective working relationship with other placement agencies.
II.

STAFFING OF PLACEMENT SERVICE

Generally, Counsellor or Vice-Principal or Vocational Coordinator looks after it. It is not important as to who looks after this job. It is important that the person should have interest in it and should have the requisite qualifications to perform the job. 132

(a)

Some training in guidance.

(b) Organisational ability.
(c)

Reasonably, good acquaintance with the community.

(d) A reputation for maintaining good relationship with other. III.

CO-ORDINATION OF THE WORK OF THE STAFF

The entire school staff has to contribute towards this service. The staff members may be expected to do the following :
(a) Provide information about the students to be used in placement. (b) Assist in the location of special opportunities.
(c)

Maintain contact with employers, so as to allow requests to be forwarded to the central office.

(d) Prepare units in courses of job-finding and related information. (e)

Prepare study units in the selection of a college and related information.

The placement officer must also feel obliged. He should prepare, report of the work of the central placement officer, a list of opportunities, new requirements and recognition of certain staff members for their contribution to placement, or some of the minimum effort to fulfil that obligation.

IV.

DEVELOPING RELATIONS WITH OTHER PLACEMENT AGENCIES

The school placement agency will be primarily concerned with part-time placement and initial job placement when the student terminates his training. Under these circumstances, the school placement service is not in direct competition with other placement agencies but is rather a supplement service. It is important for all the placement agencies to find out ways and means of increasing the effectiveness of all placement agencies.

In order to organize the placement service on firm footings, the school administrator may find it desirable to work closely with the representatives of placement groups in the community in the earlier stages of school placement programme. Once 133

the programme is established, it becomes the responsibility of the placement director to maintain and further strengthen the relationship that will result in maximum service for the students.
10.4. LET US SUM UP
There are a good many types of services of guidance. However, most accepted ones are five only out of which we have delimited ourselves to Inventory Service and Placement Service.
Inventory service is to know the measure about the individual has personal identity, home and community, test scores, scholarships, employment, activity etc. In addition, the record of attitudes, aptitudes, interests and personality assessment is also needed. All this information is generally recorded in cummulative record, which contains the information about the individual from the day, the student enters the school to the day of his passing of the last examination of the school. The record is contained on the perform a specifically provided for that purposes in the school. The school counsellor looks after that and ensures that it is kept upto date in all respects. In case the student changes the school, this record is inversably transferred to that school.

The placement service is also organised in most of the schools for giving the job experience and also providing how job in the long run for this purpose the Counsellor, school teachers and the Principal of the school maintains good relations with the employees of the area and supply to them the requisite types of manpower. It helps both the school and the employees and make the education community-centered and involves the community to help the school.

10.5 SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS
1.

There are only five most important services of Guidance.

2.

It is essential to know the details of the individual students. (Yes/No)

3.

Guidance remains incomplete without the individual inventory service. (Yes/No)
134

(Yes/No)

4.

Individual information can be maintained by the clerks of the school. (Yes/No)

5.

The information about the individual is maintained by the Counsellor.(Yes/No)

6.

Cumulative record is of no use to the school.

7.

Cumulative record does not explain the identification data of the individual school.

8.

Placement service should not be organised by the school. (Yes/No)

9.

Placement service is not the headache of the school.

(Yes/No)

(Yes/No)

10. Placement in job is one of the functions of the school. (Yes/No) Key : (1) Yes

(2) Yes

(3) Yes

(4) No

(5) Yes

(6) No

(7) No

(8) No

(9) No

(10) Yes

10.6. UNIT END EXERCISES
1.

Write an essay on Individual Inventory Service in the field of guidance.

2.

Placement service is one of the important service of schools guidance programme. Discuss and explain how it can be most useful?

10.7. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS
1. Browen, J.M.

:

Education as Guidance, McMillon
Company, New York, 1971.

2. Jones, Arther

:

Principles of Guidance, McGraw Hill
Company Inc., New York, 1963.

3. Myers, George E.

:

Principles and Techniques of Vocational
Guidance, McGraw Hill Book Company
Inc., New York, 1941.

4. Suri, S.P. & Sodhi, T.S. :

Guidance & Counselling,
Bawa Publications, Patiala, 2005.
135

5. Strang, Ruth

:

Educational Guidance : Its Principles and
Practices, The McMillon Company,
New York, 1960.

6. Sinha, S.N.

:

Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour,
Asia Publishing House, Japan, 1973

136

LESSON NO.11

UNIT-III
FOLLOW-UP SERVICE

11.0. STRUCTURE
11.1 Introduction
11.2. Objectives
11.3. Follow-up Service
11.3.1.

Methods of Reporting Results of Follow-Up

11.3.2.

Evaluation of Follow-Up Service

11.4. Let Us Sum Up
11.5. Self Evaluation Questions
11.6. Unit End Exercises
11.7. Suggested Further Readings
11.1 INTRODUCTION
Dear Learners, in the Previous Lesson you have studied the concept of Inventory and Placement Services. Now in this lesson we will study follow-up service. Followup is that review or systematic evaluation which is carried out to know whether guidance service in particular and educational programme in general satisfy the needs of the students. The students need to be followed in orde to determine the nature and extent of their need for assistance.

11.2. OBJECTIVES
After the study of the lesson, the student will be able to : Explain the Follow-up Service.
Clarify the steps in the Follow-up Service.
137

Explain the importance of Follow-up Service.
To explain the methods of Follow-up Service.
To evaluate the Follow up Service.
11.3. FOLLOW-UP SERVICE
(a)

THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOLLOW-UP SERVICE

It is through the constant touch with the former students, which is called follow-up service. Many a time, it is used to refer to some specific type of survey. However, it includes regular activities scheduled at regular periods, reported according to regular pattern and bringing about alterations in the school programme. In fact, in U.S.A., follow-up programme is a yardstick by which the school programme is measured from year to year. In order to make this service more useful the issues may be divided as under : (i)

The technique to be used in conducting the follow-up programme.

(ii)

The staff responsible for the surveys.

(iii) Methods of reporting the results to the students, staff and parents. (iv) Establishment of effective school community relationship. (b)

THE TECHNIQUE OF FOLLOW-UP

The follow-up technique can make use of interview, post-card survey or questionnaire or personal contact. Each of these has its own advantages and limitations. The technique of interview provides most valid information, but is time consuming and expensive. There can be some information which either the subject will be able to reveal when convicted in person or can otherwise, be observed. The post-card survey is easy and less expensive, accomplishes some of the objectives of the other techniques and in part, it overcomes, limitations of other approaches. Suggestions about specific forms i.e. questionnaire frequency of survey and general philosophy are to be found appropriate. (c)

STAFF RESPONSIBLE FOR FOLLOW-UP SERVICE

It should be the secondary responsibility of the instructional staff. As it involves quite a lengthy duration of the period so it could better be done by selected the follow up committee which should be the best method to do so that if some body leaves the job, the 138

work continued. In this committee, the personnel specialist should be the consultant member, while chairman can be any other senior member of the group.
11.3.1. METHODS OF REPORTING RESULTS
The follow-up service is concerned with the interpretation of the results of placement service. It can be done in so many ways and with a good number of motives. Michigan State University has prepared a list of follow-up services with the cooperation of Guidance and Counsellor training staff, for the use of the follow-up information. (i) Improving the Curriculum : It is used to expand course offered such as commercial training, industrial arts, general mathematics, college preparatory English, sociology, social living, general arts, speech and distributive education on the bases of the results observed as a result of follow-up.

(ii) Stimulating Better Teaching : It is used to change the school philosophy towards emphasis on meeting individual needs. It helps to improve social adjustment of the individual. It increases staff attention to identify the drop-out types of students. It is used to change content material in subject-matter area. It is used to emphasis on the importance of in-service training activities. All this can be possible when programme, if the results depicted are not upto the mark. It will enhance the value of total guidance programme.

(iii) Increasing the Values of the Guidance Service :
(a)

Add scheduled time for Counselling as a result of follow-up as a result of follow-up some deficiencies come to light.

(b) Procuring additional personnel with professional training in guidance and counselling, in case it is found that the results depicted as a result of follow up programme are such that the students are not properly adjusted. (c)

To emphasise the extent of career information provided to the subject.

(d) To make more purposeful use of cumulative records. In case the students are not properly adjusted, at times the Counsellor in special efforts to work with the detects of cummulative record, which might provide a deep insight for adjustment.

139

(e)

Integrating guidance into total school programme. In Indian situation it could happen that proper adjustment is not found when the guidance programme is not fully integrated with the school programme of educational guidance or in other words, the both are not properly inter-woven.

(f)

To establish placement service on firm footings especially in case of vocational guidance.

(g)

It is used to provide time for non-credited remedial classes in school areas such as reading and writing improvement.

(h) It is used to utilize local occupational information.
ESTABLISHMENT OF BETTER SCHOOL COMMUNICATION
RELATIONSHIP
It is used to make specific plans for closer co-operation among teachers. (a)

Parents and students through scheduled conferences, open-house home programmes and school bulletins.

(b) It is used to initiate business-industry-education days. To maintain contact with former students through a continuous follow-up programme. In USA, the industrialists and business-men are actively involved in the affairs of the school which proves very effective in so many way. The business-men are in a positive need if the requisite type of man-power and also give suggestions for the improvement of school programme for the betterment of placement. All this becomes possible when the follow-up programmes is more effective.

STEPS FOR REPORTING RESULTS
This may vary in every individual case. However, the recommended outline is as follows :
(i)

Presenting values of follow-up information.

(ii)

Brief review of the survey design.

(iii) Limitation of the results.
140

(iv) Major findings.
(v) Implementation for improvement.
The method by which the information is presented is conditioned by time, imagination and materials available. It can be done by preparing charts, film strips and slides to be used to interpret the results. It can be done by bringing out some publications. The main aim is to present the information to obtain maximum results. It is for the committee to identify the technique to be used for reporting the results and that it continues on the same line in a circle.

11.3.2. EVALUATION OF FOLLOW-UP SERVICES
It can best be done by periodical checking. The sampling of students who are working will reveal the percentage who obtained their jobs through the placement service. This will reveal the usefulness of the service.

The placement service would be a study to determine amount of ‘over-ageness’ and ‘under-ageness’ in a school system. In an interesting study, it has been revealed that many more girls than boys had been accelerated in school and many more boys than restarted. Such studies make sound judgement about the present functioning of the programme and clearly point out steps to be taken to improve upon it. A very closely linked problem with the follow-up service is the research findings of this type of programme. Guidance movement is a functional and applied movement. Its functions are modified and classified in the light of the results of its findings. The follow-up programme shows the path for the change in the curriculum and co-curriculum activities in schools, the organization of these services in schools, employment exchanges and enhancement of the skill of the Voluntary Organisations to do this type of welfare service. In order to make this service universally accepted, the research finding need to be highlighted to the community.

11.4. LET US SUM UP
Out of five guidance services to be organised for the establishment of the programme, follow-up service is very important from a number of points of views. This service is to be organised to have a look into how will the process take place when we have guided in finding the new solutions. It can be done in a number of ways i.e. by giving a ring, organising 141

an interview, getting a questionnaire filled in etc. but the most effective is to go in person to contact with person the subject and know his difficulties and to work to remove those and able to improve upon the guidance programme in the light of it. It can best be done if some staff is appointed rather than doing it in spare time and doing the job half heartedly. It has been worked out that it improves the curriculum, stimulates better teaching and also increases the value of guidance from so many angles. It bring close contact between the school, community and parents, industry and also employees. It can also be used as a tool to rope in the industrialists in the functioning of the school, which help both the employees and also employers. It is on the bases of the results of follow up that the total guidance programme is put up on firm-footings. It need not be left to the hands of the Government or NGO’s only. The school should also play a constructive role in it. 11.5. SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS

(1) Follow-up service need not be organised for the students.

Yes/No

(2) Follow-up programme plays a constructive role in the organisation of guidance services.
Yes/No
(3) Follow-up service need not be provided by appointing special staff for it. (4) Follow up service is needed from the research point of view. Yes/No (5) Follow-up service can best be provided by posting letters only. Yes/No (6) Follow-up service establishes better relationship between the school and the employees.

(7) Follow-up service creates better understanding between teachers and parents.
Yes/No
(8) Follow-up service is used for creating remedial teaching also.

Yes/No

(9) Follow-up service is useful for the purpose of total learning process.Yes/No (10) Without Follow-up service the guidance programme remain incomplete. Key : (1) No

(2) Yes

(3) No

(4) Yes

(5) No

(6) Yes

(7) Yes

(8) Yes

(9) Yes
142

(10) Yes

11.6. UNIT END EXERCISES
(1) Bring out the administration of Follow-up programme. How will you make it more effective?
(2) Describe different modes of Follow-up programme. Which one will you recommend and why?
11.7. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS
1. Brown, J.M.

:

Education as Guidance, McMillon
Company, New York, 1971.

2. Jones, Arthur

:

Principles of Guidance, McGraw Hill Book
Company Inc., New York, 1963.

3. Myers, George E.

:

Principles and Techniques of Vocational
Guidance, McGraw Hill Book Company
Inc., New York, 1941.

4

:

Guidance and Counselling,
Bawa Publications, Patiala, 2005.

5. Strang, Ruth

:

Educational Guidance : Its Principles and
Practices, The McMillon Company,
New York, 1960.

6. Sinha, S.N.

:

Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour,
Asia Publishing House, Japan, 1973

Suri S.P. & T.S. Sodhi

143

LESSON NO.12

UNIT-III

ROLE OF HEAD OF THE INSTITUTION, TEACHER & COUNSELLOR
12.0 STRUCTURE
12.1 Introduction
12.2.Objectives
12.3.Role of Head of the Institution
12.4.Role of Counsellor
12.5.Role of Teacher
12.6.Role of Parents
12.7.Guidance a Joint Venture
12.8.Outline of Guidance
12.9.Let Us Sum Up
12.10.Self Evaluation Questions
12.11.Unit End Exercises
12.12.Suggested Further Readings
12.1 INTRODUCTION
Dear Students, In this chapter you will come to know the role of head of the Institution, Teacher & Counsellor. As the things exist in India, no programme of any type can be successfully, introduced in any school, without the help of the Principal of the school, teacher & counsellor.

12.2. OBJECTIVES
After going through this lesson the student will be able to : 144

1. Describe the role of the Principal in the organisation of guidance services in school and to make it more effective.
2. To understand the role of the Counsellor in the establishment of guidance programme in schools.
3.

To suggest steps to make the role of the counsellor more effective.

4. To clarify the concept that even when the Counsellor is the key person to organise the guidance programme, he will be successful only when he is in a position to get the operation of all the staff of the school.

5. To understand and describe that even when guidance programme is a specified specialist job, it can hardly deliver the goods till the teacher is not involved in it both in words and spirit. Guidance work will continue to be very poor till all the teachers are not involved in it role in word and spirit.

12.3. ROLE OF HEAD OF THE INSTITUTION
According to the Manual of Educational and Vocational Guidance, issued by the Ministry of Education, “the Principal or the Headmaster is the Keyman of the guidance programme within his school. He must be in sympathy with its purposes and give it his whole-hearted support.”

As the things exist in India, no programme of any type can be successfully, introduced in any school, without the help of the Principal of the school and guidance in no way can be an exception to the Principal. It is more so because the guidance programme is a joint venture of the school and it can be successful only if all the staff of the school actively participate in it, which will be possible only when the programme is stimulated with the active participation of the Head of the institution.

One of the reasons of the poor establishment of guidance services in India, is the apathy of Principals towards it. There might be many reasons for i.e. fixed teaching schedule, old knowledge, lack of the knowledge of guidance, lesser faith in guidance etc. It has been hypothesised that the tendency at the end of the heads of Schools is to give less importance to the guidance work and use even the staff meant for it for other school activities. To make it a success he is to perform three types of duties :

145

(a) Ethical Role : He must recognize the positive role of guidance services and plan a time bound programme to achieve it. He should realise that guidance movement is the future of education. In this age of globalisation, liberalisation and modernisation. Our students will be able to become efficient workers so as to face the competition at international level, only if things are well versed in their studies and also groomed systematically with the tools of guidance.

(b) Administrative Role : He is to get the approval to establish a guidance unit, to get a counsellor appointed, to provide him with requisite facilities and material, to form committee on guidance and to involve all the teachers in it and to allot proper duties to all persons, to keep parents informed about the guidance services, to provide teachers the facilities to enable them to efficiency organize the guidance work and to maintain good working relation with other agencies i.e. psychiatric, therapist, doctor, employment exchange etc.

(c) Committee Role : Principal is the captain of the team of guidance workers which comprises the teacher, the counsellor, the subject expert, the psychologist etc. It is for him to see that all the players play their role well. He is helped by the counsellor to do so as he is the Chairman of the committee. With the active guidance programme, the evaluation process is followed by adequate follow up and improved which is a continuous process. The maximum role of the principal is to be the captain of the team and to help every individual to play its role best. This can best be recognised by the staff that lesser cooperation in the guidance programme will earn the bad values and will in no way be appreciated by him, will make every body to put in his best into it. This will improve upon the total functioning of the school guidance programme which will play a major role in making this programme a success.

12.4. ROLE OF COUNSELLOR
In the schooling process, in the guidance programme, counsellor has the most dominent role to play. In fact the total responsibility of providing all types of guidance facilities fall upon his shoulders, which he performs, under the supervision of the head of the institution, with the help of the team of workers, who help him to perform his duties in an effective way. However, the fact remains that which so ever is the training and competency of the counsellor, he will never be in a position to do the needful till he gets the cooperation 146

of all the members of the staff. He is to be clear in his mind that he can get the co-operation of his colleagues not with the orders of the principal, but with his skill to do so as this is a joint venture and of will be successful till all help in performing his duties will to the students, school and the community.

(a) Functions of the Counsellor : He is supposed to deal with the problem of the normal pupils as well as the pupils who face abnormal tendencies. When he faces some student or some problem which is queer and he can not himself handle, he is to refer the case to the proper agency i.e. He is to establish links with the doctor, psychiatric etc. In this purpose.

He is to assist teachers to solve pupil problems which the teachers find difficult; to assist National Employment Service for the placement of pupils in various jobs ; to take up follow-up work with a view to assessing the outcome of guidance services in regard to students who have received guidance; to assist in familiarizing new teacher with guidance services available; to obtain as much of an objective measurement of a pupil’s abilities, interests, aptitudes and physical characteristics as possible; to give assistance and counselling through interviews with each pupil to enable him understand himself and his problems; to obtain close contact with the school doctor in all health problem of students; to obtain the knowledge of the relevant aspects of a student’s home environment, economic status and personality; to confer with parents and arrange group meeting of parents as the needs arise; to deal with the signs of emotional difficulties; to refer difficulties to available specialists; to arrange excursions for pupils with a view to providing them with realistic educational and occupational information; to arrange carrier conferences when considered appropriate; to develop feeling of national integration and development; to assist students in making vocational choices commensurate with their ability and skill; to arrange case conferences about an individual student who is experiencing some type of queer difficulty; to assist pupils to develop initiative and independence so that may progress in self-direction; to aid potential drop-outs to make the school experience as profitable as possible; to arrange to organize an Occupational Information Room, group guidance through class meetings, sessions with guest speakers, films and activities to promote social adjustment etc.

All this is enough to describe as to how complicated and multifarious duties he is to perform in the school. This can be no way be the work of a single individual. The 147

main difficulty with the guidance programme in India is firstly the Counsellors have not been appointed in schools and secondly where ever, these have been posted, these are not allowed by the Heads of the institution to perform their exclusive duties, but these services are utilised for other than guidance work. When the perfection of guidance work demands that all the teachers of the school should venture it as a team work and put in their efforts in it whole heartedly. This is a huge job, which he is to perform.

(b) Characteristics of a Successful School Counsellor : In addition, he is expected to assist the other teachers to secure pertinent information about the students which will help them to conduct their classes smoothly. He also assists them to solve individual problems and to provide group guidance activities. He is also to contribute leadership to organize orientation programme for new students. In addition, he is to participate in hygienic techniques and school service training programmes. He serves as a link between school on one hand and parents and community on the other hands. He makes use of adequate techniques such as interview, observation, testing etc. As the knowledge is expanding fast, the techniques and task of guidance are undergoing a rapid charge, so he is to keep his knowledge fresh and abreast with regard to professional techniques. He is also supposed to conduct case studies of some difficult students. He provides leadership to the guidance activities.

Walter B. Jones gave the following characteristics of a counsellor : (i) Broader Interests : (a) The counsellor should be able to get the real problem. (b) he should be considerate considerate and sympathetic with prospective drop-outs as well as with college preparatory pupils. (c) He should be interested in various types of people. (d) He should be equally interested in pupil’s community home and school life. All these qualities are very difficult to to perform till, he is not wedded to her profession. It goes to indicate that he must be a well balanced personality. (ii) Cooperation : (a) He bears the burden of extra work in a cheerful manner. (b) He lives for huamnity. (c) He co-operates with employers social workers, parents and teachers.

In order to be able to perform all these functions in the spirit, these needs to be performed, he needs perfect grooming in his professional life. 148

(iii) Refinement : (a) He is democratic. (b) He is never too cocksure of the wisdom of his own judgement.
Guidance service is to be the product of democracy in a big way. It can only be put into practice only when the individual is considered to be more important than others aspects of life. It goes without saying that he is democratic in spirit. (iv) Magnificent : (a) He puts others at ease. (b) He inspires confidence at interview. (c) He makes pupils feet that they are always welcome to see him and that they will be provided with the requisite help.

Such qualities become difficult to cultivate till the man is professionally trained to cultivate this type of spirit. He is himself not tense under any circumstances and the result is that he makes others to feel easy. The fact, however, remains that guidance can neither be provided and nor received when the person is under a great stress. It is the duty of the Counsellor to see that when some body comes to him for guidance, at first his stress is maltreated in a systematic way by establishing rapport.

In the words of Ruth Strang, “The counsellor is like a gardener who prepares the soil and does everything he can, to help each plant to grow in its own best way.” At another place, the same author writes, “if he is emotionally mature and feels fairly secure in his social and professional relationships, he is able to convey a certain sense of confidence to the counsellee.”

According to Secondary Education Commission, “A good guidance officer possesses many good qualities. He must have an understanding of young people and their problems based on scientific knowledge but inspired with sympathy and the ability to look at life through the eyes of boys and girls. He should have special training in good counselling methods, mental hygiene and in the discriminating use of tests and school records. In the field of vocational guidance, he should have an accurate knowledge of occupational opportunities and their requirements. He must have ample time for conferences with pupils, parents and employers and he must be fully familiar with the purpose and programme of the school and have the capacity to work in close cooperation with the teachers.

All the above qualities indicate that counsellor is the pivot of guidance programme in the game of it. He is to be so attractive and tactful that he insists his confidence in the 149

counsellee and he opens his head to him and comes out will his real problem. He is at the some item be sure that he does not have any situation ready made for all the types of schedule. Whenever there is some case in which he needs some help from the experts i.e. psychologists, doctors or sociologists, he does not hesitate to almost that he does not have the competency to solve his problem and seeks the help of other experts. Needless to say that the more important is the counsellor the better is the guidance programme organised.

12.5. ROLE OF TEACHER
(a) Teacher – A First Hand Source in Guidance : The teacher is directly and intimately involved in all the class-room activities and guidance programme. According to Bojkin, “The principle of student’s personnel work is teacher-student relationship, not occasional interviews with specialized counsellors.”

In the words of Emergy Stoops, “Every teacher is a guidance worker and every guidance worker is a teacher. The titles are not mutually exclusive, but rather are the two aspects of the same educational process.”

Bojkin states, “Good teaching has emotional and moral as well as intellectual objectives. It aims at the growth of the whole person as well as the mastery of the subject in hand.”
Teachers study the nature of individual growth, who have become acquainted with the new techniques of teaching and who deals with people, while they are still in the process of ‘becoming’ and can take initiative in putting the views in active co-operation. In most of the cases the teacher becomes the first to recognize the problem or the child and then studies him and go on for a definite programme of the change. (b) Guidance Work by the Teacher : The teachers are primarily concerned with the problems and needs of their students, their adjustment and development. He is to implement in right earnest, the decisions made as a result of the pupil’s contact with counsellors, to have deep insight about pupils and their experience, to develop contacts with parents and community agencies, to guide their students in the taking of notes, to guide them in giving short talks, to make proper use of the school or college library, to refer problem cases to the counsellor and to organize the co-curricular 150

activities which are closely allied to their subject-matter fields. The duties of the teacher can be divided :
(a)

With respect to the pupils.

(b) With respect to the class-room teaching.
(c)

With respect to pupil counselling.

(d) With respect to pupil evaluation.
All the above four duties provide him opportunities with respect to the guidance programme. In this way, he is in a position to understand everyone of his students in a perfect way, to know their capabilities and also capacities, to provide them requisite type of experiences, to give them proper direction and to help them to make their educational and vocational plants.

Next to parents, teacher knows the student well. In some cases, his knowledge is more than the knowledge of parents as he is in a position to be objective and also to manipulate the circumstances for the advantage of the student. A class-room teacher who practices good mental health and who is willing to contribute to the specific services of a guidance programme is a valuable member of the guidance team. A teacher well acquainted with student’s academic ability academic history, home life, educational goals, vocational plans, liking disliking health, merits and demerits, peer group, social circle, economic status, habits and study conditions. Recreational activities, study habits, opinion of other teachers, leisure time activities, hobbies, exceptional experiences and also his behaviour.

In fact, if the teacher can be involved in the process of guidance in a genuine way, many of the problems of the counsellor become easier, as many of the preliminaries of guidance process are covered by him. The difficulty with the guidance programme in India is that either the teacher is so busy that he can not find time to do so or otherwise, he is not interested in it. The problem is as to how to actively involve the teacher in the process of guidance.

Chisholm points out, “In the school in which the class-room teacher assumes responsibility for guidance, there is no forbidden ground dividing his instruction and guidance responsibilities. The teacher helps pupils study their own abilities, select 151

work, apprise with their own progress, and the other things necessary in an adequate programme of guidance. In the actual class-room work, then, the teacher is sensitive to and understands the level of interest and ability of the pupils and adopt the work to individual needs or helps the student revise his choice of school activities so as to get those experiences in harmony with his needs.”

When the teacher is perfectly well involved in the process of guidance many of the problems of the students are identified by him and some of them can be solved at his level also. For example if a student is shortsighted or a bit hard of hearing, he is bound to become careless and shirker if he is not identified and helped in an effective way. The teacher can make him set on the first time and also inform the parents and influence them to go for its treatment. The counsellor will be as effective as he is supported and helped by the class teachers.

In the same way many of the entries in the cummulative record are to be made in the cummulative record and keep that upto date. Almost eye view of the programmes of the teacher and his observation of the cummulative record considers his entire programme of studies also.

Thus, the role of the teacher can hardly be over emphasised in the guidance programme of the school. It will only be the teacher who will be instrumental to make it a success.
12.6. ROLE OF PARENTS
The role of parents in the field of guidance is prominant. Many times the parents try to reflect their own feelings upon their children and try that their children stand, satisfy the failures of themselves in their children. For example a man wanted to be a doctor, he could not fulfill her desire to do so in any way. He tries that now his son must become a doctor without caring about his capabilities and capacities to become a doctor and without attaching much importance to his personality characteristics. All this make the situation very difficult. Such incidents are not so uncommon in Indian culture.

Needless to say that parents should not make their children tools to satisfy their own fulfilled desired. In accordance with the philosophy of guidance, they should try to understand the interests, attitudes and aptitudes etc. of their wards and provide them 152

opportunities to go in for their education and employment in the lighting. The fact, however remain that guidance is a joint venture in which parents has to play as eminent role,only the guidance programme will prove be a sucess. The role of parents, under any circumstances will continue to be of higher significance, whatever the type of guidance. 12.7. GUIDANCE A JOINT VENTURE

The above discussed role of the Principal, Counsellor and the Teacher makes it amply clear that guidance is in no way the total game of the Counsellor, or Principal or the Teacher. This is a joint game in which no doubt these three players have very important part to play and the game will be termed as perfect only when all these players put in their best in the job of guidance. Here one needs to be clear that there are some other players in their game, who have their important role to play in the game such as parents, community, psychologists, doctors and physiotherapists etc. However, we have not discussed them in this place firstly because of this parsity of time and space and partly that these three important utilise their sources, such of and get this co-operation in the performance of their duties in the game of guidance. This, however, should not he understood that they have lesser important role to play. They are equally involved in the cases where in their expertise is to be used in a dignified way. Thus, the fact remains that guidance is the joint venture of so many factors both Headmaster or Principal, Counsellor and the teacher have to go in for full time involvement in it.

12.8. OUTLINE OF GUIDANCE
Guidance is a specialised service rendered to the persons to enable them to deal with their own problems. In case, it is rendered in the school for the selection of their subjects or to improve upon their scores, or to tacle the same, it is termed as Educational Guidance. In case it is provided to give some type of guidance in the area of vocation, then it is termed as vocational guidance. If it pertain to some personal problems, then it is called personal guidance. However, the fact remains that all these types guidance are inter-related with one and other directly or indirectly except a few exceptions here and there. It has been explained in an earlier lesson, it consists of five types of guidance services. Needless to say that it is not everybody’s cup of tea, but all the staff of the school and even the parents are to play their constructive job in the solution of problems through the media of guidance.

153

12.9. LET US SUM UP
Even when guidance is a specified and specialised job which needs experts like Counsellor to deal with the problem of the students and teachers, the fact remains that it is product of the democratic set-up of the society and as such is the joint venture in which many other individuals are also involved and the success of the programme can best be understood by understanding their rules. The role of the Principal is most important, unless he is in position to fully involved in it, the programme can not in any case be a success. It is with his blessings that all where cooperation is needed to be involved is provided in a dignified way. He is to ensure that the services of the counsellor are utilised only for the purpose of guidance and not for other types of activities.

The role of the Counsellor, who is the pivot around whom the whole of the guidance programme involves has the most important role to play. In addition to the technical aspect of providing all the types of services, he is to actively involve all the school staff in it, make the parents concerned about it and also to involve the community in it. He has to be a perfect worker leading the team of teachers to play the game. Whatsoever the circumstances the role of the teachers in the programme of guidance, can in no case be titled. He continues to be the man, who is always available to the students for solving their problems. He is the first to know about the problems of the students and to take them on the right path. He is always be one of the most important function to be recognised to go in for it i.e. to come across the situation which reveal the problem of the students. Needless, to say that there are certain other professionals who are to play their role in the game, but these game players i.e. Principal, Counsellor and the Teacher, utilise the expertise of these whenever that is needed.

12.10.

SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.

The Principal of the school has nothing to do with the guidance programme of the school.
Yes/No

2.

The Principal of the school will be ultimatly responsible for the proper guidance programme in the school.
Yes/No

3.

One of the reason for the non-functioning programme of Guidance in India is the apathy of the Principal towards this programme. Yes/No
154

4.

No guidance programme can function without a Counsellor in every school.
Yes/No

5.

Counsellor must be properly trained to properly establish a guidance programme.
Yes/No

6.

Counsellor alone can not organise the guidance programme.

Yes/No

7.

Teacher has nothing to do with the guidance programme.

Yes/No

8.

Some of the guidance programme, can be organised by the school teacher.
Yes/No

9.

Teacher will have to co-ordinate, the effects with the Counsellor to solve the problems of the students.
Yes/No

10. School guidance programme is a team work.
Key : (1) No

(2) Yes

(3) Yes

(4) No

(5) Yes

(6) Yes

(7) No

(8) Yes

(9) Yes

Yes/No

(10) Yes

12.11.

UNIT END EXERCISES
1.

In your own language describe the role of Counsellor in the guidance programme. Describe his qualities for making it a success.

2.

“No guidance programme can be a success without the co-ordination of all the members of the school.” Discuss.

12.12.

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS
1. Brown, J.M.

:

Education as Guidance, McMillon
Company, New York, 1971.

2. Jones, Arther

:

Principles of Guidance, McGraw Hill Book
Company Inc., New York, 1963.

3. Myers, George E.

:

Principles and Techniques of Vocational
Guidance, McGraw Hill Book Company
Inc., New York, 1941.
155

4. Suri S.P. & T.S. Sodhi

:

Guidance & Counselling,
Bawa Publications, Patiala, 2005.

5. Strang Ruth

:

Educational Guidance : Its Principles and
Practices, The McMillon Company,
New York, 1960.

6. Sinha, S.N.

:

Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour,
Asia Publishing House, Japan, 1973

156

LESSON NO. 13

UNIT-IV

CAREER INFORMATION : MEANING & COMPONENTS OF
CAREER INFORMATION
13.0 STRUCTURE
13.1 Introduction
13.2.Objectives
13.3.Meaning of Career Information
13.4.Components of Career Information
13.5.Let Us Sum Up
13.6.Self Evaluation Questions
13.7.Unit End Exercises
13.8.Suggested Further Readings
13.1 INTRODUCTION
The aim of career information is to help the Individual in his career making progress career planning is getting the occupational information. Here the main emphasis is to provide him with the occupational information of the type one needs.

13.2. OBJECTIVES
After going through the lesson, the student will be able to : 1.

Define career.

2.

Explain career information.

3.

Explain the components of career information.
157

13.3. MEANING OF CAREER
In career information, there are a number of jobs. For example, in a school, there is a headmaster, 12 teachers, one clerk, one peon and one chaukidar. In this way in all there are 16 jobs. Job of a clerk can happen in a school, in a bank or in a municipal committee, so it is termed as an occupation. One of the functions of Vocational Guidance is to prepare a person for an occupation and to help him to do so of his own realising his capacities, capabilities and potentialities. The ultimate decision is made by the candidate himself and not by the guidance worker or Counsellor. This, in fact, is to prepare him for a career. It is not enough to know about the occupation to have only occupational information, but it will be necessary to enter the occupation or a career, it is essential for the candidate to know the type of the work he is to do in that occupation, the timings of the job, the portion to be maintained during the performance of a job, the emoluments and other benefits such as free transport, free residence or accommodation etc. It also needs to know the timings of the job, whether it is day duty or night duty or transportation along with the duty hours. For making an occupation a career, it will also have to be known as to what are the avenues of promotion and the grades etc. of their promotional avenues etc. In this way, while planning a career, it is not enough to go in or the occupational information of the job, one is going to make it a career. He needs to get all such types of information to enter into it, but he needs to be enriched to know about the career promotional avenues.

13.3.1. MEANING OF CAREER INFORMATION
The world of work is very rich. According to an estimate, there are more than forty thousand occupations in it and that this bank is getting tremendously rich with the passing of time due to technological changes which are fast coming up in our social circle. Many new occupations are now coming up. A few decades ago the job of television repair, television technology, television serial actress etc. were not known, but now they are so common both in India and abroad. Similarly, fashion technology, i.e. dresses, cosmetics, participation preparation, which were comparatively unknown now are becoming very popular. In the past, it was practically impossible to know about the world of work well there to 158

adopt it as a career, to earn his livlihood and also to be a success and progress in that career.
At the initial stages it becomes essential to acquaint the students to as many types of occupation as is possible in an informal way and then by and by going on the tempting of the one of occupation, so as to make him fully comfortable to limit his aspiration of some career, for which proper career information is to be provided to him by so many ways i.e. providing literature, career pamphlets etc. so that he delimits his area of career and gets deep information in that occupation.

Career planning is getting the occupational information. First of all, the subject is to be enlightened about his own capacities, capabilities and potentialities i.e. her interests, aptitudes, attitudes etc. so as to make sure that the career, he is going to make for him is such as it suits to his personality characteristics. This is most important part of the service. It is here that the student is helped to crystalise his interest and the career counsellor is to make sure that the selection is made on the basis of intrinsic interests rather than extrinsic interests. The counsellor is not to make some judgement about the candidate and to inform him about that but to motivate him to make his judgement. All this is essential for career planning and has been discussed in earlier lessons. Here the main emphasis is to provide him with the occupational information of the type one needs. At school level, it becomes the responsibility of the school to expose him so as to make by the career information about the world of work, so that at higher secondary and secondary level the student is in a position to make the correct decision of school subjects in the light of it. For example, those who want to go in for medicine should go in for medical related subjects and those who want to go in for administrative jobs should select humanities subjects and so on. The problem in Indian culture at this stage of educational leads is due to the lack of guidance service in schools. The students do not go in getting such wisdom but fall prey to the suggestion given either by parents or friends or some other non-scientific type guidance activity and thus make a decision which moves their career planning. After they have correctly selected the school subjects, it becomes essential to go to enrich the type of education which leads to their career planning i.e. College and Universities where such facilities are available, the fees the type of scholarship and loans etc. available for that and also the capacities and potentialities 159

for all this. It also become essential to know about the mode of getting admission on the basis of marks obtained in the examination, by way of completition or by paying some donation so that one prepares for it. It becomes thus essential that “Career Information Room”, he established in every high and higher secondary school in which cuttings of newspaper about admission be displayed along with prospectus of such colleges and universities along with the hand books of those institutions and the career maker he helps the students to read that. In the way of entry jobs, the news about jobs opportunities, marks obtained, positions etc. are also to be developed in the school.

Generally such Occupational Information Rooms are organised in almost all Employment Exchanges and also University Employment and Information Bureaus for the benefit of the public, the students be made to visit such institutions. Some Career Information weeks be organised before the final examination which same important career is to be arranged for the benefit of the students. Similar features on T.V., Radio and some such coverage of newspaper also proves to be helpful in this direction. Here one needs to be clear about the meaning of Career Information that in this process the information about the world of work is as important as in the information about the individual. Any error in it or misjudged about it can create a number of problems. All this highlights the need for organisation of guidance service in schools and also colleges and organisation of Career Information Room in the schools etc. for it.

13.4 COMPONENTS OF CAREER INFORMATION SERVICE
The eminent Guidance thinker Jones is of the view that important characteristics of Career Information Service are the following :
(i) Sustainability to the Occupation : The individual should posses the competency to deal with the occupation for which both physical and intellectual abilities be worked out.
(ii) Social Service : Right from the very beginning of education, for under taking a career the student needs to be educated not to be self centred as all jobs are inter-related and also meant to extend the social services, so he must keep in mind the concept of social service.

160

(iii) Job Satisfaction : The career to be adopted must lend to the individual the source of job satisfaction, which can be got from the salary one gets, the work he enjoys with the job or encouragement provided by the organisation in which he works. He must have complete insight to these aspects as he will get it from the satisfaction from an early stage of going in for the career.

(iv) Financial Relaxes : In the present set up of capitalist out-look, the financial aspects is essential to link them with the financial gains. However, it needs to be looked into from the point of view of the emoluments and fringe benefits, he get right from the job at the entry and also the promotion of avenues.

(v) Employment Opportunities : At the time of adopting a career, one must be concerned about the job avenues in that area. It is skill of more important in a country like India, wherein the job opportunities are rather scarce. As a rule, with a few exceptions of one goes in for such job where in more avenues are open i.e. shortage occupation. (vi) Promotional Prospective : In order to make the career, a success as a matter of rule one mark go in for a job which have rich promotional avenues. For example, there are some jobs, in which avenues are open to pass departmental examination and got further promotions, the intelligent and hard working persons should go in for such jobs. On the other hand, one gets promotion. Hard working people can go in for these types of jobsets. (vii) Health Hazards : At the time of adopting a career one important factor to be kept in view is that the job effects the health of individuals there are some jobs i.e. flying, xrays, driving of trucks which tell upon the health of the individual. While adopting such a career one needs to keep in view has personal position of health and the hardship, he will have to face in future. It is greater importance for those who do not have good health. (viii) Social Environment : Generally people want to work in environment of his own type i.e. where the habits of eating, dressing and speaking are of his own type. However, now a recent trend is to move to foreign countries to go in for high salaried jobs. One is to decide of the time of the entry career that he is to go in for local environment or for higher salaried jobs in some foreign lands. However, the fact remains that one must be aware of the limitations of higher salaried jobs i.e. unscrupulous foreign travel agents as thousands of people are being cheated.

161

(ix) Interest in the Occupation : Needless to say that one can give his performance in a perfect way only when he does a job in which one has intrinsic interest. However, in countries like India the question is the availability of jobs. It is always better to go in for a job which is available but to go on looking for the job of interest and change it as and when the opportunities for it are available. It is heartening to note that on the average an American changes seven jobs in his life.

(x) Nature of Job : At the time of going in for a career, one must look into the nature of the job number of hours of work, night shifts or not, the strains of the job, the availability of facilities etc. As all this matter in the type of a man. 13.5. LET US SUM UP

In order to go in for a career one is to be consider that it is going to reflect upon his whole life and also all aspects of life. It becomes the duty of the school to provide him a good deal of information about the world of work and to let him expose to it in school, outside the school, at home and also in the social set-up. All this will facilitate to clarify his concepts about his expectation, co-operation, interest etc.

At high and higher secondary stage, he should be provided with opportunities to get detailed information about different types of careers and the professional and technical type of facilities available, his own capacity to go in for it, his economic resources, banking facilities available and the types of scholarship to be available for by it. A wrong selection of school subjects at this stage create a good deal of difficult problem. At a later stage, he must keep in view the suitability of the job, job satisfaction, employment prospectus, chances of promotion, health hazards, social environments, interest in the career, motive of job etc. However, the availability of scurcial of files may compel him to go in for a job, which does not suit to his personality get up, but he must continue to tend avenues change the job, when proper job opportunities are available. Gone are the days when a person used to stick the job for the whole of his life. Now the change of job is so frequent that on an average an American changes seven jobs in his life.

13.6. SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS
1.

Career planning is most important in the life of a man.

(Yes/No)

2.

For career planning school is to play a prominent role.

(Yes/No)

162

3.

Career planning is significant role to make a man happy.

(Yes/No)

4.

India is full of unemployed people, one should go in for a job, which is available and stick to it.
(Yes/No)

5.

Career planning is important where to many jobs are available that person. (Yes/No)

6.

For going in a career, one must keep his interest in view.

7.

One must got into a job, every one adjust to that atmosphere.(Yes/No)

8.

The avenues of promotion should also be kept in view while making a career. (Yes/No)

9.

One must not care for the risks but go to foreign countries for making a good life.
(Yes/No)

(Yes/No)

10. A thrust career help nothing but to make individual’s life difficult. (Yes/No)
Key : (1) Yes

(2) Yes

(3) Yes

(4) No

(5) No

(6) Yes

(7) No

(8) Yes

(9) No

(10) Yes

13.7. UNIT END EXERCISES
1.

“The adjustment in the career of a man, makes him happy.” Discuss.

2.

Highlight the aspect of the career, which are essential for making it a success.

13.8. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS
1. Brown, J.M.

:

Education as Guidance, McMillon
Company, New York, 1971.

2. Jones, Arther

:

Principles of Guidance, McGraw Hill
Company Inc., New York, 1963.

3. Myers, George E.

:

Principles and Techniques of Vocational
Guidance, McGraw Hill Book Company
Inc., New York, 1941.
163

4. Suri, S.P. & Sodhi, T.S. :

Guidance & Counselling,
Bawa Publications, Patiala, 2005.

5. Strang, Ruth

:

Educational Guidance : Its Principles and
Practices, The McMillon Company,
New York, 1960.

6. Sinha, S.N.

:

Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour,
Asia Publishing House, Japan, 1973

164

LESSON NO. 14

UNIT-IV

SOURCES OF CAREER INFORMATION, METHODS OF COLLECTING,
FILING OF AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION
14.0

STRUCTURE

14.1

Introduction

14.2.

Objectives

14.3.

Sources of Career Information
14.3.1.

14.4.

Methods of Collecting Information

Filing of Career Information
14.4.1

Developing a Job Folder

14.4.2

Data Gathering Technology

14.4.3.

Evaluation of Career Information

14.5.Let Us Sum Up
14.6.Self-Evaluation Questions
14.7.Unit End Exercises
14.8.Suggested Further Readings
14.1 INTRODUCTION
Dear Learners, In this chapter we will study the various sources of Carreer Information. We will also study the details of methods of collecting Information. 14.2. OBJECTIVES
After the study of this lesson, the student will be able to : Explain the sources of career information.
165

Give the details of methods of collecting information.
Give the scheme of filing of career information.
To evaluate the career information.
14.3. SOURCES OF THE COLLECTION OF CAREER INFORMATION
At the out set, one needs to set his concepts about Career Information clear, because at first the information contained in an occupation always does not remain the same for all the times to come. It goes on changing with the passage of time. For example about 25 years ago computer literacy was not compulsory or desirable to become a clerk in a bank. However, now a clerk in a bank can not function without it.

Secondly, the number of occupation in the world of work does not remain the same. Some of the old occupations become obsolete and thus are considered as dead, while some new occupations are born and new additions are made to it. Thirdly with the coming in of the process of modernisation, industralisation and globalisation on the world scene, the area of the new occupation is fast increasing making the situation even more complicated.

Fourthly, due to the technological innovation, electronics and mechanical research the new occupations are becoming even more complicated and sophisticated. For example, the accuracy of the man going from ground to the moon is to be watched with such a precision that even the smallest mistake can result in missing the target in a big way.

Keeping all these difficulties in view, what highlights the need for the collection of career information, the following sources can be tapped to collect it, which in no case provides a complete test, but will always have to be kept up-to-date. (i) The Employment Organisation : There is an Act of Parliament known as Compulsory Notification of Vacancies Act, which makes it compulsory for the government organisations and also provide employers employing more than 25 persons compulsory to notify all the vacancies to the employment exchange, along with job requirements and also educational qualification, which always provides a service for the collection of career information.

166

(ii) Prospectuses of Educational Institution : The university calender and prospectuses of college and other institutions which always reflect very useful career information provide a noble source for it.

(iii) Publications of Employment Organisation : The employment organisation has got an Occupational Information Unit attached to it, which undertakes certain prospectus pertaining to all types of information pertaining to occupation in details and publish it for the benefit of the public and students i.e. Fotter, Moulder, Stenographer etc. It provides as a useful channel to provide career information to it.

(iv) Volumes of Training Facilities in Different States and also India’s Level : Publications pertaining to the availability of different types of training facilities available in different states and also of national level are periodically published, which provides a useful sources to collect useful information.

(v) Publications, Positions and Charts of Different Government Departments : Different big departments of the Government such as Military, Air Force, Navy, Health etc. so often brings out different types of publications and charts etc. which provides the rich and correct type of information for the world of work i.e. career in Navy, Army, Nursing as a Career etc.

(vi) Advertisements of Resettlement of Different Organisations : In India, Union Pubic service Commission, State Public Service Commission, Subordinate Services Selection Board, Universities etc. published the vacancies for different organisation and institution in their department, what continues to be an important source of career information. (vii) Studies and Surveys Conducted by Government and NonGovernment Organisation : Many government departments and also NGO’s conduct some surveys pertaining to the world of work which can prove to be a useful source of career information.

(viii) Foreign Employment and Information Bureau : In some states such bureaus have been established to assist such aspirants who want to go to foreign land. The area of employment is fast increasing. These units go on collecting information of different new occupation and go on providing guidance facilities to the aspirant both for under going some training and also getting specialist for these jobs. A number of publications brought out by these units provide a good source of career planning information. 167

14.3.1. METHODS OF COLLECTING CAREER INFORMATION
The list of the sources of collection of career information can never be complete as so many new sources are fast coming up. For example computer has become now the richest source of providing such information, which is being collected even at informational level also. One can open the window and know about the detailed information pertaining to different type of institution, facilities, job opportunities etc. However, some sources already used for this purpose are :

(i) Job Analysis : In this technique all the information for the operations which are to be performed in some jobs, along with all other information pertaining to different jobs are compiled, which continue to be a useful method of collecting relevant information for the benefit of all.

(ii) Observation : A job analysist observes the good many workers, when they are performing a job and prepare a record of it, which continues to be the first hand information for the world of work. However, the limitations attached to are that it lacks sociological and psychological aspects of the job.

(iii) Questionnaire Technique : In this technique, the employees and also workers are provided with some questionnaires also to provided detailed information about some occupation and other important information with regard to the pertaining, benefits etc. It also provides information pertaining to promotional avenues etc. Even when it remains a fact that much useful information will come up as a result of it. The fact remains that the employer and employees can hide that information which they want to hide. For example, in the present days a good number of Colleges of Education have come up and are also coming-up daily. Many of these are being run on business lines. The colleges appoint teachers at higher salaries as is laid down in rules, but in actual practice they pay them much less. Whatever questionnaire is sent to them, neither the teachers and nor the employees will come up with correct information.

(iv) Group Interview : In this technique, a number of employees working in some specific jobs are collected and different questions pertaining to their occupation are posed to them and also got answer for the personal qualities, duties, responsibilities, salary, promotional avenue etc. and information pertaining to them completed in systematic way. It has many merits as some one of them comes out with the truth. 168

(v) Individual Interview : In this technique a good many individuals are either observed on the job or interviewed one by one and important information collected and compiled systematically.
(vi) Technical Conference : At times, some technical conference pertaining to some technical job is organised in which technical discussions are made and the useful information, thrown by them discussions are compiled and recorded to be used as career information.

14.4. CLASSIFICATION AND FILING SYSTEM OF CAREER INFORMATION In order to facilitate the use of career information material, it is essential that some type of filing system is used by the career master. The first thing for the career master to remember is that he should classify and file the material as soon as he receives it. This will not consume much of his time. However, it will become handy to be used appropriately. The filing system chosen should give a clear-cut classification of occupations. The method of filing to be adopted depends upon the use to which the information is to be put and the persons who will use it. Files may be used either exclusively by the career master or by both the career master and students. In most of the schools it may not be possible for the career master to develop a filing system for the use of pupils. In order to avoid confusion, files should be carefully prepared and arranged systematically. Following are some of the important methods of classification and filing : (i) National Classification of Occupations : Occupational information may be filed on the basis of the National Classification of Occupations (NCO). The classification in the NCO is by occupations. Occupations are classified under families. Families are combined into groups and groups are assigned to divisions. There are eleven divisions consisting of 75 groups which are divided into 331 families under which occupations are classified. The system is helpful when the occupational information material is plentiful. It, however, requires a thorough knowledge of the system on the part of the career master as codes are used as a basis for classifying and filling of the material. In every Employment Exchange in India the employment cards of the employment seekers are arranged in accordance with this system. A book entitled National Classification of Occupation is available in the office of the Employment Offices. 169

(ii) Alphabetical System : In this system, files are arranged according to the names of the occupations in alphabetical order. All material on anyone occupation is collected and filed together. When information is not much and classifications are few the alphabetical system may be quite helpful. It has certain limitations also. Material on related occupations can not be grouped together unless numerous cross-reference cards are used. When a student wants information relating to occupations on the basis of his qualifications, it will be difficult to pick out the required material quickly.

(iii) Filing on the Basis of School Subjects : Occupations related to each school subject may be filed separately; for instance occupations related to literary subjects, scientific subjects, home science, fine arts, etc. Of course, there may be further sub-classifications under each, if necessary. This system may be very helpful for students who often go by their subjects. The career master should adapt one which suits his purpose best. (iv) Filling on the Basis of Industrial Classification of Occupation : Like NCO is an other type of classification is available in accordance with which information about career can be classified and filed.

14.4.1. DEVELOPING A JOB FOLDER
One of the important and useful ways of organizing job information material is to prepare a job folder in which relevant information about a particular job is filed at one place.
A good job folder describes the activities, duties are responsibilities of the job, the personal qualities and educational requirements for the job, details about special training requirements, if any, prospects for advancement, salary, employment outlook, etc.

For selecting jobs to be included in the job folder the following points should be kept in view :
(i)

Jobs in which most of the students are interested.

(ii)

Jobs available in the community in which students live.

(iii) Jobs which students can take up soon after they leave school. (iv) Jobs in which large number of openings are available for school leaves. 170

The information about the job folder can be collected by the following method : (i)

Occupational survey of the locality.

(ii)

Contact with the employers.

(iii) Use of questionnaires of collecting information.
With the help of students for collecting information the career master should decide whether students are to work individually or in groups. The arrangement decided upon should be made known to each participating student.

Students should be sufficiently guided to collect the relevant information if they are working in groups. Each group should have its leader who should be responsible for organizing the collected information in the form of a report. 14.4.2.

DATA GATHERING TECHNOLOGY

Broadly can be done in two ways i.e.
(1) Job Analysis
(2) Survey Method
(1) Job Analysis : This has been dealt with in some other lesson. (2) Survey Method : In order to gether formation about an occupation so as to be helpful for career planning, the following survey techniques are generally used. (i)

Observation : The analyst directly observes the workers at work. He observes a good many workers in order to collect career information and maintain a record of it. It has the limitation of not observing the psychological and sociological aspects of the job or worker.

(ii) Questionnaire : In this method the employees are given a questionnaire to give information about the job. It allows the coverage of psychological and sociological aspects, but limitations of being subjective, as worker may give the information, he wants to give, and hide what he does not want to reveal. (iii) Group Interview : In this technique the opinion of a group of employees is got about some job by posing questions and getting answers. It is more useful 171

as it throws light on determining the requirements of the job in terms of personal qualities, duties, responsibilities pay, promotion and safety etc. (iv) Individual Interview : In this method several individuals are contacted one by one for preparing job analysis on the basis of information collected. (v) Technical Conference : It involves technical discussion with the group of experts on the job.

Out of all these methods, the interview method is more preferred to some time and energy.
14.4.3. EVALUATION OF CAREER INFORMATION
It is a matter of general understanding that the collection of career information process is a never ending process as the information will never be complete. New occupation will always be coming-up and at times, the details of the information will also change at time. What is needed is to evaluate the information is that it should go on improving upon it on a systematic way. Moreover, with the coming up of GATS programme, the information will have to be modified and improved upon it. It also needs to be noted that some occupation, become obsolete such cards be removed from the last such information and placed in separate files as their occupation will continue to be of historical importance only. The world is moving towards “World Village” in which occupations are bound to cross the barriers of different cultures and data will be moving from one culture to the other one frequently as these will always, continue to be the need to go on in its selfevaluation and make it upto that. 14.5. LET US SUM UP

In order to go in for a career information one should know that this Information is going to reflect upon his whole life and also will make effect on his whole life. 14.6 SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS

(1) Career information programme never ends.

Yes/No

(2) Career information need not be established in schools. Yes/No 172

(3) Career information need not contain information about Colleges and Universities.
Yes/No
(4) The number of occupations in the world are increasing.Yes/No (5) Directorate General of Employment is the most important source of career information.
Yes/No
(6) With coming in GATS, the work of collection of career information has become more important .
Yes/No
(7) Interview technique is the most appropriate technique to get career information. Yes/No
(8) In order to handle the career information service, it needs to be filed systematically.
Yes/No
(9) There is only one method of filing of career information.

Yes/No

(10) Career information can best be compiled in computers.

Yes/No

Key : (1) Yes

(2) No

(3) No

(4) Yes

(5) Yes

(6) Yes

(7) Yes

(8) Yes

(9) No

(10) Yes

14.7. UNIT END EXERCISES
(1) Bring out the case for the importance of Career Information and its uses. (2) Describe the methods of collecting Career Information and making it upto date.
14.8. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS
1. Brown, J.M.

:

Education as Guidance, McMillon
Company, New York, 1971.

2. Jones, Arther

:

Principles of Guidance, McGraw Hill Book
Company Inc., New York, 1963.

3. Myers, George E.

:

Principles and Techniques of Vocational
Guidance, McGraw Hill Book Company
Inc., New York, 1941.
173

4. Suri S.P. & T.S. Sodhi

:

Guidance & Counselling,
Bawa Publications, Patiala, 2005.

5. Strang Ruth

:

Educational Guidance : Its Principles and
Practices, The McMillon Company,
New York, 1960.

6. Sinha, S.N.

:

Dynamics of Vocational Behaviour,
Asia Publishing House, Japan, 1973

174

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